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The 

Thpreau Library 

of Walter Harding 












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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/coinpaniontothoreOOcaine 



COMPANION 

TOTHOREAU'S 
CORRESPONDENCE 

WITH 

ANNOTATIONS 

NEW LETTERS AND 

AN INDEX OF PRINCIPAL WORDS, 

PHRASES AND TOPICS 

By 
KENNETH WALTER CAMERON 




TRANSCENDENTAL BOOKS DRAWER 1080 HARTFORD 1 



COPYRIGHT 1964 BY 



TO THE MEMORY OF 



FRANCES LOUISA REBECCA (SHOCKLEY) BARKER 



WITH LOVE AND GRATITUDE 




CONTENTS 

Preface 5 

Foreword 6 

Annotations on Thoreau^ Correspondence .... 7 

A Supplement of Thoreau Facsimiles 106 

Books by James Redpath on John Brown and Anti-Slavery 136 

Annotations on Thoreau 's Correspondence : Addenda ....... 165 

New Letters and Fragments 181 

Corrections for Thoreau f s Corre spondence 225 

Index of Principal Words, Phrases and Topics 236 



Books Thoreau Borrowed from Harvard College Library • 285 

Emerson Recommends Thoreau the Poet to Rufus Wilmot Griswold • 303 

Thoreau 's Copy of Dryden's Translation of Virgil 304 

C. P. Cranch on the Music of the Spheres 309 

Two Thoreau Letters to Blake Owned by the Late Warren Colson . 310 

4 



PREFACE 



The institutions that have kindly cooperated in 
making possible the present work are the Houghton 
Library of Harvard University, the Trustees of the Bos- 
ton Public Library, the New-York Historical Society, the 
Harvard University Archives, the Essex Institute of Salem, 
and the Pierpont Morgan Library,, Three learned periodi- 
cals granted generous privileges: the Thoreau Society 
Bulletin , the New England Quarterly , and the Emerson 
Society Quarterly . 

For other courtesies I am grateful to the following 
individuals: Herbert Cahoon, Esq., Curator of Manu- 
scripts at the Pierpont Morgan Library; the late Warren 
H. Colson, Esq., of Proctorsville, Vermont; Dr. Clifford 
K. Shipton, Custodian of the Harvard University Archives; 
Professor Herbert Brown, Managing Editor of the New Eng - 
land Quarterly ; James J. Heslin, Esq., Director of the 
New-York Historical Society; John Alden Esq., Keeper of 
Rare Books at the Boston Public Library; Prof. William A. 
Jackson, of the Houghton Library; Charles E. Feinberg, 
Esq., private collector and friend to scholars; Mrs. 
Frederic Wolsey Pratt, of Concord; Prof. William White, 
of Wayne State University; Prof. Joseph J. Moldenhauer, 
of the University of Texas; Prof. Emil A. Freniere, of 
the University of South Florida; Prof. Walter Harding, 
of the Thoreau Society; and Prof. Raymond Adams, of the 
University of North Carolina, senior Thoreau scholar in 
the United States. 

I repeat my thanks — expressed elsewhere — to the New 
York University Press, publishers of The Correspondence 
of Henry David Thoreau . edited in 1958 by Walter Harding 
and Carl Bode, for permission to use therefrom short 
lines and fragments as headings for my annotations. 



K. W. C. 
Michaelmas, 1964. 



FOREWORD 



The present volume is the outgrowth of a long article 
published several years ago in the Emerson Society Quarterly 
to supply a running commentary on the important Correspon - 
dence of Henry David Thoreau , which I welcomed when it ap- 
peared with minimal editing in 1958 „ During the interven- 
ing months, I have greatly enriched that early study with much 
new annotation, adding a number of letters by and to Thoreau 
and providing an extensive index that should make both The 
Correspondence and this Companion instantly and cooperatively 
useful. The special features employed herein are designed to 
enlarge the setting in which all the surviving letters deserve 
to be viewed and to open for researchers several doors for 
fresh exploration. I have edited for the first time H. G. 
Blake's long epistles to Bronson Alcott — contemporary with the 
large number, apparently destroyed, which he sent to Thoreau 
(doubtless, similar in content) hoping to adjust the imbalance 
in The Correspondence by throwing light on Blake's peculiar 
personality and by accounting for Thoreau' s unusually grave 
and philosophical letters to him. I have also made a check- 
list, based on a rereading of the Harvard charging record, of 
Henry's many notes to the College Library — most of them lost 
or still ungathered — and have indicated the probable contents. 
(These gaps in the surviving file are attributable to auto- 
graph hunters who ransacked the Library Papers in the late 
nineteenth century, occasionally cutting pages from the loan 
books for Emerson and Thoreau signatures!!) In the heart of 
the Companion , moreover, I have allocated considerable space 
to photographs and half-tone facsimiles of hitherto overlooked 
manuscript letters, all of which will throw light on Thoreau 's 
methods of composition and will provide scholars with ocular 
evidence for my own transcriptions. For the first time I have 
printed certain documents — once believed lost — originally en- 
closed in letters by and to Thoreau, and I have restored the 
missing parts of some manuscripts which Messrs. Harding and 
Bode printed incomplete. Throughout I have called attention 
to an important fact — to my knowledge emphasized nowhere else — 
that Thoreau habitually revised his letters just as he worked 
over the papers he submitted to periodicals, my evidence being 
the variants in a number of recently discovered rough drafts. 
In a chapter devoted to errors and misreadings in The Corres - 
pondence . I have pointed out the locations of overlooked texts — 
usually the original manuscripts — better than those employed in 
1958, when the editors occasionally reedited the faulty nineteenth- 
century printed copies. Here and there I have reported discover- 
ies made in a study of the fragments of numerous envelopes and 
paper strips which Thoreau used as bookmarks in his holograph 
journal— scraps that have been consistently and unaccountably 
ignored by scholars and editors up to the present time. The 
fifty-page terminal index, which required months of labor, should 
further extend the usefulness of Harding and Bode * s still valua- 
ble edition as well as prove a rich quarry for the next genera- 
tion of students. 



ANNOTATIONS ON THOREAU'S CORRESPONDENCE 



8.9 eusselmon nea [well-benched ship] as Homer has it] See the Odys - 
sey . Book II, line 241 j XII, line 358; XIY, line 345; XXIV, line 117. 
The reproduced text is from Two Thoreau Letters , ed. Edwin B. Hill, Ys- 
leta, [Texas], [?1948], a copy of which is in the Houghton Library. 

Concord, August 5,1836. 
Frikno Rice,.: — 

You say you arc in the hay field: how I envy 
you! Methinks I see thee stretched at thy ease by 
the side ot a fragrant rick with a mighty flagon in 
one hand, a cold slice in the other, and a most rav- 
enous appetite to boot. So much for haying. Now 
I cannot hay nor scratch dirt, 1 manage to keep soul 

and bodv together another way. I have been manu- ,. c , • • 1 , • ijcu 

.•«■"■«■ i- / In davs of yore, us said, the swimming aider rasn- 

tactunng a sort of vessel in miniature, not a eusselmon . , ■ • , , , , . , • ,- • 

v. , , 1 • 1 ,- 1 1 1 j loned rude, with branches lopped and stript of its 

nea as Homer has it, but a kind of oblong bread- . .... . ,, ' ' , r . .. 

. ° , smooth coat, Where fallen tree was not and rippling 

trough. / , . . ,,,,,, . 1 l 

/ stream s vast breadth rorbadc adventurous leap, the 

y brawnv swain did bear secure to farthest shore. 

8.11 In days of yore, 'tis said, the swimming alder....] The alder 
or Alnus was used poetically in Latin literature for l, boat M because the 
light wood was supposed to have been used prehistorically in boat-build- 
ing. See Alexander Adam, Roman Antiquities; or. An Account of the Man - 
ners and Customs of the Romans . Edinburgh, 1792, p. 398:—- -^v 



Navigation at firft was very rude, and the conftru&ior. 
of veflels extremely fimple. The mod antient nations 
ufed boats made of trunks of trees hollowed, (ex ftngulis arbo- 
ribus cavatis), Virg. G. i. 126, 262. Plin. xvi. 41. Liv. xxvi. 
26. [called Alvei, lintres, scaphje, vel monoxyla, Pa- 
terc. ii. 107. Ovid. Fajl. ii. 407. Liv. i. 4. xxv. in. Plin. vi. 
33. °* compofed of beams and planks faftened together with 
cords or wooden pins, called RATES, Fejlus \ or of reeds 
called Canna, Juvenal, v. 89. or partly of (lender planks, 
(carina ac Ji alumina t the keel and ribs, ex levi materia), and 
partly of wicker hurdles or baiket-work, [reliquum corpus tiavi" 
um viminibus eontextum), and covered with hides, as thofe of 
the antient Britons, Caf. B. C. i. 54. Lucan. iv. 131. and o- 
ther nations, Hcrodot. i. 194. Dio. xlviii. 18. hence called 
NAVIGIA VITILIA corio circumfuta, Plin. iv. 16. vii. 56. and na- 
ves /utiles, xxiv.p./ 40. in allufion to which, Virgil calls the boat 
of Charon Cymba futilis, ./En. vi. 414. fomewbat fimilar to 
the Indian canoes, which are made of the bark of trees ; or 
to the boats of the Icelanders and Efquimaux Indians, which 
are made of long poles placed crofs wife, tied together with 
whales finews, and covered with the fkins of fca-dogs, fewed 
with finews inftead of thread. 



See also Charles Dex- 
ter Cleveland, A Com - 
pendium of Grecian 
Antiquities , (2nd ed. ) 
Boston, 1831, p. 173: 

"The Athenians, it is 
supposed, were the first 
people of Greece that made 
use of ships, and for a 
long time they maintained 
their superiority on the 
sea. The first ships 
were built without art, 
and possessed neither 
strength nor ornament. 
In some places they were 
nothing more than the 
trunks of trees hollowed, 
which were called 7rAo?d- 
^t{oro£7sAci~, from 

their consisting of only 
one ^iece of timber; or 
<fK.OL<prj t from the verb 
<rK.a.7r re <r 6a.'*., because 
they were made by 'hol- 
lowing ' a tree • n 

See Virgil's Georgics . I, 136: "Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cava- 
tas. 1f (Then first did rivers feel the hollowed alder.) Also II, 451: "... 
et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus missa Pado...." (So, too, the 
light alder, sent down the Po, swims the raging wave.) In Thoreau' s day, 
the definitive commentary on Virgil's lines was: Publius Virgilius Maro 
Varietate Lectionis et Perpetua Adnotatione illustratus a Christ. Gottl . 



8 

Heyne , (4th ed., ed. G. P. E. Wagner, 5 vols.) Lipsiae, Londini, 1830- 
1831, I, pp. 309 and 476-476: 



(iKORGICON LIB. I, 129-139 



309 



Paullatim, et sulcis frumenli quaereret hcrbam; 
[I .silicis vcnis abstrusum excuderet ignem. 135 
Tunc alnos primum lluvii senserc cavalas; 
Navita turn stellis numcros et nomina fecit, 
Pleiadas, Hyadas, claranique Lycaonis Arcton. 
Turn laqueis captare feras et fallere visco 
139. feras, visco, 

134 I't vitem et sulcis coni. Waddel. herba Parrlias. 135 Vt Heins. 
r melioribus; anteu Et s., ut iu utroque Goth. Eratque hoc hauil <lubi<- 
lenius: nisi etiam ut sulcis adsciveris. (Malis Virgilium scripsisse : I't 

»arias usus — — Paulatim \ ut sulcis herhain , Et silicis etc. Scd 

»id. V. L. ad Ge. IV, 203. ff'r.) 136 Tunc alnos Jluvii primum scripti 
llcins. quod Wakef. sequitur ex ed. ant. praeter Medic, et Gud. (receptum 
vrrborum ordinem exhibet iam Aid. trrt. ffr.) alfeus SchelY. alnus Menti I. 
pr. a m. pr. 137 Stellas Menag. alter. Navita cum stellis laudat Serv. ad 
Aeri. VI. 64. dum ed. Norib. 138 Pliadas alii : ita atque Ilyadas scri- 

liondum foret. Alii que adiiciunt. (Med. a m. pr. .Irctom. If'r.) 139 

Tunc Medic, a m. pr. (vid. Q. V. XXV, 5, b. ffr.) laqueo unus Mead. 
hibisco coni. virorum doctorum ap. Burm. 

homines, medilarulo, exercendo, 
cxperiundo. Nota res. cf. Cerda. 
134. J'rumenti herbam , noto 
more poctarum pro herba fru- 
mentacca , h. e. frumento , se- 
gctc : conf. Eel. V, 26- quaereret 
sulcis , aralione producerel, 
usus; ut usu, arte, pararentur 
(Yumcnta. 

136- Turn primum navigatio 
inventa. Multis modis variatum 
phantasma apudpoelas: vide Ti- 
bull. I, 3, 35. Propert. Ill, 5, 43. 
Manil. I, 78 sq. iViec vitam pe- 
lago , nee vends credere vola 
Audebant , se quisque satis no- 
vUse putabanl. Legendum sal- 
tern kiiu ; Santenius emendabat: 
«/« quisque mi tii sola nosse pu- 
tabant. — sensere tamquam onus 
novum, ipsi adliuc intacli: pro 
liabtiere. allium vero nominat, 
quia palustribus et littoribus 
fiaudet: Gc. II, 451 Nee mm el 
tomiittm mutant levin inn a/at 
alnus Mum 1'ado. 137. Side- 
ra locis suis ct nominibus no- 



tari coepere. (numeros fecit: 
„ad distinguenda sidera obser- 
vabatur numcrus stellarum, qui- 
bus quodque constaret." Sic la- 
cobs. JVr. ) Enumerantur au- 
tem ca, quae et lucidissima sunt 
ct inter reliqua omnium prima 
observata, in primisque ad na- 
vigations prima exordia in usum 
vocata. {jiomina fecit Pleiadas 
etc. ut ap. Liv. VII, 22. : „Qui- 
dam Kaesonem, alii Gaium 
nomcii Quintio adiiciunt." 
et multa alia id genus; vid. V. 
L. ad Aen. Ill, 18. el Not. ad 
eiusd. I. vs. 693. JVr.) 138. 
u4rctos , ursa maior , Helice, 
olim Callisto , Lycaonis lilia, 
nota vel ex Ovid. Met. II, 505. 
clara vcro tamquam sidus: ut 
sup. v. 5 clarissima niundi si- 
dera. Nisi forte Virgilius grae- 
cum vrrsum ante oculos habuit: 
Ilktj'CaSag &' 'Tctdac xt, xkvryv 
« AvHuovof "Aqxxov. 

1 39. Venatio et aucupium iu- 
ventum. Aves hie inter feras 



476 



P. VIRGILII MARONIS 



Viminibus salices fecundac, froudilms ulmi. 

At myrtus validis hastilibus et l)ona bello 

Cornus; Ituraeos taxi torquenlur in arcus. 

Nee tiliae leves aut lorno rasile bnxuni 

Non form am adcipiunt ferroque cavanlur aculo. 450 

Nee non et torrentem undam levis innatat alnus, 

446. ulmi: 447. hastilibus, 450. adcipiunt, 



[Thoreau may be parodying 
Jane Taylor's "The Phi- 
losopher's Scales." See 
note on 146.8. J 



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See also Georgicorum Libri Quattuor. The Georgics of Virgil , with an 
English Translation and Notes , by John Martyn, ( 2nd ed. ) London, 1746, 
p. 37: "The alder-tree delights in moist places, and on the banks of 
rivers. One of these trees that wa3 grown hollow with age, falling into 
a river, may be imagined to have given the first hint towards navigation." 
See also Bucolica et Georgica : With notes by John Martyn, Oxford, 1829, 
p. 1S2. 

For the influence here of Jane Taylor's "The Philosopher's Scales," see 
the passages quoted from her in the note on 146. 8 s 

8.15 The book has passed away, and with the book the lay] The "book" 
was a collection of Mother Goose rhymes and the "lay" was the verse about 
the wise men of Gotham, See The Original Mother Goose's Melody , as is- 
sued by John Newbery . of London . circa 1760 ; Isaiah Thomas , of Worcester . 
Mass. , circa 1785 . and Munroe & Francis , of Boston , circa 1825 . Repro - 
duced in facsimile , from the first Worcester edition , with introductory 
notes by William H. Whitmore . Boston. 1892 . (The introductory notes con- 
tain an account of the early American editions:) "Few books in the Eng- 
lish language have had so great and persistent circulation as the col- 
lection of Nursery Rhymes known as Mother Goose's Melody.... According 
to my present knowledge, I feel sure that the original name is merely a 
translation from the French; that the collection was first made for and 
by John Newbery, of London, about A.D. 1760; and that the great popular- 
ity of the book is due to the Boston editions of Munroe & Francis, A.D. 
1824 — 1860." Of the three Worcester editions, only the third is dated 
[1799]. The first must have appeared ca. 1785. 

Mother Goose's Melody: Sonnets for the Cradle . In Two Parts . 
Part I. Contains the most celebrated songs and lullabies of 
the good old nurses calculated to amuse children and to excite 
them to sleep.... The Third Worcester edition. Worcester, 1799. 

Mother Goose's Quarto; or Melodies Complete . Some of which 
have recently been discovered among the manuscripts in Hercu - 
laneum . . . . Boston (Munroe & Francis) , [1824] 



10 



The Only True Mother Goose Melodies , without addition or 
Abridgement ; embracing , also , a reliable life of the Goose 
Family never before published , Boston, 1833. 

Mother Goose Melodies . Portland, 1838. 

8.16 wise men three of Gotham In bowl did venture out to sea] 



'flic hook has passe i avav, and with the book the 
lay, which in mv youthful davs 1 loved to ponder. 
Of curious things it told, how wue men three ot Cloth- 
am In howl did venture out to sea, And darkly hints 
their awful fate. 



[I reproduce below pages 17-24 of 
the first Worcester edition of 
ca. 1785:] 



Mother COOSE's Melody, m 




a; Mother COOSE's Melody. 










1-*HREEwife Men of Gotham 
They went to Sea in a Bowl. 
And if the Bowl had been ftrooger 
My Song had heen loogei. 

Ii it long enough. Never luttol toe Loft 
oj what it sot wouh hinog. tejlt. 



THERE 



THERE was an old Man, 
And he had a Calf, 
And that's Half ; 
He {ook him out of the Stall, 
And put him on the Wall, 
And that's all. 

Ataxia. Thofe who ire* given to tell til 
•he* kmw geocrelly ul) Bore ttud they 

kapw 



THERE 



Mother COOSE's Melody. 23 




< 4 Mother COOSE's Melody. 



THtRtwesanold Woman 
Liv'd under a Hill, 
She put a moufe in a Ba*, 
And fent it to Mill : 
The Miller did fwear 
By the point of his Knife, 
He never took Toll 
Of • Moufe in his Life, 

The only Inllancc of a Miller refuting Toll, 
.-&J (or which the Cai has jufl Cau'c ot Cora. 
J>U»Bt Iglirvlt bin; leke upon Xltf/fCC- 

THERE 




THERE was an old Woman 
Liv'd under a Hill. 
And if fhe isn't gone 
She lives there dill. 

Thit ii a felf evident Proportion, which 11 
the .cry Eflcncc of Truth Stt lived u'ier 
tbi Hill, and if /hi i, air gtm/hr itwt litrtjtitl, 
NubeJj will iSicfumc to wnuadid this. 

r &*«/•• 

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See Thoreau's college theme, "The Story-Telling Faculty," in Franklin B. 
Sanborn's The Life of Henry David Thoreau . Boston & N.Y., 1917, pp. 117- 
120, esp. 119. Prof. Edward Tyrrel Channing had assigned the topic on 
September 16, 1836. Thoreau probably handed in his theme when it was due 
on September 30, 1836, a few weeks after writing his letter to Charles 
Wyatt Rice: 

As that appetite [for novelty] is insatiable, so are the sources 
whence it may be gratified inexhaustible. When youth has ripened 
into manhood, and Care has stamped the brow, — though the lay may 
have lost its charm, which tells of curious things, — 

How wise men three of Gotham, in a bowl 

Did venture out to sea, — 

And darkly hints their awful fate; — 

though this be an old story, the page of History is never closed, 
the Castalian Spring is never dry. 



8.19 If men have dared the main to tempt in such frail barks] Thor- 
eau knew Pindar's lines in the essay, "Wherefore the Pythian Priestess 
Now Ceases to deliver her Oracles in Verse" in Plutarch's Morals: Tr . 
from the Greek by Several Hands . (5th ed., 5 vols.) London, 1718, III, p. 

123 : "Were it the Will of Heav'n, an Ozier Bough 

Were Vessel safe enough the Seas to Plough." 

See also Thoreau's translations from Pindar in Writings (Walden ed.), V, 
p. 391. 



12 

9.2 Natives — a harmless, unoffensive race .. .appeared somewhat aston- 

An obvious allusion to the Phae- 
acians in Homer's Odyssey . Books 

Natives — a harmless, imoiHiiMvc rati-, principal!) VI, VII, and VIII. ~" 

devoted to agricultural pursuits — appeared hhv.i w liat 

astonished that a stranger should land so ur.cci<mo- ( ' (U lu ' r ° ,: ' aI 'wenty minutes of tour, am! after 

niouslv on their ioa.-;. a short and pleasant passage ot ten minutes air'.xcd 

safeiv in port with a valuable cargo. 

9.7 "Epistolary matter," says Lamb, "usually comprises three topics, 

news, sentiment and puns."] e „, , T , , 11TSJ 

' See Charles Lamb's essay, "Dis- 

tant Correspondents," IT 2. 
" Kpistolarv matter," sivs l.amb, "usualiv com- 

prises three topics, news, sentiment and pitus." Now 

as to news I don't know the coin— the newspapers Now- this is neither mattcr-of-facf, nor /////gent, nor 

take care of" that. Puns 1 abhor and more especially vct sentimental— it is neither one thing nor the other, 

deliberate ones. Sentiment alone is immortal, the rc;t but a Lind °t' hodge-podge, put together in much the 

are short-lived evanescent. same style that mince pies arc fabled to have been 

made, i. c. by opening the oven door, and irom the 
further end of the room, casting in the various in- 
gredients — a little lard here, a little flour there — now 
a round ot beef, and then a cargo of spices — helter 
, skelter. 

9.9 Puns I abhor and more especially deliberate ones.] Thoreau, of 
course, said this in jest. After Walden had been published on August 9, 
1854, he pencilled on the inside of the rear cover of his manuscript 
journal (volume XXII ) the following notes which I publish with the kind 
permission of the Pierpont Morgan Library: 

My faults are 

[1] Paradoxes— —saying just the opposite — all which may be 

imitated 

[2] Ingenious 

[3] Playing with words getting the laugh not being simple 

strong & frank— 

[4] Using current phrases & maxims when I should speak for 

myself — 

[5] Not always earnest 

[6] In short in fact— alasj &c 

[7] Want of conciseness— 

For Emerson's criticism of Thoreau' s style, see Journals . VI, 440-441 
(1843). 

9.24 Dan Homer is all the rage at present.] See 341.22. 

Mv health is so much improved that I shall return 

to C. next term if they will receive me. French I would visit our good old town this vacation; in other 

have certainly neglected, Dan Homer is all the rage words, myself. 
at present. Don't fail to answer this forthwith; 'tis a good 

This from your friend and classmate, thing to persevere in well doing. 

D. H. I horkau. How true it is that the postscript contains the 

P. vS. It would afford me much pleasure if you m0£t important matter, invariably. 



13 

9.30 'tis a good thing to persevere in well doing.] Cf. Galatians 
6:9 — "And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall 
reap, if we faint not." (All Biblical references passim are to the Author- 
ized or King James Version.) 

13.11 "The clock sends to bed at ten, and calls me again at eight." 
Indeed I deem "conformity one of the best arts of life."] See Mrs. Eliza- 
beth (Robinson) Montagu, The Letters. . .with Some of the Letters of her 
Correspondents . pub. by Matthew Montagu, (3 vols.) Boston, 1825, T] 87- 
88. In her letter to the Duchess of Portland, dated April 8, 1741, Mrs. 
Montagu wrote: "Amongst the old furniture, not to forget the clock, who 
has indeed been a time-server....; even me it governs, sends me to bed 
at ten, and makes me rise, oh barbarous! at eight. I go to bed, awake, 
and arise asleep; but I have ever held conformity one of the best arts of 
life, and though I might choose my own hours, I think it proper to follow 
theirs." For one of the last themes of the senior year, Professor Edward 
Tyrrel Channing (on May 5, 1837) assigned to Thoreau's class the topic, 
"Conformity in Things Unessential," giving quotations from Mrs. Montagu. 
The paper was due on May 19, 1837. See Sanborn's The Life of Henry David 
Thoreau (1917), pp. 150-152. Because Thoreau's classmates apparently en- 
joyed the exercise and remembered it, the allusion here was felicitous. 

14.11 that "antique and fishlike" office of Ma.ior Nelson] See Shake- 
speare's The Tempest . II.ii.27: "A very ancient and fish-like smell." I 
have discussed Albert Hobart Nelson as Thoreau's fishing companion in 
"Thoreau's Three Months Out of Harvard and his First Publication," Emerson 
Society Quarterly , no. 5 (IV Quarter 1956), pp. 2-10. See note on 41.16. 

19.22 this frostbitten 'forked carrot' of a body must be fed and 
clothed after all] Thoreau here is alluding to two passages in Shake- 
speare: (1) Lear's speech to "Poor Tom" (Edgar) in King Lear . Ill.iv. 
99ff.: "Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer with thy un- 
covered body this extremity of the skies. Is man no more than this? Con- 
sider him well. Thou owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep 
no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! here's three on's are sophisticated; 
thou art the thing itself; unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor, 
bare, forked animal as thou art. Off, off, you lendings! Come; unbutton 
here. [Tearing off his clothes]." (2) Falstaff to Bardolf concerning 
Justice Shallow in 2 Henry IV . III. ii. 318: "I do remember him at Clement's 
Inn like a man made after supper of a cheese-paring: when a' was naked he 
was for all the world like a forked radish...." 

19.24 my German and metaphysical cat-sticks] According to the NED , 
a " catstick" is "a stick or bat used in the games of tip-cat and trap- 
ball." Thoreau seems to be speaking metaphorically of his early efforts 
to comprehend the German language and philosophy. 

20.10 It hath not entered into the heart of man to conceive the full 

import] Cf. 1 Cor. 1:9 "But it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear 

heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God 
hath prepared for them that love him." 

20.25 I have perused. . .the first number of the 'Boston Review.'] The 
Boston Quarterly Review . I, no. 1 (Jan., 1838), pp. 1-128, contained the 
following: 

"Introductory Remarks" by Orestes A. Brownson. 

"Christianity Not an Original Revelation with Jesus, Nor a System of 

Theological Doctrines, Properly So Called" [by Brownson]. 
"Review of Whittier's Poems Written During the Progress of the 



14 

Abolition Question in the United States (1830-1838)." 

"Democracy" — A review of an Address of the Democratic State Con - 
vention of Massachusetts. . .at Worcester , Sept. 20. 1837 . 

"Review of the Poems of William Thompson Bacon (1837)". 

"Review of an article in the Christian Examiner on 'Locke and the 
Transcendentalists . " 

"Review of Emerson's American S cholar (1837)." 

"Literary Notices." 

23.7 Unfortunately, the "Americana" has hardly two words on the sub- 
ject.] See "Flint" in the Encyclopaedia Americana . A Popular Dictionary 
. . .on the Basis of the Seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexi - 
con , ed. F. Lieber et al . . (13 vols.). Phila.. 1829-1853. V (1831). p. 
148: "Its principal use is for gun-flints, and it is also reduced to a 
powder, and used in the manufacture of porcelain and glass. The manu- 
facture of gun-flints is exceedingly simple, and a good workman will make 
1000 flints a day. The whole art consists in striking the stone repeated- 
ly with a kind of mallet, and bringing off, at each stroke, a splinter 
sharp at one end, and thicker at the other. The splinters are afterwards 
shaped at pleasure, by laying the line at which it is wished they should 
break, upon a sharp instrument, and then giving it small blows with a 
mallet. ..." 

23.13 Dr. Jacob Bigelow in his "Technology"] See Jacob Bigelow, Ele - 
ments of Technology , taken chiefly from a course of lectures delivered at 
Cambridge , on the application of the sciences to the useful arts . Boston, 
1829. Thoreau probably refers to the second edition with additions, Bos- 
ton, 1831. 

24.17 What's done, may be undone] See note on 9.9. This is an ex- 
ample of Thoreau 's deliberate "saying just the opposite." Here he modi- 
fies Macbeth . V.i.75: "What's done cannot be undone. To bed, to bed, 

to bed!" 

25.1 those [numbers] of the library of health received since — 38.... 
But one number... has been received.] See The Library of Health and 
Teacher on the Human Constitution . (6 volsT) Boston, 1837-1841. Two num- 
bers of Volume II ( 1838) are shown below: 




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28.10 I have no acquaintance with "Cleavelands First Lessons," though 
I have peeped into his abridged grammar] See Charles Dexter Cleveland, 
First Lessons in Latin , upon a New Plan , combining abstract rules , with a 
Progressive Series of Practical Exercises , Boston, 1 829 ; (2nd ed.) Boston, 
1831 ; (stereotype ed.) Boston, 1833 . The "abridged grammar" seems to 
have been: Alexander Adam, Adam's Latin Grammar; with numerous additions 
and improvements , designed to aid the more advanced student by fuller elu - 
cidations of the Latin Classics . By C[harles] D[exter] Cleveland. Phila. , 
1836; London, 1836. 

28.23 For information see Adam's Latin Grammar — before the Rudiments] 
Thoreau owned Alexander Adam, Adam's Latin Grammar , ed. Benjamin A. Gould, 
Boston, 1829. (This edition was used by students at Harvard and by candi- 
dates applying for admission thereto.) 

28.27 one must occasionally hang his harp on the willows, and play on 
the Jew's harp, in such a strange country as this.] Allusion to the He- 
brew song of the Babylonian captivity: Psalm 137:2-5 — "We hanged our 
harps upon the willows in the midst thereof [of the Euphrates].... How 
shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land? If I forget thee, 
Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning." Cf. Thoreau's recol- 
lection of this Psalm in his contribution to the Harvard Class Book of 
1837: "If I forget thee, Concord, let my right hand forget her cun- 
ning." See Transcendentalists and Minerva . I, 224. 

29.7 Mental Philosophy is very like poverty — which, you know, be- 
gins at home; and, indeed, when it goes abroad, it is poverty itself.] 
A parody of the proverb, "Charity begins at home." For many examples 
throughout the ages, see Burton Stevenson, The Home Book of Quotations . 
(3rd ed.) N.Y., 1937, p. 243. 

29.10 an abridgment. . .of Abercrombie, would answer her purpose.] A 
possible reference to John Abercrombie, The Philosophy of the Moral Feel - 
ings . N.Y., 1836. (it contained questions for the examination of stu- 
dents.) An earlier edition appeared in London in 1833. Thoreau, doubt- 



16 

less, meant "abridged assignments," for I have located no abridged text. 

35.8ff. Canerem cum Horatio, si vox non faucibus haeserit — "Vides, ut 
alta...."] Thoreau slightly modifies the first two stanzas of Horace's 
ninth ode in Book I : 

Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
silvae laborantes, geluque 
flumina constiterint acuto. 

Dissolve frigus ligna super foco 
large reponens, atque benignius 
deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
o Thaliarche, merum diota. 

He substitutes Nawshawtuct, or Lee's Hill, near the confluence of the As- 
sabet and Sudbury Rivers for Horace's Soracte, which was on the western 
side of the Tiber Valley, about twenty-four miles northeast of Rome, ris- 
ing to a height of 2267 feet. See also 452.17. See the arrow below. 




35.16 "necque jam stabulis gaudet pecus...."] Thoreau here quotes 
lines 2-5 of Horace's fourth ode of Book I: 

ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni, 

nee prata canis albicant pruinis, 
Iam Cytherea choros ducit Venus imminente luna 

iunctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes.... 

35.24 Bulwerius est mihi nomen incognitum, unus ex ignobile vulgo....] 
By 1840, Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873) had gained considerable popularity as a 
novelist, having published (among other works) Pelham (1828), Eugene Aram 



17 

(1832), England and the English (1833), Last Days of Pompeii (1834), and 
Rienzi ( 1835) . Thoreau here indicates his small reading in contemporary 
fiction. See, however, the note on 525.5. 

36.1 Si amas historiam et fortia facta heroum non depone Rollin] In 
his personal library, Thoreau had Charles Rollin* s The Ancient History of 
the Egyptians , Carthaginians . Assyrians . Babylonians . Medes & Persians . 
Macedonians , and Grecians, in four volumes, probably the edition published 
by W. Borradaile, (4 vols.) N.Y., 1825. 

36.6 Bonus liber opus est nobilissimum hominis!] Thoreau* s "An hon- 
est book's the noblest work of man" is obviously a parody of Alexander 
Pope's "An honest man's the noblest work of God" ( Essay on Man . Epis. IV, 
line 248). 

36.12 "Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae."] A quotation 
from Virgil's Eclogues . I, 82-83: "...et iam summa procul villarum cul- 
mina fumant maioresque cadunt altis montibus umbrae." (Even now the 
house-tops over there are smoking, and longer shadows fall from the moun- 
tain heights.) The importance of Virgil's descriptions of the country- 
side (in the Georgics and Eclogues ) . while Thoreau was writing Walden . 
remains to be assessed. 

40.4 where the bolt hits, thither was it aimed] This is probably 
proverbial. Cf. Matthew 24:28— -"For wheresoever the carcase is, there 
will the eagles be gathered together." 

40.27 Mr. Wood pronounces. . .that the scholars will not be forthcom- 
ing] A more illuminating reference to Deacon Elijah Wood of Concord ap- 
pears on 41.14-15. He was born Sept. 18, 1790, and died Nov. 26, 1861, 
only a few months before Thoreau himself died. Though his education in 
the village school was brief, he learned enough about music to make him- 
self useful to the church in his later years. As farmer and shoe manu- 
facturer he became well known but was not affluent. "When business was 
done, away to the prayer-meeting, for he was absolutely needed to start 
the singing, or he might be on his way to the Social Club." See Elijah 
Wood, Jr., "Memoir of Elijah Wood," Memoirs of Members of the Social Cir - 
cle in Concord . (2nd series, 1795-1840), Cambridge, 1888, pp. 194-200, 
from which I also draw the following: 

He was public -spirited. Deacon Wood was greatly interested in 
singing from my first remembrance, and farther back to the age of 
eighteen years, from which time he began to direct and lead in the 
old church. Singers, as a class, are a sensitive people, and some- 
times get offended at the most trifling cause. He, with his mild and 
pleading manner, would generally reconcile them. We can truly say he 
was the father of singing in Concord. He had the entire charge of it 
from 1808 to 1826, when the church separated, and of the old church 
till 1851, — a continuous leadership for forty-three years, and in that 
time he never was absent but seven Sabbaths.... A leader is required 
to spend much more time than is generally supposed, which accounts 
for Deacon Wood's lack of prominence in town affairs. He must rehearse 
with his choir every week. He must attend the singing-school , in or- 
der to keep up with the times and learn new tunes. He must call on 
his pastor Saturday eve for his hymns, in order to make his best se- 
lection. Generally, in a live town some singing association exists, 
which he must attend. Then comes the family practice, of which he was 
very fond, and some of his sons were worn out with it, and never re- 
covered. 



18 

He joined the church in 1836, and was chosen deacon April 29, 1841, 
having held the office twenty years to his death. 

41.3 Mr Whiting, the Superintendent of the Sabbath School] This was 
William Whiting, Sr., a memoir concerning whom, by Ebenezer Rockwood 
Hoar, appears in Memoirs of Members of the Social Circle in Concord . 
(2nd series, 1795-1840), Cambridge, 1888, pp. 247-265. 

41.16 Nelson] This was the attorney, Albert Hobart Nelson, a memoir 
concerning whom, by John Shepard Keyes, appears in Memoirs of Members of 
the Social Circle in Concord . (2nd series, 1795-1840), Cambridge, 1888, 
pp. 382-386. Nelson was educated in the Concord Academy and at Harvard. 
In 1840, the year of Thoreau's letter, he was married, became active in 
politics, and was chosen a member of the Social Circle. Between 1836 
and 1840, he was leader in Concord of the younger set, which included 
Hiram Barrett Dennis, Rufus Hosmer, Jr., C. C. Field, Ebenezer Rock- 
wood Hoar, and John Thoreau. They "made up a more brilliant and agree- 
able set of gentlemen than were ever at one time collected in this town. 
Their balls and parties, their rides and walks, their boating and camp- 
ing, their games and flirtations, kept the place in a blaze of excite- 
ment, and made the social life very gay." (See loc. cit . . p. 383.) See 
also the note on 14.11. 

41.18 and Concord river running nine times round — to the contrary] 
Thoreau remembered the River Styx, of classical mythology, which ran nine 
times around hell. According to John Lempriere's A Classical Dictionary , 
a copy of which Thoreau owned: "If any of the gods had perjured them- 
selves, Jupiter obliged them to drink the waters of the Styx, which lulled 
them for one whole year into a senseless stupidity; for the nine following 
years they were deprived of the ambrosia and the nectar of the gods...." 
Thoreau's mentioning laudanum and poppy in this connection hints at sloth 
in the atmosphere of Concord. Cf. the introductory chapter to A Week on 
the Concord and Merrimack Rivers : "It has been proposed that the town 
should adopt for its coat of arms a field verdant, with the Concord cir- 
cling nine times round." 

44.22 and thrid so many woods, as lie between Concord and Plymouth] 
"Thrid" — a common form of the verb "thread" from the sixteenth through 
the eighteenth centuries— was used by some of Thoreau's contemporaries, 
notably by Coleridge and Wordsworth. 

45.21 as the plant puts forth leaves] An echo of Emerson's Nature 
(1st ed.), Boston, 1836, 79.18-23: "Therefore, that spirit, that is, the 
Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth 
through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves 
through the pores of the old." This Swedenborgian figure Emerson found 
in Sampson Reed's "Oration on Genius" and in his Observations on the 
Growth of the Mind . See Emerson the Essayist . II, pp. 9 and 29. On the 
organic metaphor, see the note on 444.1. 

47.4 [I] can sympathize with God Apollo, who served King Admetus for 
a while on earth.] For other references to Apollo and Admetus in the 
Correspondence , see 74.13; 76.7; 312.21; and 557.17. Full details about 
Apollo's banishment from heaven and his caring for the flocks of Admetus 
for nine years appear in John Lempriere's A Classical Dictionary . London, 
1804, s.v . The following poem, which appeared originally in the Boston 
Miscellany (September, 1842), was reprinted in the New Bedford Mercury 

on Friday, Sept. 2, 1842, on page 4, attesting to the popularity of the 
myth in Thoreau's day. Compare Emerson's statement in Journals t III, 



19 

443 (January, 1835): "Apollo kept the flocks of Admetus, said the priests; 
another significant fable. Every man is an angel in disguise, a god play- 
ing the fool. It seems as if Heaven had sent its insane angels into our 
world as an asylum, and here they will break out into rare music and ut- 
ter at intervals the words they have heard in Heaven, and then the mad fit 
returns and they mope and wallow like dogs. When the gods come among men 
they are not known. Jesus was not. Socrates and Shakspear were not." 
The foregoing seems to be a variation of a line near the beginning of 
Chapter XI of Goethe's Wjlhelm Meister's Wander.jahre as translated by Car- 
lyle — a line which Emerson may have read in Carlyle's "Goethe," Foreign 
Review . II, no. 3 (July, 1828), pp. 80-127. See also Carlyle's Critical 
and Miscellaneous Essays . (4 vols.) Boston, 1838-1839, I, pp. 220-286, 
esp. page 265: "Thus you perceive here, while, in the main field of the 
picture, Abraham receives a visit from his gods in the form of fair 
youths, Apollo among the herdsmen of Admetus is painted above on the 
frieze. From which we may learn, that the gods, when they appear to men, 
are commonly unrecognised of them." Cf. Emerson's "Statement of the 
First Philosophy" (June, 1835), section VII, in Emerson the Essayist . I, 
193. 

THE SHEPHERD OF KING ADMETUS. 

There came a youth upon the earth 
Some thousand years ago, 
Whose slender hands were nothing worth 
Either to plough or reep or sow. 

He made a lyre, and drew therefrom 
Music so deep and rich, 
That all men loved to hear, and some 
Muttered of faggots for a witch. 

But king Admetus, one who had 
Pure taste by right divine, 
Decreed his singing not too bad 
To hear between the cups of wine. 

And so, well pleased by being soothed 
Into a sweet half sleep, 

Three times his kingly beard he smoothed, 
And made him viceroy of his sheep. 

His words were simple words enough, 
And yet he used them so, 
That what in other mouths seemed rough, 
In his was musical and low. 

Men called him but a shiftless youth, 

In whom no good they saw, 

And yet, unwittingly in truth, 

They made his careless words their law. 

They knew not how he learned at all, 
For hour after hour, 

He sat and watched the dead leaves fall, 
Or mused upon a common flower. 

It seemed the loveliness of things 
Did teach him all their use, 
And in mere weeds and stones and springs 
He found a healing power profuse. 



20 

Men granted that his speech was wise, 

Yet when a sight they caught 

Of his slim grace and woman's eyes, 

They laughed and called him good-for-naught. 

But after he was dead and gone, 
And e'en his memory dim, 
Earth seemed more sweet to live upon 
More full of love because of him. 

And day by day more holy grew 

Each spot where he had trod, 

And after-poets only knew 

Their first-born brother as a god. 



47.15 the old rhyme: — 



"Three scipen gode 
Comen mid than flode 
Three hundred cnihten."] 



Not located, 



48.1 I have hardly found rest for the sole of my foot.] Cf. Genesis 
8:9 "But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot." 

48.2 ...followed the star of my destiny till it has... come and stood 
over this place.] Cf. Matthew 2:9 — "...and, lo, the star, which they saw 
in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the 
young child was." 

48.23 "Nature" I found — and language can not express my admiration of 
it.] Thoreau had earlier recommended Emerson's Nature to Isaiah T. Wil- 
liams. 

48.24 When gloom like a thick cloud comes over me] Cf. Bryant's 
"Thanatopsis," lines 8-9, and the imagery of "thick cloud(s)" in John 
Bradshaw's A Concordance to the Poetical Works of John Milton . London, 
1894, s.v . 

48.26 Few copies of Mr Emerson's Essays have found their way to this 
place.] The Essays (First Series) had been published on March 20, 1841. 
(See Emerson's Letters . II, 387 fn.) Williams' testimony that Buffalo 
had seen only a few copies within the first six months signifies a slow 
sale. Thoreau had read the book — or part of it — in proof sheets by March 
12, 1840. See my The Transcendentalists and Minerva . II, 368. 

48.27 Mr. Park's German I have also found] See Bela Bates Edwards 
and Edwards Amasa Park, Selections from German Literature . Andover, 1839: 



CONTENTS. 



iNTKOt't'CTIOH, BY THE TRANSLATORS, 

The Like, Character and Style or the Atosti.e Paii , 

Tlioluck.— I" 

Chap 1. Early Life of the Apostle, 
II. Same Subject continued, 

III. Character of the Apostle, 

IV. Style of the Apostle, . 
Supplement by the Translator, 

Notes by the Translator 



Page 
I— 27 



By Prof 

31- 



31 

lit; 

41 

r.i 



The Tragical Quality in the Friendship 
than. By Prof. Frederic K outer. — Lv . 
Note by the Translator, 



•F l),\\ll> AM' 



.Ion a.- 

7. r »— 82 
82 



I'iie Gifts of Prophecy and of SpfaKinc with Torgwrs 
Primitive Church. By Dr. L. J. FlUckert. — E. 
Prefatory Note by the Translator, 
Introductory Remark, 
Prophecy, ..... 
Speaking with Tongues, . 
Two Preliminary Considerations, 
Meaning of the Gift of Tongues, 
Notice! in the Acts of the Apostles, 
Various Hypotheses, 
Objections against the Theory of Tongues, 



lift— 112 
85 

8? 
80 

;mi 
*ji 

9M 
90 
100 
102 



21 



View of the Passage in 1 Corinthians, . . 10f. 

Conclusion, ..... ... 110 

Note by the Translator, .... Ill 

Sermons bt Prof. Tholuck. — P. ... . 115 198 

Sermon I. The Relation of Christians to the Law, 115 

II. Gentleness of Christ, ... ... 125 

III. Fruitless Resolutions, .... 134 

IV. Earnest of Eternal Life, 143 

V. The Penitent Thief, .154 

VI. The Presence of God with his Children, 161 

Notes by the Translator, 170 

Sketch of Tholuck's Life and Character. — P. . . 'JOl—'iAi 

Tut Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Dead. — A Commf.n- 
rAitv o.n the Fifteenth Copter of the First Epistle to hie 
Corinthians. By Dr L. OMluckert.— E 229— 27b 

Inn Resurrection of the Bodv. By J. P Langc — E . 279— 292 

Notes by the Translator, ... ... 293 

Life ok Plato.— By W. G. Teniiemann.—E. . 311— 367 
Chap. 1 Birth and Education, 3U 



11 Foreign Travels, 331 

III. First Residence in Syracuse, 339 

IV. School of Plato at Athens, . 312 

V. Second Residence in Syracuse, .... 34li 

VI. Third Residence in Syracuse, :152 

VII. Vindication of Plato's Character, 357 

VIII. Last Days of Plato, 3(j3 

"hF.rcll OF THE MlOCIM I'll F RS OF PLATO ANP OF THE COMMENTATOR* 

IPON HIS WRITINGS. — E. . . 371— '3ffti 

I he Sinless Character of Jesus. By Dr. C. I'llniann — P 388— 472 

Prefatory Note by the Translator, ... 38!» 

Section I. General Principles of Reasoning in this Treatise, . 390 

II. Same Subject Continued, 394 

III. Testimony in favor of Christ, 397 

IV. Characteristics ol the Saviour, 402 
V. Objections to the Testimony in favor of Christ, 409 

VI. Works and Influence of the Saviour, .... 416 

VII. Objections against Christ's Character, .... 42(i 

VIII. Metaphysical Difficulties relating to the Saviour's Sin- 

lessness . 435 

IX. Concluding Instructions from the Subject, 445 

Notes by the Translator, 454 



48.29 I have also obtained "Hero Worship"] Thoreau had completed 
reading Carlyle's On Heroes . Hero -Worship , and the Heroic in History on 
April 15, 1840 — in proof sheets which had come to Emerson from England. 
See The Transcendental is ts and Minerva . II, 368. 

48.36 Also Mr. Alcott's "Human Culture"] Thoreau apparently did not 
own a copy of Bronson Alcott's The Doctrine and Discipline of Human Cul - 
ture (Boston, 183 6) but may have borrowed a copy from Emerson. See his 
Correspondence . p. 53. 

52.10 The Hindoo Scripture says, "Single is each man born; single he 
dies; single he receives the reward of his good...."] This is an ex- 
tract from the Laws of Menu which Thoreau had been reading between July 
and September, 1841. copying portions into his volume of "Miscellaneous 
Extracts" (M.A. 594; . For full details concerning Thoreau's acquaintance 
with The Works of Sir William Jones —especially the edition in six vol- 
umes (London. 1799) — see The Transcendental is ts and Minerva . I, 310. See 
also the note on 68.18. 

52.16 the New Testament,— yet if [a soul] be faithful enough it will 
have... a revelation fresher and directer than that] Thoreau here re- 
flects the "Introduction" to Emerson's Nature (Boston, 1836) and Emerson's 
An Address Delivered before the Senior Class in Divinity College (Boston, 
183 8), a pamphlet which Isaiah Williams asked especially to have sent to 
him. 

53.13 The "Explanatory Preface" by Elizabeth Peabody] See Elizabeth 
Palmer Peabody, Method of Spiritual Culture , being an Explanatory Preface 
to the Second Edition of Record of a School . Boston (James Munroe & Co.) 
1836. It begins: "The work now put to the press, for the second time, 
has, in several particulars, been misunderstood. And I am told that I 
must ascribe this to my own want of perspicacity, — especially in the last 
chapter, which undertook to sum up the general principles of Spiritual 
Culture, deduced from a view of the soul, that some persons say is not in- 
telligible. On this account, I here attempt another explanation of the 
psychology, which is made the basis of Mr. Alcott's School, with the 
principles and methods, which are evolved from it; intending to omit that 



22 

chapter altogether, although there is nothing in it, which I wish to take 
back, or by which I did not mean something important. [U] To contemplate 
Spirit in the Infinite Being, has ever been acknowledged to be the only 
ground of true Religion. To contemplate Spirit in External nature, is 
universally allowed to be the only true Science. To contemplate Spirit 
in ourselves, and in our fellow men, is obviously the only means of un- 
derstanding social duty, and quickening within ourselves a wise Humanity. 
— In general terms, — Contemplation of Spirit is the first principle of 
Human Culture; the foundation of Self-education. [11 ] This principle, Mr. 
Alcott begins with applying to the education of the youngest children...." 

56.8 when Byron compares the light on Jura to that of the dark eye of 
woman] See note on 66.26 and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage . Canto III, stan- 

za Xcii: ... Oh night, 

And storm, and darkness, ye are wondrous strong, 
Yet lovely in your strength, as is the light 
Of a dark eye in woman! 

58.9 "Land of every land the pride Beloved of Heaven o'er all the 
World beside... That spot of earth divinely blest— That dearer sweeter 
spot than all the rest" J This is a free rendering and condensation of 
James Montgomery's "The West Indies," Part III, lines 1-16, on "The Love 
of Country, and of Home, the same in all ages and among all nations." 
See his The West Indies and Other Poems . N.Y., 1810 or Phila., 1811: 

There is a land, of every land the pride, 

Beloved by heaven o'er all the world beside; 

Where brighter suns dispense serener light, 

And milder moons emparadise the night; 

A land of beauty, virtue, valour, truth, 

Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth: 

The wandering mariner, whose eye explores 

The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, 

Views not a realm so bountiful and fair, 

Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air; 

In every clime the magnet of his soul, 

Touch 'd by remembrance, trembles to that pole; 

For in this land of heaven's peculiar grace, 

The heritage of nature's noblest race, 

There is a spot of earth supremely blest, 

A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest.... 

58.13 memory .. .retires to wander in the 'Graveyard of the past'] 

Probably a commonplace, but compare Nature (Boston, 1836), 5.14-15 

"...why should we grope among the dry bones of the past...?" Williams 
may have been quoting an expression used by Thoreau in an earlier letter. 

58.16 "when the daughters of music are brought low."] See Ecclesias- 
tes 12:4 — "And the doors shall be shut in the streets. . .and all the 
daughters of music shall be brought low." (This is a part of the famous 
advice of Qoheleth to "remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, 
while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh, when thou shalt 
say, I have no pleasure in them" — Eccles. 12:1). See 409.15. 

58.27 "true to the dreams of Childhood"] Possibly a quotation from 
one of the three pamphlets on Alcott 's school, which Thoreau had enclosed 
in his letter of Sept. 8, 1841. See Correspondence . p. 53. 



23 

59.5 "has no need of a candle neither the light of the Sun"] Cf. 
Revelation 22:5 — "And there shall be no night there; and they need no can- 
dle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and 
they shall reign for ever and ever." 

59.10 I do not "burn with high hopes"] A possible allusion to Philip 
James Bailey's first poem, Festus (1839), which has been considered "for 
the daring of its theme and the imaginative power and moral altitude 
which it displays, one of the most notable of the century." See the sec- 
tion on "Home": "Burn to be great." 

59.10 Tis not that "the way seems steep and difficult" but that "the 
event is feared"] See Paradise Lost . II, lines 71 and 82: "The way 
seems difficult and steep to scale...." 

59.12 "daily contact with the things I loath"] Not located. 

59.30 Adieu ye Classic halls. My Muse adieu!] Possibly reminiscent 
of Childe Harold's farewell to England in Byron's Childe Harold's Pil - 
grimage . Canto I, line 118: "Adieu, Adieu! my native shore...." It was, 
doubtless, much imitated and parodied by college undergraduates. 

60.9 I should admire Pope's Homer if it were for nothing but that it 
flows so smoothly.] Interesting evidence of Pope's continuing popularity 
in the United States. See Agnes Marie Sibley, Alexander Pope's Prestige 
in America . 1725-1835 . N.Y., 1949, and Leon Howard, "The American Revolt 
Against Pope." Studies in Philology . XLIX (1952), 48-65. 

63.26 "carvels licht, fast tending throw the sea"] From the "Alle- 
gorie of Vertue and Delyte" translated by John Bellenden, II, 56, stanza 
xxv, line 1: "As carvell ticht [ sic ] . fast tending throw the see." 
Taken from James Sibbald, Chronicle of Scottish Poetry ; from the Thir - 
teenth Century to the Union, of the Crowns . (4 vols.) Edinburgh , 1802. 
Thoreau was reading in this book during June, 1837, and again during De- 
cember, 1841. (See Emerson the Essayist . II, 194-195, and The Transcen - 
dentalists and Minerva . I. 196ff.) The extract was inscribed on page 103 
of the Literary Notebook in the Library of Congress. 

As carvell ticht, fast tending throw the see, 
Levis na prent amang the wallis hie, 

As birdis swift with mony besy plume 
Persis the air, and wate nocht quhair they flie, 
Sicklyk our lyfe without activitie ; 

Giffis na frut, howbeit ane shado blume, 
Quhay dois thair lyfe into this erd consume, 
Without vertew, thair fame and memorie 
Sail vanis soner than the reiky fume. 

Thoreau quotes from the same poem at the end of this letter. 

65.12 good verse by the old Scotch poet John Bellenden] See stanza 
xxiii in ibid . . II, 55. See the transcript in the Library of Congress 
Literary Notebook and the note on 65.26: 

The rage of youtheid may nocht dantit be, 
Bot grit distress and sharp adversitie, 

As be this reason is experience; 
The fynest gold or silver that we se, 
May nocht be wrocht to our utilitie, 

Bot flammis kein and bitter violence; 

The more distress, the more intelligence. 



24 

Quhay sailis lang in hie prosperitie, 

Ar sone owreset be stormis without defence, 

66.26 sone verses of Byron] See Dor. Juan , Canto I, stanzas 214-215. 
Thoreau owned a volume of Byron, purchased apparently while he was study- 
ing at Harvard. (See Walter Harding, Thoreau 's Library , p. 38.) For 
some criticism of Byron which Thoreau read during his senior year, see my 
Thoreau Discovers Emerson; A College Reading Record . N.Y., 1953, pp. 14 
and 11. See the foregoing note on 56.8. For Byron's influence on Ameri- 
can literary critics, see Herbert L. Kleinfield, "Infidel on Parnassus: 
Lord Byron and the North American Review ." N E Q , XXXIII, no. 2 (June, 
i960), pp. 164-185. 

67.21 as you say, "Man's ends are shaped for him" J Thoreau is here 
quoting Isaiah Williams' words in the letter of Nov. 27, 1841 ( Corre - 
spondence . 58.23). They seem to be an allusion to Hamlet . V.ii.10: 

There is a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Rough-hew them how we will. 

67.29 Though we must "abide our destiny"] Thoreau is quoting from 
Isaiah Williams' letter of Nov. 27, 1841 ( Correspondence . 58.23). 

68.16 But need we sell our birthright for a mess of pottage?] See 
the story of Esau's selling his birthright to Jacob in Genesis 25:29-34. 

68.17 trust that we shall be fed as the sparrows are.] See Matthew 
6:26, 10:29-31, and Luke 12:6-7. 

68.18 "Grass and earth to sit on, water to wash the feet...."] From 
Chapter III ("On Marriage") in the Laws of Menu , translated by Sir Wil- 
liam Jones. (See note on 52.10.) The quotation appears in The Tran - 
scendental ists and Minerva . I, 315: "Grass and earth to sit on, water to 
wash the feet, and, fourthly, affectionate speech are at no time deficient 
in the mansions of the good, although they may be indigent ." 

69.34 "such is the sovereign doom & such the will of Jove"] Not 
identified. Perhaps it is a commonplace. It resembles Statius' Thebais, 
Book I, line 413 (in Pope's translation): 

'Tis fix'd; th ' irrevocable doom of Jove; 
No force can bend me, no persuasion move. 

70.35 but yet "that undiscovered country" Who shall tell us whether 
to fear — or desire it?] An echo of Hamlet . III. i. 79: "The undiscover'd 
country from whose bourn / No traveller returns." 

71.9 "I was in the spirit on the Lord's Day."] See Revelation 1:10- 
11 — "I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great 
voice, as of a trumpet, saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the 
last: and What thou seest, write in a book...." 

74.12 it is a part of the harmony of the spheres] Richard Fuller had 
given Thoreau a music box. Cf. "Sphere Music" in Journal . I, 58 (Sept. 
2, 1838). See note on 259.28. Pythagoras seems to have been the first 
who taught the music of the spheres. He believed that the planets made a 
sweet melody which was inaudible to most human ears because out of their 
range. Cf. Job 38:7 for a reference to the time "When the morning stars 
sang together...." 



25 

74.13 condescended to serve us Admetuses] See note on 47.4. 

76.7 We are all of us Apollo's serving some Admetus.J See note on 
47.4. 

77.8 Mrs. Lidian Emerson, who almost persuades me to be a Christian] 
See Acts 26:28 — "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me 
to be a Christian." 

77.34 lecture on Peace by a Mr. Spear (ought he not to be beaten in- 
to a ploughshare?), the same evening] Possibly Charles Spear, of Boston, 
who was publishing at this time. The Biblical allusion is to Isaiah 2:4; 
Joel 3:10; and Micah 4:3. Mr. Spear did not speak before the Concord 
Lyceum but under private auspices. One possible reason was that the Con- 
cord community was beginning to react against so many disturbing ad- 
dresses. For example, on Dec 19, 1842, the Lyceum records give the fol- 
lowing: "Horace Greely Esq. of N. York, lectured in the Lyceum on Pro- 
tection and Free Trade after which Hon Sam-'- Hoar moved a vote of thanks 
to M r Greely for his 'able address 1 after which it was announced that 
Wendell Phillips Esq. would lecture on Slavery at the next meeting when 
The Hon. John Keyes offered the following Resolution which was laid on 
the table for future action. 'Resolved that as this Lyceum is established 
for Social and Mutual improvement the introduction of the vexed and dis- 
organizing question of Abolitionism or Slavery should be kept out of it." 
On Jan. 25, 1843, Mr. Keyes' question was again brought into the open and 
discussed, and again put upon the table. Alcott records in his Diary 
that he heard the peace lecture and subsequent conversations on the date 
of his arrest. 

77.38 that we, that is, Lane and myself, perhaps, should agitate the 
State while Winkelried lay in durance] Thoreau's epithet for Alcott is 
an echo of Emerson's Nature (Boston, 1836), 26.3. For a note on Arnold 
Winkelried and his heroism, see Emerson the Essayist . I, 414. Alcott had 
refused to pay his taxes for 1843 and was taken to the Concord jail on 
Jan. 17 by Sam Staples, but as his tax was paid by Samuel Hoar despite 
his protests he was promptly released. For his subsequent attempts to 
become a martyr and for his frequent failures, see Odell Shepard, Pedlar ' s 
Progress . Boston, 1937, p. 354. 

78.3 But Lane... had cogitated and even written on the matter, in the 
afternoon] Lane, doubtless, hoped to capitalize on Alcott 's imprison- 
ment by writing up an account of it even before Alcott was actually 
jailed. When the plan failed, he used Mr. Spear's lecture on peace as a 
point of departure, and in his remarks at the conclusion thereof steered 
a middle course between his fiery composition of the afternoon and the 
actual fiasco. Alcott apparently could not see the event in perspective. 
When both the facts and modesty should have kept him quiet, he was in- 
clined to glory in what he hoped might have been his martyrdom . 

78.8 with a "My Prisons," which made us forget Silvio Pellico] See 
Silvio Pellico. My Prisons . Memoirs of Silvio Pellico . ed. [Andrews Nor- 
ton], (2 vols.) Cambridge, [Mass. ] , 1856. Also My Imprisonments: Memoirs 
of Silvio Pellico da Saluzzo . tr. from the Italian by Thomas Roscoe, N.Y., 
1833. Besides appearing in many editions, this work was much reviewed: 
See "Pellico 's Narrative of his Imprisonments ." Edinburgh Review . LVII 
(1833), pp. 476-485, which is as rebellious against tyranny as Thoreau 
could desire. See also Mrs. H. F. S. Lee, "Silvio Pellico," Christian 
Examiner . XXI, no. 3 (Jan., 1837), pp. 325-335; "Memoirs of Pellico — 
London Translation," North American Review . XLIV, no. 94 (Jan., 1837), 
pp. 121-138. For many others, see the earliest volume of Poole's Index . 



26 

Whether Thoreau ever read the book is uncertain. See John C. Broderick, 
"Thoreau and My Prisons ." B P L , VII (1955), pp. 48-50. 

79.8 the "Tribunes" and "Standards"] Most probably the New York 
Tribune and the National Anti-Slavery Standard , which was published be- 
tween June, 1840, and April, 1870. See note on 358.17. The New-York 
Tribune had been founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. 

80.25 Noah would hardly have done himself the pleasure to release 
his dove] See Genesis 8:6-12. 

84.1-3 On shoulders whirled in some eccentric orbit 

Just by old Pestum's temples and the perch 

Where Time doth plume his wings.] 
Both Ethel Seybold ( Thoreau: The Quest and the Classics ) and Carl Bode 
( Collected Poems of Henry Thoreau ) consider these to be original verses. 
Paestum, the Roman name of Poseidonia, the colony on the coast of Lucania, 
founded about 600 B.C., was famous for its Greek temples and for its 
roses, which bloomed twice each year. See Virgil's Georgics , IV, 119. 
These lines may anticipate at least one idea which Thoreau incorporated 
in his poem, "To Edith [Emerson]," cited in the note on 134.11. Cf. 
also 189.13. 

87.11 The spirit abhors a vacuum more than Nature.] The proverb, 
"Natura abhorret vacuum," goes back at least as far as Rabelais' Gargan - 
tua (1534), Bk . I, ch. 5. Many subsequent authors have modified it or 
paraphrased it, as, for example, Boswell in his Life of Samuel Johnson 
(under the date June 20, 1771): "Whatever philosophy may determine of 
material nature, it is certainly true of intellectual nature, that it 
abhors a vacuum ; our minds cannot be empty." 

87.12 There is a tide which pierces the pores of the air.] A possi- 
ble echo of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar . IV.iii.2l6ff . : 

There is a tide in the affairs of men, 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.... 

On such a full sea are we now afloat; 

And we must take the current when it serves, 

Or lose our ventures. 

87.30 a review. . .of Conversations on the Gospels, Record of a School, 
and Spiritual Culture] Charles Lane's review, entitled "A. Bronson Al- 
cott's Works," appeared in The Dial . Ill, no. 4 (April, 1843), pp. 417- 
453. 

88.3 And now I come to the little end of the horn.] Since the Ren- 
aissance, the phrase has meant "to fare badly in an enterprise." See 
George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston, Eastward Ho ! (1605), 
I.i.68ff. "And when I was wived, having something to stick to, I had 
the horn of suretyship ever before my eyes. You all know the device of 
the horn, where the young fellow slips in at the butt-end, and comes 
squeezed out at the buckle." See also John Fletcher, A Wife for a Month 
(1624), Ill.iii: "The prodigal fool the ballad speaks of, / That was 
squeez'd thro' a horn." I have been unable to find a Renaissance picture 
or emblem of the "horn of suretyship" which gave currency to the phrase. 

88.4 I have brought along the Minor Greek Poets, and will mine there 
for a scrap or two] This was, doubtless, the Poetae Mjnores Graeci . 
Fragmenta Quaedam Accedunt etiam Observationes Radulphi Wintertoni in 



27 

Hesiodura, [many editions: Cantabrigiae, 1677, 1684; London, 1728; etc.] 
— a copy he borrowed from the Fruitlands Library. See Ethel Seybold, 
Thoreau: The Quest and the Classics , p. 98. He apparently also acquired 
it for his own library. (See Walter Harding, Thoreau ! s Library , p. 99.) 
With the help of this volume he prepared the article "Anacreon," which 
appeared in The Dial . Ill, no. 4 (April, 1843), pp. 484-490, beginning: 
"We lately met with an old volume from a London bookshop, containing the 
Greek Minor Poets, and it was a pleasure to read once more only the words, 
— Orpheus, — Linus, — Musaeus — those faint poetic sounds and echoes of a 
name, dying away on the ears of us modern men; and those hardly more sub- 
stantial sounds, Mimnermus — Ibycus — Alcaeus — Stesichorus — Menander. They 
lived not in vain. We can converse with these bodiless fames, without re- 
serve or personality." (The editors of The Correspondence incorrectly 
state on p. 85 that none of Thoreau' s translations from the Greek was in- 
cluded in the April number!) 

88.6 As for Etzler....] Thoreau gave much thought to a review of 
John Adolphus Etzler" s The Paradise within the Reach of all Men , without 
Labor , by Powers of Nature and Machinery. An Address to all Intelligent 
Men . In two parts. Part I (2nd English ed.), London, 1842. It was first 
published as "Paradise (To Be) Regained," The United States Magazine and 
Democratic Review . XIII, no. 65 (Nov., 1843). pp. 451-465. See Thoreau 'a 
Writings (Walden ed.). IV, 280-305. An earlier edition of Etzler had 
been published in two volumes at Pittsburgh in 1833. 

88.10 The translation of the AEschylus I should like very well to con- 
tinue] He had been working on The Seven Against Thebes . His completed 
text has recently been published with an informative introduction. See 
Thoreau's Translation of "The Seven Against Thebes" (1843) . ed. Leo Max 
Kaiser, Hartford, 1960. 

89.10 Hammer Purgstall (von Hammer) may be one J Emerson, in his Jour - 
nals , three years later, indicates that he was reading and translating 
Persian poetry in Hammer-Purgstall ' s German collection, which about this 
period had entered his library. This resource for Emerson's poetry re- 
mains to be explored. See Joseph, freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, Ge - 
schichte der schonen Redekunste Persiens . mit einer Bluthenlese aus zwey - 
hundert persischen Dichtern . Wien, 1818. [Emerson's copy is now in the 
Houghton Library: *AC85 .Em345 ,Zy818h. ] In 1847, Emerson recommended to 
a Boston friend another of his Oriental favorites: Der Diwan von Moham - 
med Schemsed-din Hafis. Aus dem Persischen zum erstenmal ganz ubersetzt 
von Joseph von Hammer . Stuttgart und Tubingen. 1812. See Letters . Ill, 
429.) Writing Cabot in 1855 ( Letters . IV, 531), Emerson said: "The East- 
ern poetry I looked through, but find the Persian still the best by far, 
and shall stay by Von Hammer with all the more content." 

89.16 a book written by him — The Life of Savonarola — which he wishes 
to have republished here. See [John Abraham Heraud], The Life and Times 
of Girolamo Savonarola , illustrating the Progress of the Reformation in 
Italy , during the Fifteenth Century . London, 1843. The work was reviewed 
in The Dial . Ill, no . 4 (April. 1843). pp. 536-540. 

90.5 As they say in geology, time never fails, there is always enough 
of it] One contemporary authority who placed chief emphasis upon geologic 
time was Charles Lyell in his Principles of Geology . See, for example, 
the fourth edition of that work"! (4 vols.) London, 1835, index and I, 111- 
114, and III, 449ff. Thoreau mentions Lyell in the Journal , II, 364, and 
toys with the subject of Biblical and geologic time in A Week . See the 
Writings (Walden ed.), I, 346. Among the geological works bearing on this 



28 

subject one might list: 

Buckland, William: Geology and Mineralogy considered with refer - 
ence to Natural Theology . London, 1837. 

Lee, Charles Alfred: The Elements of Geology, for Popular Use , 
New York, 1840. 

Phillips, John: A Guide to Geology . London, 1834. 

Phillips, John: Treatise on Geology . (2 vols.) London, 1839. 

Rhind, William: The Age of the Earth Considered Geologically and 
Historically . Edinburgh, 1838. 

Smellie, William: The Philosophy of Natural History . With an 

Introduction and Various Additions and Alterations , intended 
to adapt it to the present state of knowledge by John Ware . 
(5th ed.) Boston, 1834; (stereotype ed.) Boston, 1841. 

90.28 He [Lane] has just given me a notice of George Bradford's Flne- 
lon for the Record of the Months] Was this George Partridge Bradford? I 
can find no trace of such a title or translation by him. See The Dial . 
IV, no. 1 (July, 1843), p. 133 fn.: "We are sorry to omit Notices which 
we had prepared of 'Thoughts on Spiritual Subjects, translated from Fene- 
lon 1 ... which were crowded out by the unexpected length of our printed ar- 
ticles." 

91.24 William B. Greene has sent me a volume of tales translated by 
his father.] This was probably William Batchelder Greene. See Nathaniel 
Green, Tales and Sketches. Translated from the Italian . French and Ger - 
man . Boston (Little & Brown) 1843. The prefatory note is dated "Boston, 
Jan. 1843." The contents are as follows: 

"The Artist's Excursion" "The Nightingale of Murom" [by 

"The Harp" [by Karl Theodor Korner] Wilhelm Muller] 

"Xeri, or a Day in Batavia" "II Sasso Rancio" 

"Love and Madness" "Countess Survilliers" 

"The Man and the Table" "Poor Margaret" 

"First Love" "The Madonna" 

94.12 the old orator prescribed, 1st, action; 2d, action; 3d, action] 
According to Plutarch's Lives of the Ten Orators . Demosthenes when asked 
for the three essentials of good oratory remarked: "Action! Action! Ac- 
tion!" For imitations, like Thoreau's, see Burton Stevenson, The Home 
Book of Quotations . (3rd ed.) New York, 1937, p. 7. See "Of Boldness" 
in Francis Bacon's Essays : "Question was asked of Demosthenes, what was 
the chief part of an orator? he answered, action : what next? action : 
what next again? action . He said it that knew it best, and had by na- 
ture himself no advantage in that he commended...." Cf. Emerson's Jour - 
nals and Notebooks . I, 276. 

98.16 Good-bye, and 6& 7TjO CK-TT6(l/ f which, a wise man says, is the on- 
ly salutation fit for the wise.] The Greek means literally: "Live well" 
or "Behave well." I have not discovered Thoreau's source or identified 
the "wise man." 

103.15 You have helped to keep my life "on loft," as Chaucer says of 
Griselda] See the Clerk's Tale, line 229: "And ay she kepte hir fadres 
lyf on-lofte." 

103.33 like the man who, when forbidden to tread on English ground, 
carried Scottish ground in his boots] Not identified. 



29 

104.11 "In the full tide of successful operation?"] Perhaps a para- 
phrase of Thomas Jefferson's sentence in the First Inaugural (March 4, 
1801): "In the full tide of successful experiment." Thoreau might have 
memorized Jefferson's address (or a part of it) during his years at the 
Academy to fulfil a declamation exercise. 

105.22 and Sunday before last. . .hundreds. . .stretching. . .to Sanday 
Hook J A deliberate pun for Sophia's enjoyment. 

110.25 his own treads fast upon the neck of his understanding] Cf. 
Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice . II.ii.14: "My conscience, hanging 
about the neck of my heart." (Thoreau seems to have mixed two metaphors.) 

110.28 He likes Carlyle's book] Possibly Carlyle's On Heroes . Hero - 
Worshlp . and the Heroic in History , the proof sheets of which Thoreau read 
in April, 1840 — possibly a loan by Emerson to whom he is writing. The book 
appeared in London in 1841. See The Transcendentalists and Minerva . II, 
368-370. The Editors of The Correspondence suggest Past and Present — 
another possibility. 

112.17 except as inflictions are sanctified to the righteous] A famil- 
iar New-England homiletical phrase based upon any one of a number of Bibli- 
cal passages; e.g. . Romans 8:28 — "And we know that all things work togeth- 
er for good to them that love God, to them who are called according to his 
purpose." The whole chapter is a commentary on this verse. 

113.30 I had rather see a brick for a specimen. . .as they exhibited in 
old times.] A possible allusion to Jonathan Swift, The Drapier's Letters . 
No. 2 (Aug. 4, 1724): "I have heard of a man who had a mind to sell his 
house, and therefore carried a piece of brick in his pocket, which he 
shewed as a pattern to encourage purchasers." 

115.3 receipt of two acceptable numbers of the "Pathfinder"] See The 

Pathfinder . New York, Feb. 25, 1843 — June 5, 1843: Numbers 1-15 all pub- 

lished. (Subscriptions were taken by Parke Godwin at 25 Pine Street.) 
I list the contents in part: 

No. 1 (Feb. 25) A review of the Life of Jean Paul Richter . tr. from 

the German, (2 vols.) Boston, 1842. (pp. 4-6). 
[Many copies of this first issue were distributed 
free. See p. 14.] 

No. 2 (Mar. 4) "The Lawyers and their Prospects" (pp. 17-19) 

[Emerson is quoted.] 
"Mr. Emerson's Lectures" (pp. 19-20) 

"The Birth-Mark" by Nathaniel Hawthorne (pp. 59-61) 
[This was reprinted from The Pioneer .] 

"A Text from Plato" (p. 65) 

A sympathetic review of The Critical and Miscella - 
neous Writings of Theodore Parker . Boston, 1843. 
(pp. 67-68) 

[Emerson is mentioned on page 103.] 



No. 


3 


(Mar. 


11) 


No. 


4 


(Mar. 


18) 


No. 


5 


(Mar. 


25) 



No. 6 (Apr. 


1) 


No. 7 (Apr. 


8) 


No. 8 (Apr. 


15) 


No. 9 (Apr. 


22) 



30 



No. 10 (Apr. 29) 

No. 11 (May 6) 

No. 12 (May 13) 

No. 13 (May 20) 

No. 14 (May 27) 

No. 15 (June 3) 



[Emerson is mentioned on p. 149. J 



"A Letter from Mr. Brownson" (p. 193) 

Enthusiastic review of Carlyle's Past and Present 
(pp. 196-198) 

"A Hermit" (p. 222) 

Review of The Works of William E. Planning . P.P . . 
vol. 6, Boston. 



THE PATHFINDER. 



No. 2. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, MARCH 4, 1843. 



PRICE 6J CENTS. 



THE POLITICAL PATHFINDER I 



Ko'eppertientqu'* !e liberie do conmlir. It *<rlteetdele 
dire. Qoifooquo eft e>ue, on per ce qu'il doit e tee 
neilree ou per ce qu'il - eit a too corpe, eet force en 
eileoca ; f'll edfewlue per I'eeprit dg pert! II a. dr- 
*ieBlqn« I'omenedc* erreure— Hitfeirc <fu Parlrmtnl — 
JhmtPrfi. 



THE EXPIRING CONGRESS 
The event of the week is— or rather will 
be, for it has not taken place at the pre- 
sent writing — the adjournment of Congress. 
An adjournment is at all times a heart- 
cheering event. It should he made the oc- 
casion of a general thanksgiving. The 
Church should insert a clause, praising 
God for it, into its liturgies. The people 
should, as old John Adams predicted of a 
certain great anniversary, hail its recur- 
rence with " illuminations, bonfires and re- 
joicings." 

Mr- Webster — that famous democrat — 
once upon a time when he heard of " a 
glorious whig triumph" in the state of New 
York, observed that he breathed freer and 
deeper , we have the same quickening of 
the respiratory organs, when we learn that 
Congress, or the state legislature, has ad- 
journed. Now, at least, we are accustomed 
to say, we shall be safe for some months. 
We shall not be cursed for sixty days, at 
any rate, with bad speeches and worse 
laws. Disastrous experiments in rhetoric, 
more disastrous experiments in legislation, 
we shall be spared. Providence, in its 
kindness, will not for the space of a whole 
summer, afflict us with either wanton 
violations of the King's English, or the 
people's rights. The sworn foes to logic 
and good sense have separated. The vast 
congregation of unsettled spirits, so potent 
to do evil, so powerless to do good, has 
been dispersed- Rejoice, we say, to the 
nation, once again rejoice ! 

The present Congress has had the mis- 
fortune to resemble the most of its prede- 
cessors. A family likeness runs through 
all political bodies. The confession of the 
sinner, is applicable to it, as to all, " we 
nave done the things we ought not to have 
done, and left undone the things we ought 
to have done." It would be difficult to 



THE LAWYERS AND THEIR PROS- 
PECTS. 
Mr. Emerson, in one of his recent lec- 
tures in this city, quoted an old Indian pro- 
verb, to this eflect : That whatever we do 
ourselves gives us pleasure, — whatever we 
do by another gives us pain. We were in- 
clined to think that this saying had nothing 
to recommend it but its age and its foreign 
birth, until we attempted to test its efficacy 
in explaining the universal and everlasting 
unpopularity of lawyers. The literature of 
all ages has carefully treasured up every 
thing which could minister to their profes- 
sional odium, and whenever the poet, the 
novelist, or the dramatist wishes a particu- 
Urlj •wenffetal viiUsa, tw ujtifermly 

makes a lawyer sit for the picture It must 
be because we hate those by whom we have 
been served, or rather, according to the 
proverb, that whatever we are compelled to 
do by another gives us pain, the agent is as- 
sociated in our mind with the cause of our 
pain, that lawyers are looked upon with 
su<h general disfavor Other crafts receive 
sympathy in their misfortunes. Lawyers 
as men sometimes — as lawyers never Al- 
most every form of appeal which the com- 
pound ingenuity of necessity and merit 
could devise have been employed to awa- 
ken the sympathy of the public for those 
who have suffered by the financial calami- 
ne of our city for the last few years. Rarely 
have these appeals been made in vain except 
by the lawyers, lieyond their own ranks, 
we have scarcely heard a friendly murmur 
or supplication in their behalf. What we 
bav e to say now, how ever, rather concerns 
the present and future condition of the legal 
profession in this country, which is to a cer- 
tain extent new in the world, than those 
general characteristics which are old. 

Besides the calamities which the lawyers 
have suffered, in common with their fellow 
citizens, from the destruction of public con- 
fidence, and the interruption of general bu- 



siness, the strong arm of legislation has 
Iteen repeatedly uplifted against their order 
as if it were determined to make them a vi- 
carious sacrifice for the political sins of the 
whole nation. These, and other causes 
which will presently appear, have resulted 
in the prostration of the legal profession in 
this city, to an extent we believe unknown 
before in our history. It appears by the 
register of lawyers recently published, that 
we have over one thousand of that profes- 
sion in this city, keeping offices, and of 
course incurring the expenses incident 
thereto. Of these thousand, we speak ad- 
visedly when we say, that not over two 
hundred are receiving from the professional 
business enough to cover their expenses. 
Of the remaining six hundred, a limited 
portion rely upon resources independent of 
their professional income. The remainder 
do as others do who are unable to make 
both ends meet — they coax them as nearly 
together as possible. But all are equally 
victims to one of the misfortunes incident 
to an unsuccessful practice. They are 
compelled to waste much of the most valu- 
able time and energy of their lives in wait* 
ing for the world to discover the value of 
their services. That they may be always 
ready for whatever business fortune has in 
store for thein they dare not involve them- 
selves in any collateral pursuits, but must 
live on, idly hoping from day to day that 
their turn is at hand. They delude them* 
selves with fond anticipations of distinc- 
tions, such as those which tardily reward- 
ed the patient faith of Hale, of Eldon, and 
the few other illustrious chiefs of the Eng- 
lish bar, who were rescued from that great 
serbonian bog of exaggerated hopes where 
armies whole have sunk. Time wears 
away, and with it the courage and enthusi- 
asm which can only exist in the atmosphere 
of successful effort. Of the thousand who 
enter the list not ten will achieve any such 
result as would have induced them at the 
outset to have exposed themselves to the 
agonizing suspense, the heart-sickness of 
hope deferred, which they all will have to 
endure. 



[Pages 19-20:] 



31 



MR. EMERSON'S LECTURES. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson concluded his 
course of lectures, in this city, on the 22d 
U«. I,i the last two lectures he discoursed 
*>» the moral movement which has of late 
been going forth in the regions about Boston, 
and which in all its diversified forms lias 
bcconi'i pretty commonly lumped under the 
distinctive name of Transcendentalism. He 

hit oil', with much humor, the narrowness 
and si'llisluii'ss iif iiinsi ot' ilir propels .if 
social reform whieh huvt been started in 
lllai quarter, vhi!' 1 le- at ihi- same linn 1 
a-lmitti 'I tin' corruptions :ihl falsities l!n\ 
iivs.iiled lie sympathized willi the */,i"W 
»>!' protest wliieli was a! mail, whilst he 
eiiuld no! hilt |»'in ivc that il often reMllteil 
in forms as limitary and debasing a- any 
which il wuiilil (iverlhri)w. .\l»j»ifitnr "II 
proposed organizations ami ins|ituii<>ns ol 
ii funii assujierueial and hurtful, he respon- 
ded In I he prevalent si.iiil of (> form, as a 
sure augury of something m>oii ti> iiilervene, 
higher and better than our current projects 
uf relief at all ei>litelii|i!ale. lie looked 
, for a higher development uf humanity il- 
s'-lt* — a development whieh should super- 
cede llie mechanical appliances which now 
ciiiran'c speculation, ami ol ilseb compel 
the bi'st ministry of ulii'diciil nature. In 
ibis fact he had faith — a faith which quite 
reconciled him to all the failure* of a lidi;- 
etty philanthropy in its plans of outward 
melioration, or rather its plans of inward 
' melioration by outward means. 

Mr. Emerson does not argue. He makes 
a tacit appeal to certain intuitive truths of 
consciousness, as he apprehends them, and 
on these bases his hopes and prophecies. — 
He does not appeal lo the logical faculty 
of his auditors at all — any more than if 
such faculty had been unanimously voted a 
disgrace to the race — but regards them as 
so many pun- mirrors capable of reflecting 
truth on the instant it is presented to them 
This characteristic distinguishes his lec- 
tures very widely from all others ; and 
while it secure to them a much more ethe- 
rial aspect than a mere philosophical in- 
quiry wears, it renders his statements pro- 
portionally difficult either of intelligent 
assent, or of intelligent confutation. In this 
peculiarity we find both Mr. Emerson's 
[Hiwer and his weakness ; his power lo de- 
light his auditor, his weakness to instruct 
or convince him. Speaking for himself 
only, and from himself, he is free u> pain! 
whatever his most poetic vision finds to 
paint, aud he always does it in such a man- 
ner as to compel the exclamation — " this, 
too, is an Artist !" But on the other hand, 
speaking only for himself, and from him- 
self, no one is willing to say — " these pic- 
tures shall stand also for my vision of the 
facts of the universe" Every one who 
hears Mr. E. admires him : every one con- 
fesses his insight into specialities, the man- 
ifold delicate and subtle graces of his 
thought, the responsive subtleties of his 
diction which make it a surprisingly per- 
fect organ to the most evanescent hues of 
spiritual meaning ; every one admires his 



pictured words, his robust contempt of con- 
ventionalities, his gonial humor, bis quick 
sympathy with all that is expressive in 
character. But few, we apprehend, go 
away from him with an enlarged admira- 
tion of truth. Very few, we apprehend, 
have any idea that they see the fair face of 
truth — of law — one whit more clearly after 
the lecture than before it commenced. It 
cannot be otherwise. Mr. Emerson does 
not put himself en rapport with his hearer's 
understanding at all. He is indeed careful 
to avoid every symbol which the ordinnn 
understanding of man recognises asoxpros- 
sive of moral truth— every term of relation 
which common men find necessary to in- 
terpret the facts of life to their intelligence, 
and consequently he is never truly under- 
n'ood but in spite of himself. He never 
speaks to another. He only gets to the 
length of speaking from himself. He does 
not address an audience: he soliloquises. 
From the beautiful depths of his own spirit 
he warbles forth whatever melodies lie gar- 
nered up there ; but he is a rare auditor 
who ever finds himself joining in the song, 
or mistaking the melodies for his own — 

They issue from Mr. Emerson's own pn- 
\ ate bosom exclusively, and after delicious- 
\\ bewitching the listening ear for a mo- 
inent.ru>!) back toil in undiminished vo- 
lume .No man, in theory, so zealously 
procbiiiiiN i he iileiitin of man as Mr. Emer- 
•"ii no man, in practice, so thoroughly 
liiM'laims it. No man is so intensely iudi- 
i iiiual — so intensely incommunicable and 
private. 

The drift ol' Mr. Emerson's last lecture 
wa> to proclaim the present spiritual aspi- 
ratioti of oiii' land — attested unfitly by the 
Meeting and \icioiis projects of social reform 
v. Inch abound — a> the forerunner of a high- 
er dcu-lopmciit of humanity than had yet 
I" i u witnessed on earth. The develop- 
ment ascribed to the C'lir i- 1 he did not con- 
siiler i he highe.-l : for a reason which not a 
little I'xeiti il our amazement when we 
heard it announced. He did not think the 
Christian the highest development of hu- 
manity, because — il was di/iuted! He did 
not iliiuk Jesus had any claim, in other 
words, lobe regarded as a special divine 
manifestation, because he was put to death 
— because brute sense did not succumb to 
the oxcrpowering virtue of divinity which 
beamed in his eye. One will hardly allow 
Mr. Emerson to speak as underslandingly 
here as the profound Christianity of his 
heart would have entitled us to expect.— 
The simple delight of Jesus, humble man! 
was to love his brethren as he loved him- 
self. And finding himself in a position 
which forbade him to satisfy their wishes 
by accepting llie regal function at their 
hands, without at the same time hardening 
the fierce pride and selfishness of their 
hearts, he magnanimously refused the prof- 
fered honor, and allowed himself to he un- 
complainingly hunted down to death, that 
thus he might exhibit to them a higher dig- 
nity than that of nny earthly king-ship— 
the dignity of self-sacrificing and still trium- 
phant love. Now, it strikes us as a very 



pun\ objection to this development of hu- 
manity, to say that it was defeated! Why, 
what Mr. Emerson calls its defeat was the 
very essence of its success ! Its only defect 
would have been the success which he 
would have given it ! Had these brutal 
Jews acknowledged the potency of Christ*! 
eye — then the highest development of hu- 
man character would have lain, not in the 
sublime freedom of ^//-denial, not in 
the divine power of love — but in brute 
force, in the power to overpo w e r t o en- 
force obedience, and not to win it. And 
the success of such a character would have 
lain, not in its eternal and spiritual supre- 
macy over every other character, but, in th* 
possession of some miserable Jewish kng- 
dom, where the king should stand al<MHL 
without sympathy or fellowship in one <f 
his people. The famous Mr. Miller isjnr 
sisting upon just such a second thought fc 
Jesus, as this which Mr. E. desiderate** 
a first one 

But Mr. Emerson will say, perhaps, that 
it is not congruous with our idea of the 
Highest, that he should be rejected by a 
lower. It depends entirely upon how oar 
idea of the Highest is constituted. Qnr 
own individual idea of the Highest is, that 
he exhibits himself the highest, by so muc|l 
as he furnishes subjectivity to his creatures, 
in himself becoming nhiective to them—*- 
Unh'ss we dismiss the words high and low 
from our vocabulary entirely, we must say 
that < iod is known as the highest, only at 
he furnishes the universal objective to ere- 
ry subjective — the necessary being of evt^ 
conscious phenomenon. And if we trans- 
fer our gaze from the intellectual sphere tp 
the moral, and seek the highest as rfcaras 
ler, we shall find the same trait there attest- 
ing him : we shall find him not absorbing, 
not overpowering the creature, but bring- 
ing him into larger relief rather py.U$ gf» 
hwtary subjection of himself to the crea- 
ture, by falling away before him, and al- 
lowing him the unlimited sweep of his own 
characteristic will. We shall, in a word, 
•** him displayed as a Love, since it is 
h*f alone in the moral sphere which tole- 
rates any self but its own ; which, in fact, 
explains the existence of a free creature at 
•11. The highest is not defeated in deferr- 
ing to a lower — thus only is he manifestly 
Highest. When the High condescends to 
the low, the strong to the weak, the wise to 
the ignorant, the loving to the base — he is 
exalted, not degraded. 

The golden age to which Mr. Emerson 
aspires, is an age when man shall be sans 
eyes, sans ears, sans every organ of exter- 
nal intelligence, and shall be wholly compact 
of inward sensibility : when he s hall have 
forgotten his present complexities of me 
and thee, mine and thine, Mack and white, 
cold and hot, good and bad, and shall 
wholly be and not know ; when, in short, 
he shall no longer be man at all, but only 
*e. An age of sad perplexity we fear 
when it comes — but, at all events, not to 
be contemplated just now with any tole- 
rance. "Let us not be danglers upon Cod, 
but vessels of Cod ." Assuredly; but ves- 



wis rejoicing in what we contain, vessels 
sensibly dignified by such a freight ; or at 
the very least, capable of knowing when we 
are full and when empty. The devil is a 
greatly higher creation than a tulip, for he 
at least chooses to be himself, takes plea- 
sure in his existence : but the tulip only is 
without any choice or pleasure whatever. 
These, of course, are after-thoughts. ( )r- 
dinarily, Mr. Emerson's listener feels no 
desire unsatisfied in the profound pot-try 
tad the spirit-born music, which seem now, 
for the first time, to have found authentic 
and adequate speech. 



[Page 103: J 

It is but fair to remind the reader that 
Mordaunt acts under an error. He fancies, 
he says, that he has been administering 
justice, and he finds that it is revenge. — 
The shades of pride and disappointment are 
nicely discriminated, and the tragedy ends 
in a late repentance. 

Of the sentiment and language of the 
play we propose to give the reader a few 
specimens. Mr. Emerson, the other day, 
in one of his lectures remarked with regret, 
how soon life in this country reached its 
goal; how soon hope, effort, and all the 
living faculties of a man were extinguished. 
The youth ceased to aspire from the time 
he engaged in a particular business, the 
crowning event of his life was his moving 
t<» a new town, his joining an Association, 
(letting into a Temperance Society, or get- 
ting out of one, and that in one event wo- 
men mostly seemed to resign all individu- 
alism and progress — when they got mar- 
ried. Our author has struck upon the 
same idea, and eloquently painted the onk 
a«t of woman. Mabel thus speaks : 

Ha whom my will shall for us King elect 
Must bring me something more than that I havo; 
Women who marry, seldom act hut once ; 
Their lot is, ere they wed, obedience 
Unto a Father ; thenceforth to h Husband; 
But in the one election which they make, — 
Choice of a mate for life and death, and Heaven, — 
They may be said to act. The man they wed 
I* as the living record of their deed. If ho be base 
It veils their deed with ahame, if he bo great 
Kicircles it with glory ; and if good 
Haloes it with religion. Wouldst thou know 
Whom I would have to be my husband, Sire f 
In brief terms 1 will sketch him. He shall he 
High born, handsome, I'd rather— but at least 
With features lit up by the sacred light 
Which makes the elect band of noble men ! 
Whose history is the world's, arid whose high 



These are the elements of Poetry. 

Is that Man fit to be a Statesman, think you, 

Whose hedrt is strange to them 1 

Til our Time's curse 

That under worship of the selfish Idol 

We designate the Practical, it scoria 

At the sweet loie taught in the fuel's page, 

And deems ihe pictures of heroic men, 

1 le- generous, the highdiearted, mid the pure. 

The idle coinage of h dreamy brain ; 

And jet what art ao practical as that 

Which allowing what men -hould he, nourishing 

Keeling* of goodrwss, beauty, bravery, 

Ity portri.iture of those possessing iliem. 

Describes Ihe mental model ol a world 

Alter which it were well i hat ours weie fa-dnuncd 



32 

Here is a passage I lull is ;i \ indication ol 
the modern manners and costume of tin 
pla> 

I UK K'lMASl t Of M, Dills 1.1ft. 

.M"iu>AtM. I ha%,- known heroines in this mud- 
em tune, — 
Think you some patient wife, who meekly hears, 
lly her health's solitude, ihe cold neglect 
Ui him, who swore tu foster her; fulfils 
Duty's behests, with uncomplaining toil ; 
Restrains ihe sigh, her hitler fate would piompt ; 
Loving, though unbeloved, ho bearing slight, 
.Sin. old i.-u.h hvr slighter, kindue.i.— Is she net 
A heroine I 

Mauki. In tiiith I think she is ! 
.Mob. Ay, there are homesteads, whii li have wit 

nessed deeds 
Thai battle fields, Willi all then bannered pomp. 
Have little to compare with. Life's great play 
M.iy, so it have an Actor gieut enough, 
He well performed upon a humble state. 
• • • * * 

1 UrJ'omis 

Of the heroic chunge from age to age, 
The sjiirit in the forms remains the same. 

This is ihe moment of Mordaunt's re- 
venge. 

I have not sought for vengeance in this act. 

My life, my energies, my tnlemsall 

l):d I task for the deed! Surh apparatus 

Was meant lor nobler uses, than belong 

To a mere private feud — hut I have fought 

A battle for high principles, and taught 

L'onnention, when it dares to treud down Man, 

Man shall abise in tubn, and tiuad it now n ! 

As for this lady ! — she has never loved me, 

Norlmve 1 lately sought to win her love : 

I would not wreak on her audi wretchedness, 

As she cuused me for pastime ! I have dune, 

My mission is fulfilled. ( Moves towards thr dvor ) 

I'ltHroN i . {halt drtiwiiw Ilia «kw</\ — 



[Page 149:] 



By Rufus 
J. C. Ri- 



Reatling* in American Poetry. 

W. Griswold. New York 

ker, Ann street. 1K4.3. 

To all, save a few literary virtuoso*s, 
this small volume will be quite as accepta- 
ble as the larger volume previously prepa- 
red by the. same editor. It does not con- 
tain as many verses, it is true, but wc think 
it contains almost as much poetry. Wc 
have, in a neat and small compass, many 
of the best productions of our best writcts, 
selected with great taste and skilfully ar- 
ranged. Mr. Griswold certainly deserves 
the thanks of the reading public for the 
publication of this cheap and beautiful col- 
lection of poems. On the whole, it is 
among the most desirable presentations of 
our literature in that department that has 
yet htcn made. 

" Comparisons," as Mrs. Malaprop says, 
" are oderous," and we shall not therefore 
enter upon so unsavory a task as to com- 
pare the merits of our more eminent bards. 
A few words of general and desultory re- 
marks however, cannot here be out of 
place. As a mere artist, we arc disposed 
to place Mr- Bryant at the head of our po- 
etical writers. In the nice choice and ar- 
rangement of words, in accuracy of de- 
scription, in elegance of style, and general 

perfection, his poems Maud ill this tlil\ 
without rivals Mr Willis i.s the only one 
of our American u riter* » h" approach, shim 



111 !;r.ii'-.Tulllf>s ami ease; i.m Mr. Willis's 
productions are mi:i.i liine.s ili.Mi^iUcil I \ ,1.1 
nl Ice led |ii< Hi. (•>•. \\ I in- 1 1 he is now mature 
enough («> throw oil'. Dana, in ■'• ■■••, 
knowledge of ihe workings of ihe human 
heart, power lo move the emotions, ami ro- 
bust strength <d thought, is superior tu 
lirvunt, ami is tap.ible, vtc should think 
horn present indications, of willing a much 
grainier limy poem. He would make utir 
giealest dramatist, if he wire disposed lo 
cultivate bis dramatic faculty. Wliai lit- 
is about, we know not, bill surely such 
loity endowments as his, were not given lo 
be wasted in idleness. 

Kit/. Greene Halleck, is th ( < most popu- 
lar of our poets, and lo some extent de- 
serves his popularity ; but the peculiar vein 
of mingled pathos and humor which early 
won him his rank, seems to have been 
worked out, and we expect nothing further 
from that source. Dr. Holmes, of Huston, 
iRjssosses a much richer soil for <|uainl and 
quiet humor. 

J. G. Whitlier is the democratic poet of 
this country. He is lull of spirit and lire. 
A deep sympathy with man, bis aspirations 
and struggles, pervade every line that he 
writes. His versification is not always 
good, but the thought is bold and striking, 
and the sentiment noble and generous. — 
The ballad recently contributed lo the De- 
mocratic Review, is worthy of the pen 
of either Lockharl or Macaulay. 

As a writer of sonnets, Jones Very, of 
Boston, surpasses any of the writers on ibis 
side of the Atlantic, and in sweetness ami 
beauty has no one that excels him in Eng- 
land. His essays, it might be mentioned 
at the same time, are anions the finest spe- 
cimens of prose composition that we have 
recently read. 

Henry Longfellow is the leader of our 
romantic school. He began by the imita- 
tion of Mr. Bryant, ami subsequently fell 
into certain peculiarities of the Germans; 
but recently he has dropped all ellbrts at 
mere imitation, and relying upon his own 
powers, which arc fertile and various, is pro- 
ducing some of the most lender and stirring 
lyrics of the day. His translations are al- 
ways good : his ballads superior ; but his 
most enduring fame will rest upon the 
Psalms of Life. How profoundly touch- 
ing is the " Excelsior" ! 

Mr. Griswold has selected one piece from 
the writings of Ralph Waldo lOtnerson. — 
He should have selected more, for Mr. 
Emerson is more essentially a poet than 
any other person within our reach. In 
proof of this, read the following which we 
take from an old number of the Dial. Is 
there any thing better in the "old Mas- 
ters" ? 

THE PROBLEM. 

I like a church, I like a cowl, 

1 love a prop! i el of the soul. 

And on my heait monastic aisles 

Fall like sweet strains or pensive smiles, 

Yet not for alt his luih can see 

Would I that cowled churchman be. 

Why should the vest on him allure, 
Which I could not on mo endure > 

Not from a vain or shallow thought 
His awful Jove young 1'hidias brought ; 



33 



Never from linsol cunning lull 

The thrilling Delphic oracle , 

Out from the heart of nature rolled 

The burdens of the Bible old , 

The litanies of nations came, 

Like the volcano's tongue of fl.ime, 

Up from the burning core below, — 

The canticle* of love and wo. 

The hand that rounded Peler'e done, 

And groined the aisles of Christian Rome, 

Wrought in a sad aincerity. 

Himself from God he could not free ; 

He buildod better than he knew. 

The conscious stone to beauty gruw 



Kll i ,' ' ti|i<l| V 1. ll U ,'. r . , |i If. .,,.', 

Hi I. .... -, .... ! |.'.,:l..i- li i.i I m '... 
i h lion tin" fi -i .iiii-u,:: li, i m :', 

I' .,;i!.r^ V. III II • • r 1 1 . '...■'! il'.lill ll .'. 

i it !i'..v I uf * c if .! [iii.u 'I.. ..:. * 
l'i !,, r,.,.| I. -.v •- i . .-. i:,_\.ii I- • 

s k ii jii : - .. ; ;i. » li,, -.• ; ■ :>■ \<-.\, 

IVh.Nl l-.v.- ;■: ,1 t.rrnr 1 ml ti.c lil.< 
K-r'.li , idli wi.i ■. i he I'.iitli ii. n 

• • o 



Read (hill lllinl paragraph again ! 

Among inn' female poets, tin- authoress 
of" Miriam," a drama, is cnlitlril In the 
first place. Mrs. Sigourney Ikis written 
too much ami lot) carelessly. .Mrs Smith 
possesses greal delicacy "I sentiment, luil 
is too little of tin' artist. lint our female 
writers deserve a separate anil elaborate ar- 
ticle, and we therefore postpone the -ob- 
ject to another time 



THE PATHFINDER. 



No. 13. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, MAY 20, IS43. 



PRICK 0! i KSTi 



THE POLITICAL PATHFINDER. 

II n'jppartientqu'a la librrtr tlccounuitrt- la vrrit. Wilt' la 
dire. Quironque est K< m . oil par cv ijU'il <loit ■• rps 
m lit res on par ee tju'il • oit .1 son corps, e«t foro au 
nilt-nct* ; s'il est fdscin' par lYsprit •!<• parti, il nc <lr- 
viei.tqiie l'organe des trreun.— Histuii t rfu Parttment— 
•Irani Pi o]>os. 



A LETTER FROM MR BROWXSON* 
Boston, May P, |S.|:J. 

Deak Sir — I should like the numbers of 
the Pathfinder from the beginning. I like 
the spirit and general character of your pa- 
per very much. It is free, frank, independ- 
ent, manly, and does you great credit. To 
some of your doctrines, however, 1 do not 
quite assent. Nevertheless, 1 wish you all 
prosperity, and should he glad to help you 
onward, in any way in my power. 

But, my dear sir, since you have become 
a confirmed Fourierist,-f I wish to have a 
little talk with you, especially since in no- 
ticing from time to time my own position, 
you do not seem to ine to Ik- quite just to 
me. I make no complaint ; but 1 do not 
wish to be misapprehended by one for 
whom I have the unfeigned respect that 1 
have for the editor of the Pathfinder. 

You seem perpetually charging me with 
narrow and one-sided views. In this I 
think you are wrong ; and a little more in- 
timate acquaintance with me would con- 
vince you of the fact. I am satisfied that 
this is the case ; because I do not find that 
in criticising me, you suggest any views 
which 1 had not previously taken, and rare- 
ly any which 1 have not myself expressed. 
Before we accuse any one of coming short 
of the truth, we ought to be sure that we do 
not come short of his actual views in our 
understanding of them. 1 refer now to 
your remarks on my article on Universal 
History. The view which you say I do 
not take, lay in my mind when writing the 
article, and I had supposed was so distinct- 
ly implied in the whole design and scope of 
the article, and so expressly stated in sev- 
eral passages that no one could mistake it ; 
and 1 am not a little surprised to find you 
overlooking it. The fact of antagonism in 
the actual condition of mankind, 1 begin by 
assuming. 1 suppose it so obvious to eve- 
ry body that there is no need of expressly 
recognizing it. I attempt to show that it 



has no foundation in the original of things, 
and therefore that when the creation is in 
its normal state, there is no antagonism. — 
Now, why did 1 speak of a normal state, if 
1 did not recognize an unormal state ? 1 
attempt also to refute the Optimism of Cou- 
sin, and to show that the whole past move- 
ment of Humanity has not been in accord- 
ance with the law of order, that there have 
been crimen in the history of the race. Now 
how reconcile this with the statement of a 
ground for union, peace, harmony in the 
Original of all things, save on the hypothe- 
sis of a disorderly and profane movement of 
individuals and the race. 

The evil there is in individuals and so- 
ciety, does not spring from an Original Du- 
ality, but from a secondary duality. It 
consists in our loss of unity, and attempting 
to live in duality, that is to say, in multi- 
plicity alone. Its remedy is in attaining to 
unity, which shall convert the duality into 
a Trinity, that is, in attaining to unity in 
multiplicity, and multiplicity in unity, 
which gives us at once unity and univer- 
sality. This is my doctrine, and I do not 
see that you suggest any thing that goes 
beyond it. If you will turn to my essay 
on the Community System, in the Februa- 
ry number of the Democratic Review, I 
think you will perceive thai it must have 
been written with this thought. 

In remarking on my essay on Democra- 
cy and Liberty, you say I do not seem to 
have gone to the root of the matter. What 
matter: Have I not gone to the root of 
the matter I was discussing- You ought 
to criticise an article in reference to the de- 
sign of the writer in writing it. I should 
hardly suppose that after the much I have 
written that it could he necessary for me 
to say that I do not regard the state a> the 
great and only agent of working out Un- 
social condition I am seeking. 1 require, 
in my theory, four terms : the Church, the 
Slate, the Community or Phalanx, and the 
Family. I see no way of working out the 
reforms we need without the active pres- 
ence of all four. My one-sidedness con- 
sists solely, I apprehend, in my unwilling- 
ness to sacrifice any one of them. You 
will pardon me, if I say that you and my 
friends the Fourierists, seem disposed to 



sacrifice all but the third ;J and it is you, in- 
stead of ine, who are one-sided, narrow and 
partial. 

In organizing the state, I adopt the 
views of Mr. Calhoun. The state is essen- 
tial, and so far as that is concerned, I de- 
mand and seek for guaranties But 1 do 
not believe when 1 have got the State, a la 
Calhoun, that I have got all ; nor does Mr. 
Calhoun himself; but 1 hold it a capital de- 
fect in him, not as a statesman, but as a 
complete man, that he contemplates very 
little action for the melioration of mankind, 
save through the State. But 1 can labor 
for the state, without ceasing to be a church 
man, or without overlooking other modes 
and forms of organization. I think you arc- 
in danger of underrating the state and po- 
litical action. 

To pass from politics to religion. I be- 
lieve I comprehend your view of the church. 
I read very attentively the London Pha- 
lanx, which I regard as a very able publi- 
cation. But I do not agree with you. — 
The Fourier Catholicism is based on pan- 
theism, unless I have entirely misappre- 
hended it.§ The church in which 1 believe 
does not grow out of human nature, is not 
founded by Providence by his action in and 
through human nature, but by the gracious 
exira-mundane intervention of Providence 
for man. If I understand Fourierism, it 
recognizes Providence only in the fixed, the 
permanent, and the necessary, in universal 
and necessary principles, which is to deny 
Providence, and to fall into pantheism. 

Moreover, according to your view, Un- 
church has really failed, and there has been 
no Church of Cod since the first forty years 
of our era. || This, as a Christian, I cannot 
admit. Christ promised to be with the 
church always unto the end of the world. 
To say that he has failed in this promise is 
tantamount to rejecting him altogether. — 
To say that the church, since the. destruc- 
tion of the Jewish Church, has been cor- 
rupt or deficient, is to deny the whole su- 
pernatural character of the gospel dispen- 
sation. Now, as I believe in its supernat- 
ural character, as I believe in Jesus as the 
Sou of God, as Got! with us, and that he 
founded the church as the ground anil pil- 
lar of the truth, I cannot believe il lias 



failed, nor sullcr myself to talk of il as in- 
adequate to our wants I cannot set ill judg- 
ment un it, for it is my judge, ami I am 
IkhidiI t<> obey it I am sure this is not 
r-'ourierisni. 

Vou an- wrong in classing me with the 
l'useyitcs. Till within the last three weeks 



34 

upon the tvor.lofCod but upon his in-lit i.l- ~T^„ C Bll , cerUlll tllil lhil .„,,„»,,, „.|. 

ual mler|iretaUon ol thai word ,.,| | ( „. j.ulilicatiini. but .1- Mr. Brmtiison c.hh-.im - 

V'uli will forgive mr for troublim; too Out «»■ have not fully lepiescntul lu» »ih»h, m- 

with this Ion- Idler I hnte wished to P'efer llul he should ►talc Ins own pe-it 1. 1 

, ,7 , himself. Let us sav, however, that luvm • 1. .1 1 

ilrnw vm.r attention es|>eeially (oce-i.un hw %tiftM |lllWieil ,- |0nili we . , iave „„,,„..,, ,1 ,„ 

points which 1 deem important prem nt linn lo our nailers with as much l.-nne 1 

() A l> .mil piecisinn as our hunted command nl l.ii'i'ii.n; 1 
would permit, it i*» singular tact 111 the In '■■•* 



I had In \ er t. ail u -11 
Oxford Ditutes I .11 

fol the Times, hut ill 



'tie 



.id; 



I.I 



ll 



ol.i 



1. 1.. 



.ll 

111. I . 

fill I di*b...- lii 

oxccetlii^ly I d ' usrroe it ilh 'I 

authors linn tin' Aiiglicun I'hurch 1- I '.ill 
lie, m a branch of the I'atholie 1 lm, 
nor that ihochuri h m einnmuiiioii « ill. 

Sit of Koine is lu-i.lnid and sehis In 

The I'n^lish Church is |irolesiuul - 
schisinulic ll is insular, and it> 1 lain « 
C11 tholicity are 1 idiculous 

Von sat ihal I have r.-produ. . .1 th< 
Catholic doctrines of apostolic »u«f.- — ii-u. 
fcc I am inclined lo think that toil hate 
not attended sufficiently to the !>.'• trine oi 
Life, and of the solidarity of the race, lo.l.. 
me full justice on these points I In 
chtircli has always contemleil loi tin true 
faith, and eslabhslied the most u|i|ilopii;ite 
discipline for the time ; hut ii h.is not al- 
ways given us through its doctors ill. true 
philosophy oi the faith, or of the discipii 
.Now, in adopting its faith and diseipline 
not adopt its philosophy I have applied 
to its interpretation a new philosophy, and 
therefore, when I alii I'm its doctrines, il is 
with a significance ils doctors have not al- 
ways given them I do not hold lliat the 
life can he transmitted only hy the laying 
on of the hands of the Bishop. Apostolic 
succession docs not, then-lore, with me 
necessarily imply episcopal succession — 
The distinction is important, and leads to 
grand results. The spiritual coinniunica- 
bility and transmissihility of life, lluoiigh 
communion of man with man, and ol gene- 
ration with generation, as developed in my 
letter to Dr. Chauning, plats ;i very import- 
ant part in my theory of the church, and 
brings all within its pale who have in space 
and time had communion with those who 
originally communed with Christ In de- 
veloping my doctrines, if you wish to dome 
justice, you must not leave out of view 
litis doctrine, which you will find implied, 
but nowhere slated in any of the writings 
of tin- church. Hy means of this doctrine 
1 am able to escape what has been regard- 
ed as objectionable in the teachings or dog- 
mas of the church, even while admitting 
the authority ol" the church. II 

Hut in speaking of the church, we must 
beware how we condemn it, because il lias 
not as yet accomplished its whole work. 
It has not yet done ils work, hut it is doing 
it as last as possible, and w ben il shall no 
longer have to struggle for its very exist- 
ence, as it has had to do since the rise ol 
protestantism, in consequence ol the su- 
premacy which protestantism secured l>> 
the temporal potter, il tt ill rcassuiuc, w ilh 
fresh vigor, its work of soeial amelioration 
Instead, then, of looking for a church to 
come, I accept the church that is, and la- 
bor to eirect the well being of the race 
through its agency. My great objection In 
I'ourier is his rejection of the church, and 
his sustaining a new church, founded not 



2T2 



THE PATHFINDER. 



has now remained several days. The life of Mr 
Biunel is, consequently, seriously endangered — 
He is the son of Mr. J. Brunei, the engineer who 
earned to a successful termination Ihe famous 
Thames Tunnel. 

A fire-work manufactory has exploded in Lon- 
don, killing une nun and wounding two others. 

Thomas Carlyle, tho justly celebrated, author as 
far as thought .is concerned — but who contrives, as 



NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



Aw Industrial Mission to China.— We hear 
lhat the American Institute has appointed John R. 
Peters, jr., as its agent to proceed lo China, under 
the auspices of the American embassy, which 
shortly goes out. To give him facilities for pene- 
trating into the country, for acquiring a knowledge 
of ils arts, and for communicating to thern our own, 
much as possible, lo obscure his thoughts by his : he will be attached In that embassy. Mr. Peters 
involved and un-English style — has just pub'ished 1 has been educated as a civil engineer, and being 
a remarkable work, entitled " Past and Present," I f.imiliar with mechanical operations both practi- 
and which may be perused with profit, both in the ' cally and scientifically, is well qualified for ob-ierv- 
United States as well as England, though it more 1 ing and comprehending whatever in the useful arts 
especially bears upon the social condition of 1 is worth transplant intjtroin Cliinaintoour country, 
this country, particularly as regards the corn- The Institute desorves to be commended for having 



laws. Carlyle thinks those laws must be got rid 
of before an infinite number of reforms, all more 
or less wanted, can be commenced. If removed, 
England, he says, will then have an opportunity of 
regaining a healthy state, by resorting to an en- 



determined upon this agency. 



Disaster and Suffering. — Capt. Blanchard ol 
brig Turner, of Portland, reported as having been 
lost, on her passage to Madeira, arrived in Boston 
larged system of colonization. Should she neglect I on Sunday, in brig Caroline, from Gibraltar. On 
todo so, he predicts that ruin will be Ihe conse- ,, '«' '"'h ofFebruary, 111 lat. ;i I 45, Ion. 30, dunng 
quence. The author indulges in some hard-hilling I a heavy gale, a sea broke over the stern and washed 
at the gei era 1 characteristics and predilections of | overboard Ihe man at Ihe wheel, which caused the 
the age — the intensity of mammon-worship, the I vessel to broach too, and threw her on her hewn 
decay of admiration and reverence for the sublime ' ends. The foremast and bowsprit went by the 
and beautiful— Ihe love of shows and shams rather board, and the mainmast was cut away, when she 
than of truths and realities— and the prevalence of righted, full ol water. The crew could get 
cold skepticism, selfishness and littleness. The » u t but one barrel of bread, which was all wet, and 
work, in short, is well worth reading, though not ! a few pieces of pork, which, with the fish they 
at all likely to suit the popular market. It is a caught, enabled them to sustain life on Ihe wreck 



piece of vigorous eccentricity, and those who want 
to get at ils vigor, must patiently bear with its ec- 
centricities. 

Covcnl Garden, lately under the manage of Runn, 
has been suddenly closed, by which six hundred 
person* have been thrown out of employment — 
There seems but little (inspect of this once fatuous 
theatre — so identified with the fortunes of Ihe 



forty five days, when they were taken off by French 
brig La Furet, from Senegal, and landed at Gib. 
raltar. 

During (he last eight days that they were on the 
wreck they had not a drop of water. They had 
saved none, but they had caught from the rain 
enough to last them about three week-, allowing 
each man a pint a d iy. The crew were til saved, 
but suffered severely from the exposure and priva- 



Keuiblt-s— being speedily re-opened. Knott les's 
new play of The Secretary has not ptoved wry at- lions to which they were subjected, 
tractive at Diury Lane. Macready has manlully ! "" 

endeav.-r, d to uphold the declining drama, but 11 | A Hebmit.— There '» living upon Staten Is- 

seems difficult, indeed, to arrest its uownwa.d j land - ™ oU man who ha, devoted himself to the 

tendency. rigid and solitary life ..t the hermit. He has con- 

One ol the most singular misprints of the press ' s,rUC,ed a ,ude , ' u, > '" " ,e Ini<4dle ol a lurest oc " 



ever met with has lately been made. It beats the 
lanious one of Sir Kobert Peel joining a pari 
fiends (Iricnds) in Hampshire, lo. the purpose 1 1 
sho .tuii: p.nsatllt: (pheasants.) It eccuis in a cc>p\ 
ol Handel's " Messiah," and is . .'casioued by the 
Oinissi-'ii of the letter <• at on ol the »ubliiiie a l 
passages — "The trumpet shall inund,and Ihe dead 
shall h.' i.nscd incorruptible and We shall he (c) 
haiifi' I ' 

Fanny Elss'.c-r hi ; been .'anting two evening* at 
Rath and Bristol. She ceived 100 guineas each 
night So toil He that John Bull is ju->t about a> 
sensible a* H:oth«.r Jonathan These d.inecr.<< 
1I1..0'.. I be \r l 1 1 paid— nay, ex'ravaganlly paid, foi 
a sprained jnc'.e might at oneu »t»p their ear. ii ; 
but really, when w« look at the sunn given 1, r in- 
telleelll ,1 ex-rlion — at the past records ol the stage 



longing to Aid. Cel.ra, where he passes both day 
and night, rehiring in hold communication with 
his felhnv-uien, and .ivinp wholly upon cold wa. 
hi. lie was foillieily-a oailor ; and (he only rea- 
s a be can give lor i-is cuuous delusion, is, that 
he was very wild ai.d wicked 111 his youth, and 
that God, 111 order 01 punish bun, has now com- 
manded him to hw upon water lor the space of 
loily -:!.>-,. FoUitee:, ol these days ol penance 
have alieudy pa«sc yet he persists in adhering In 
his simple diet. II m somewhat pale and emaci- 
ated, we are (old, lo I iputn vigorous and active 
Dm ing Ihe last i-ui. nner, he to..k the same notion 
into li.s head, but all. r eleven days (anting, found 
out il at his punishment was remitted lor a tune, 
it is again Uul upon hun, and he thinks he w ill be 
aide lo endure lo the eml 



35 

117.25 projects that so often seem without feet or hands] Possibly a 
recollection of Martin Luther's opinion of one of Melancthon's writings — 
that it is "alive, hath hands and feet." See Emerson's Early Lectures . I, 
(1833-1836), p. 147. 

118.8 not until after our return did I read his "Celestial Railroad"] 
Emerson read "The Celestial Railroad" on June 9, 1843, after a walk with 
Hawthorne. (One wonders what was his reaction to Hawthorne's humorous 
treatment of Transcendentalism therein.) See Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The 
Celestial Railroad," U. S. Magazine and Democratic Review . XII, no. 59 
(May, 1843), pp. 515-523. This number also included two articles by 0. 
A. Brownson, a poem ("The Human Sacrifice") by Whittier, and George Ban- 
croft's "William Ellery Channing." 

123.31 Seven cities contended for Homer dead] Thoreau found this 
fact under "Homer" in John Lempriere ' s A Classical Dictionary , an edition 
of which he owned: "No less than seven illustrious cities disputed the 
right of having given birth to the greatest of poets, as it is well ex- 
pressed in these lines: 

Smyrna » Chios . Colophon . Salamis . Rhodos . Argos . Athenae, 
Qrbis de patria certat . Home re . tui . " 

124.4 And Hawthorne too I remember .. .along the banks of the Scaman- 
der....] The passage is redolent of the Trojan War. Thoreau here calls 
his beloved Concord River the Scamander, which was a celebrated stream of 
Troas, having its source east of Mount Ida. According to Homer it was 
called Xanthus by the gods and Scamander only by men. Its waters gave a 
beautiful tint to hair or wool bathed in it. (See John Lempriere, A 
Classical Dictionary , s.v . ) Thoreau and Hawthorne frequently rowed on 
the Concord River. By "the ruins of chariots and heroes" Thoreau alludes 
to the Battle Ground adjoining the Old Manse. 

124.6 Tell him not to desert even after the tenth year.... "Are 
there not the cities of Asia?"] Calchas, the soothsayer, who sailed with 
the Greeks to Troy as a high priest, told them that Troy could not be 
taken before ten years of siege. When the city fell, many of its inhabi- 
tants escaped, like Aeneas; others remained to build up the city— re- 
mained "at home" to rebuild it. In other words, Concord ought not to be 
deserted, whatever the circumstances. It will serve writers as ably as 
more famous literary centers. 

124.7 Staying at home is the heavenly way.] The best commentary on 
this line is the final chapter of Walden . See Journal . V, 27, for a quo- 
tation which he found in Girolamo Benzoni's Historia Indiae Occidentalis 
(edition uncertain): "Coelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt." 
See 369.10 and 538.21. 

124.23 "At last he rose and twitched his mantle blue....] The last 
two lines of Milton's "Lycidas," which Thoreau had studied with great 
care during his last year at Harvard. See The Transcendentalists and 
Minerva . I, 153ff. and 191ff. 

125.15 the Fates pay a compliment to those whom they make sick — and 
they have not to ask what have I done] This sentence does not seem re- 
lated to the classical notion that the gods love those who die young . 
Perhaps Thoreau means that when the Three Fates (Clotho, Lachesis, and 
Atropos) send sickness, they send a timely warning of the inevitable. 
Moreover, since they act arbitrarily, they do not trouble to give ex- 



36 

planations or justifications for their behavior. Lidian Emerson must not, 
therefore, expect a reason for her illness. The gods are behind it. 

128.14 a new periodical called The Present in September] William 
Henry Channing's short-lived journal, The Present , was published in New 
York, from September, 1843, to April, 1844. Only volume one (consisting 
of twelve numbers) was issued. 

131.23 I fancy... you are poring over .. ."Burgh' s Dignity"] Thoreau 
himself had read James Burgh, The Dignity of Human Nature . Or , A Brief 
Account of the Certain and Established Means for attaining the True End of 
our Existence . See under Feb. 17, 1835, in the Harvard Charging List in 
Emerson the Essayist , II, 193 and 200. The college copy was the "new 
edition" in two volumes, London, 1767. 

131.23 or Massillon] This was Jean Baptiste Massillon, Sermons , se- 
lected and translated by William Dickson, (2 vols.) Brooklyn, 1803. These 
were a part of Thoreau ' s personal library. Prof. Walter Harding ( Thoreau 1 s 
Library , p. 73) mentions this copy. 

131.26 absorbed in Chaptelle] This might have been Jean Antoine Claude 
Chaptal, Chemistry Applied to Arts and Manufactures . (4 vols.) London, 
1807, or Elements of Chemistry , tr. from the French by W. Nicholson, (3 
vols.) London, 1791; Phila., 1796; Boston, 1806. 

132.22 I have not seen Mrs. Child] Thoreau had read Lydia Maria 
Child's Philothea while at Harvard. (See The Transcendentalists and 
Minerva , I, 168-169.) He had edited her essay, "What is Beauty?" for the 
April, 1843, issue of The Dial ; and he knew that she had published or was 
about to publish the first series of Letters from New York (1843). 

134.4 Pray dont think of Bradbury and Soden any more... they have given 
up their shop here.] In the New York City directories of 1842 and 1843, 
Bradbury, Soden & Co . , Publishers, were located at 127 Nassau Street. I do 
not find them listed in later years. They probably had purchased graphite 
from the Thoreaus, failing to pay for the final shipment. 

134.5 "For good deed done through praiere 

Is sold and bought too dear I wis 

To herte that of great valor is."] Lines 5234-5236 of 
Chaucer's translation of The Romaunt of the Rose , in a passage headed: 
"Comment Raisoun diffinist amiste." Thoreau copied these lines together 
with a long passage on "Friendship" into his Literary Notebook (p. 171) 
now in the Library of Congress. 

134.11 As for Edith — I seem to see a star in the east over where the 
young child is.] An allusion to Matthew 2:2 and 9. Concerning Thoreau 's 
fondness for Edith, see my "A New Thoreau Poem — 'To Edith,'" ESQ . no. 
18 (I Quarter I960), pp. 40-41. See notes on 144.21; 194.13; and 84.1-3. 

135.5 their motto is to let well alone.] For an early example of this 
proverb, see Terence, Phormio, line 419 (Act II, scene 3): "Let well 
alone, as the saying is . " ( Actum , aiunt, ne agas . ) See also Le Roi 
d'Angleterre et le Jongleur d'Ely . line 306 (ca. 1250) : "Let well enough 
alone . " ( Assez est bone , lessez ester .) Dozens of other examples appear 
in English. 

135.32 How charming is divine philosophy] See Milton's Comus , line 
476. 



37 

135.32 Some wise and some otherwise] See James Howell, English Prov - 
erbs (1659): "Some are wise, and some are otherwise." See Tobias George 
Smollett, Roderick Random , chap. 6 (quoting the proverb): "Some folks are 
wise, and some are otherwise." See Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard (1735): 
"Some are weather-wise, some are otherwise." 

136.1 I was glad to read the reviews there] While residing on Staten 
Island in 1843, Thoreau read at the Mercantile Library in New York City 
the current Edinburgh Review . Quarterly Review , North American Review , 
and others. For the lengthy list of its subscriptions in 1843-1844, see 
its printed catalogue of 1844, pages 271-272. See also its Twenty-third 
Annual Report , N.Y., January, 1844, page 12: "The Reading Rooms are now 
supplied with forty-one Foreign and twenty-five American Periodicals; nine 
Foreign and ten American newspapers; making a total of eighty-five peri- 
odical publications." 

136.2 Carlyle's late article] Carlyle's "Dr. Francia" appeared in 
the Foreign Quarterly Review . XXXI, no. 62 (July, 1843), pp. 544-589. 

136.17 you were forsaking the deep quiet of the Clove for the limbo 
of the false booksellers] "Clove" is defined as "a ravine or valley, 
chiefly in place-names" and is derived from the Dutch. See A Dictionary 
of Americanisms on Historical Principles , ed. Mitford M. Mathews, (2 
vols.) Chicago, [1951] , I~] 345 . For other references to "Clove" and to 
"Clove Road," see the index to Emerson's Letters , ed. Rusk. 

139.3 I carried the Agriculturist about the city] The American Agri - 
culturist , published in New York, began in April, 1842, and had a long 
life, absorbing more than thirty other agricultural journals before the 
end of the century. 

141.21 Dr [Philip J.] Forbes, of the [New York] Society Library. . .let 
me take out some un take-out-able-books] Though the charging records of 
this institution are in remarkably good order, Thoreau' s borrowings were 
apparently not listed in them but issued "on the cuff" so that there would 
be no evidence of violation of the Society's rules. (I wish to thank Miss 
Sylvia Hilton, Librarian, for permission to examine the ledgers and visi- 
tors' books.) 

143.19 the great questions of Fate, Freewill, Foreknowledge absolute] 
An echo of Milton's Paradise Lost . Book II, line 560. 

143.21 here comes Channing with his "Present"] See note on 128.14. 

144.16 I will copy a few such sentences as I should read to you] On 
page 113 of the Descriptive Catalogue of the Gluck Collection of Manu - 
scripts and Autographs , published by the Buffalo Public Library in July, 
1899, is listed a Thoreau manuscript of "extracts from the writings of 
the poet Francis Quarles." Now apparently lost, it might have been the 
enclosure here referred to. 

144.21 How does Saxon Edith do? Can you tell yet to which school of 
philosophy she belongs. . .saint of some Christian order, or a follower of 
Plato and the heathen?] A possible allusion to the Platonic heroine in 
Lydia Maria Child's Philothea . See note on 152.22. 

145.19 I have just opened Bacon's Advancement of Learning for the 
first time] The Mercantile Library owned Of the Proficience and Advance - 
ment of Learning . London, 1825. (See the Catalogue . N.Y.. 1844. p. 10.) 



38 

145.31 Your letter to contributors is excellent and hits the nail on 
the head. J Remembering Thoreau's famous remark about driving nails in the 
final chapter of Waldcn . one ought here to recall that the proverb, "Thou 
hittest the nail on the head," goes back at least to John Stanbridge's 
Vulgaria (1520); to Beaumont and Fletcher»s Love j s Cure . II. i.; and to 
John Heywood's Proverbs. I, 11. I reproduce herewith Emerson's "A Letter" 
from The Dial . IV, no. 2 (October, 1843), pp. 262-270: 



2H2 



A Letter. 



A LETTER. 



[Oct. 



As we are very liable in common with the letter-writing 
world, to fall behindhand in our correspondence, and a little 
more liahle because, in consequence of our editorial function, 
we receive more epistles than our individual share, we have 
thought that we might clear our account by writing a quarterly 
catholic letter to all and several who have honored us in verse, 
or prose, with their confidence, and expressed a curiosity to 
know our opinion. We shall he compelled to dispose very 
rapidly of quite miscellaneous topics. 

And first, in regard to the writer who has given us his 
speculations on Rail-roads and Air-roads, our correspondent 
shall have his own way. To the rail-way, we must say, like 
the courageous lord mayor at his first hunting, when told the 
hare was coming, " Let it come, in Heaven's name, I am not 
afraid on 't." Very unlooked for political and social effects 
of the iron road are fast appearing. It will require an expan- 
sion of the police of the old world. When a rail-road train 
shoots through Europe every day from Brussells to Vienna, from 
Vienna to Constantinople, it cannot stop every twenty or thirty 
miles, at a German customhouse, for examination of property 
and passports. But when our correspondent proceeds to Fly- 
ing-machines, we have no longer the smallest taper light of 
credible information and experience left, and must speak on 
a priori grounds. Shortly then, we think the population is 
not yet quite fit for them, and therefore there will be none. 
Our friend suggests so many inconveniences from piracy out 
of the high air to orchards and lone houses, and also to other 
high fliers, and the total inadequacy of the present system of 
defence, that we have not the heart to break the sleep of the 
good public by the repetition of these details. When children 
come into the library, we put the inksUnd and the watch on 
the high shelf, until they be a little older ; and nature has set 
the sun and moon in plain sight and use, but laid them on the 
high shelf, where her roystering boys mav not in 3ome mad 
Saturday afternoon pull them down or burn their fingers. The 
sea and the iron road are safer toys for such ungrown people ; 
we are not yet ripe to be birds. 

In the next place, to fifteen letters on Communities, and the 
Prospects of Culture, and the destinies of the cultivated class, — 
what answer ? Excellent reasons have been shown us why the 
writers, obviously persons of sincerity and of elegance, should 
be dissatisfied with the life they lead, and with their company. 
They have exhausted all its benefit, and will not bear it much 
longer. Excellent reasons they have shown why something 
better should be tried. They want a friend to whom they can 
speak and from whom they may hear now and then a reasona- 
ble word. They are willing to work, so it be with friends. 
They do not entertain anything absurd or even difficult. They 
do not wish to force society into hated reforms, nor to break 
with society. They do not wish a township, or any large 
expenditure, or incorporated association, but simply a concen- 
tration of chosen people. By the slightest possible concert per- 
severed in through four or five years, they think that a neighbor- 
hood might be formed of friends who would provoke each other 
to the best activity. 



They believe that this society would fill up the terrific 
chasm of ennui, and would give their genius that inspi- 
ration which it seems to wait in vain But 'the selfishness!' 
One of the writers relentingly says, What shall my uncles 
and aunts do without me ? and desires to be distinctly un- 
derstood not to propose the Indian mode of giving decrepit 
relatives as much of the mud of holy Ganges as they can 
swallow, and more, but to begin the enterprise of concen- 
tration, by concentrating all uncles and aunts in one delightful 
village by themselves! — so heedless is our correspondent of 
putting all the dough into one pan, and all the leaven into 
another. Another objection seems to have occurred to a sub- 
tle but ardent advocate. Is it, he writes, a too great wilfulness 
and intermeddling with life, — with life, which is better ac- 
cepted than calculated ? Perhaps so ; but let us not be too 
curiously good ; the Buddhist is a practical Necessitarian ; the 
Yankee is not. We do a good many selfish things every day ; 
among them all let us do one thing of enlightened selfishness. 
It were fit to forbid concert and calculation in this particular, 
if that were our system, if we were up to the mark of self- 
denial and faith in our general activity. But to be prudent in 
all the particulars of life, and in this one thing alone religiously 
forbearing ; prudent to secure to ourselves an injurious society, 
temptations to folly and despair, degrading examples and ene- 
mies ; and only abstinent when it is proposed to provide our- 
selves with guides, examples, lovers! 

We shall hardly trust ourselves to reply to arguments by 
which we would too gladly be persuaded. The more discon- 
tent, the better we like it. It is not for nothing, we assure 
ourselves, that our people are busied with these projects of a 
better social state, and that sincere persons of all parties are 
demanding somewhat vital and poetic of our stagnant society. 
How fantastic and unpresentable soever the theory has hitherto 
seemed, how swiftly shrinking from the examination of prac- 
tical men, let us not lose the warning of that most significant 

dream. How joyfully we have fell the admonition of larger 
natures which despised our aims and pursuits, conscious that a 
voice out of heaven spoke to us in thai scorn. But it would be 
unjust not to remind our younger friends that, whilst this aspi- 
ration has always made its mark in the lives of men of thought, 
in vigorous individuals it does not remain a detached object, 
but is satisfied along with the satisfaction of other aims. To 
live solitary and unexpressed, is painful.— painful in proportion 
to one's consciousness of ripeness and equality to the offices of 
friendship. But herein we are never quite forsaken by the 
Divine Providence. The loneliest man after twenty years dis- 
covers that he stood in a circle of friends, who will then show 
like a close fraternity held by some masonic tie. But we are im- 
patient of the tedious introductions of Destiny, and a little faith- 
less, and would venture something to accelerate them. One thing 
is plain, that discontent and the luxury of tears will bring 
nothing to pass. Regrets and Bohemian castles and (esthetic 
villages are not a very self-helping class of productions, but are 
the voices of debility. Especially to one importunate corres- 
pondent we must say. that there is no chance for the .-esthetic 
village. Every one of the villagers has committed his several 
blunder; his genius was good, his stars consenting, but he 
was a marplot. And though the recuperative force in every 
man may lie relied on infinitely, it must be relied on, before it 
will exert itself. As long as he sleeps in the shade of the 
present error, the after-nature does not betray it.-, resources. 



39 



Whilst he dwells in tlit- old sin. he will pay 1 1 1«- old fine. 

More letters we have on the subject of thf position of young 
men. which accord well enough with what we see and hear. 
There is an American disease, a paralysis of the active faculties, 
which falls on young men in this country, as soon as they have 
finished their college education, which strips them of all manly 
aims and bereaves them of animal spirits, so that the noblest 
youths are in a few years converted into pale Caryatides to 
uphold the temple of conventions. They are in the state of 
the young Persians, when " that mighty Yc/.dam prophet " 
addressed them and said, "Behold the signs of evil days are 
come ; there is now no longer any right course of action, nor 
any self-devotion left among the Iranis." As soon as they have 
arrived at this term, there are no employments to satisfy them, 
they are educated above the work of their times and country, 
and disdain it. Many of the more acute minds pass into a 
lofty criticism of these things, which only embitters their sensi- 
bility to the evil, and widens the feeling of hostility between 
them and the citizens at large. From this cause, companies of 
the best educated young men in the Atlantic states every week 
take their departure for Europe ; for no business that they have 
in that country, but simply because they shall so be hid from 
the reproachful eyes of their countrymen, and agreeably enter- 
tained for one or two years, with some lurking hope, no doubt, 
that something may turn up to give them a decided direction. 
Ft is easy to see that this is only a postponement of their proper 
work, with the additional disadvantage of a two years' vacation. 
Add that this class is rapidly increasing by the infatuation of 
the active class, who, whilst they regard these young Athenians 
with suspicion and dislike, educate their own children in the 
same courses, and use all possible endeavors to secure to them 
the same result. 

Certainly we are not insensible to this calamity, as described by 
the observers or witnessed by ourselves. It is not quite new and 
peculiar, though we should not know where to find in literature 
any record of so much unbalanced intellectuality ; such unde- 
niable apprehension without talent, so much power without 
equal applicability, as our young men pretend to. ^ et in 
Theodore Mundl's* account of Frederic llolderlin's "Hype- 
rion," we were not a little struck with the following Jeremiad of 
the despair of Germany, whose tone is still so familiar, that we 
were somewhat mortified to find that it was written in 1799. 

"Then came I to the Germans. I cannot conceive of apeoplemore 
disjoined than the Germans. Mechanics you shall see, but no man; 
priests, but no man; thinkers, but no man. Is it not like some battle- 
field, where handsand armsand all members lie scattered about. whilst 
the life-blood runs away into the sand? Let every man mind hisown, 
you say, and I say the same. Only let him mind it with all his heart, 
and not with this cold study, literally, hypocritically to appear that 
which he passes for, but ingood earnest, and inall love, let himbethat 
which he is; then there is a soid in his deed. And is he driven into a 
circumstance where the spirit must not live, let him thrust it from him 
with scorn, and bam to digand plough. There is nothing holy which is 
notdesecrated. which isnot degradedto ameanendamongthispeople. 
It is heartrending to see your poet, your artist, and all who still revere 
genius, who love and foster the Beautiful. The Good ! They live in 
the world as strangers in their own house: they are like the patient 
Ulysses whilst be sat in the guise of a beggar at his owti door, whilst 
shameless rioters shouted in the ball and ask. who brought the rag- 
gamurtin here.' Full of love, talent and hope, spring up the darlings 
ofthe muse among the Germans; come seven years later, and they flit 
about like ghosts, cold and silent; they are like a soil which an enemy 
has sow n with poison, that it will not beara blade of grass. On earth 
all is imperfect! is tin- old proverb of the German. Aye, but if one 
should say to these Godforsaken, that with them all isimperfect.only 
because they leave nothing pure which they do not pollute, nothing 
holy which they do not defile with their fumbling hands; that with 
them nothing prospers: because the god like nature which is the roof of 
all prosperity, they do not revere; that with them, truly, life is shallow 
and anxious and full of discord, because they despise genius, which 
brings power and nobleness into manly action, cheerfulness into endu- 
rance, and love and brotherhood into towns and houses. Where a 



■ (ievchiclite der Literalur tier (jegcnwart, \r*4:i p ho. 



people honors genius in its artists, there breathes like an atmosphere 
a universal soul, to n Inch the shy sensibility opens, which melts self- 
conceit, — all hearts become pious and great, and it adds fire to heroes. 
The home of all men is with such a people, and there will the stranger 
gladly abide. But where the divine nature and the artist is crushed, 
the sweetness of life is gone, and every other planet is better than the 
earth. Men deteriorate, folly increases, and a gross mind with it; 
drunkenness comes with disaster; with the wantonness of the tongue 
and with the anxiety for a livelihood, the blessing of every year 
becomes a curse, and all the gods depart." 

The steep antagonism between the money-getting and the 
academic class must be freely admitted, and perhaps is the more 
violent, that whilst our work is imposed by the soil and the sea, 
our culture is the tradition of Europe. But we cannot share the 
desperation of our contemporaries, least of all should we think 
a preternatural enlargement of the intellect a calamity. A 
new perception, the smallest new activity given to the percep- 
tive power, is a victory won to the living universe from chaos 
and old night, and cheaply bought by any amounts of hard- 
fare and false social position. The balance of mind and body 
will redress itself fast enough. Superficialness is the real dis- 
temper. In all the cases we have ever seen where people were 
supposed to suffer from too much wit, or as men said, from a 
blade too sharp for the scabbard, it turned out that they had not 
wit enough. It may easily happen that we are grown very idle 
and must go to work, and that the times must be worse before 
they are better. It is very certain, that speculation is no suc- 
cedaneum for life. What we would know, we must do. As if 
any taste or imagination could take the place of fidelity ! The old 
Duty is the old God. And we may come to this by the rudest 
teaching. A friend of ours went five years ago to Illinois to 
buy a farm for his son. Though there were crowds of emi- 
grants in the roads, the country was open on both sides, and 
long intervals between hamlets and houses. Now after five 
years he has just been to visit the young farmer and see bow 
he prospered, and reports that a miracle has been wrought. 
From Massachusetts to Illinois, the land is fenced in and 
builded over, almost like New England itself, and the proofs 
of thrifty cultivation everywhere abound: — a result not so 
much owing to the natural increase of population, as to the 
hard times, which, driving men out of cities and trade, forc- 
ed them to take off their coats and go to work on the land, 
which has rewarded them not only with wheat but with 
habits of labor. Perhaps the adversities of our commerce have 

not yet been pushed to the whnlesomest degree of severity. 
Apathies and total want of work and reflection on the imagina- 
tive character of American life. &c. &c. are like seasickness, 
which never will obtain any sympathy, if there is a woodpile 
in the yard, or an uuweeded patch in the garden : not to men- 
tion the graver absurdity of a youth of noble aims, who can 
find no field for his energies, whilst the colossal wrongs of the 
Indian, of the Negro, of the emigrant, remain unmitigated, 
and the religious, civil, and judicial forms of the country are 
confessedly effete and offensive. We must refer our clients back 
to themselves, believing that every man knows in his heart the 
cure for the disease he so ostentatiously bewails. 

As far as our correspondents have entangled their private 
griefs with the cause of American Literature, we counsel them 
to disengage themselves as fast as possible. In Cambridge 
orations, and elsewhere, there is much inquiry for that great 
absentee American Literature. What can have become of it ? 
The least said is best. A literature is no man's private concern, 
but a secular and generic result, and is the affair of a power 
which works by a prodigality of life and force very dismaying 
to behold, — the race never dying, the individual never spared, 
and every trait of beauty purchased by hecatombs of private 
tragedy. The pruning in the wild gardens of nature is never 
forborne. .Many of the best must die of consumption, many of 
despair, and many be stupid and insane, before the one great 
and fortunate life, which they each predicted, can shoot up into 
a thrifty and beneficent existence. 



40 



Hut passing tu a letter which is a generous iiml a just tribute 
to Hettina von Arnim, we have it in our power to furnish our 
correspondent and all sympathizing readers with a sketch,* 
though plainly from no very friendly hand, of the new work ol 
that eminent lady, who in the silence of Tieck anil Schelling, 
seems to hold a monopoly of genius in Germany. 

"At last has the long expected work of the Frail von A mini 
here appeared. It is true her name is not prefixed ; more prop- 
erly is the dedication, This Hook belongs In thr King, also the 
title ; hut partly because her genius shines so unmistakeably 
out of every line, partly because this work refers so directly to 
her earlier writings, and appears only as an enlargement of them, 
none can doubt who the author is. We know not how we 
should characterize to the reader this most original work. 
Hettina, or we should say, the Fran von Aruim, exhibits her 
eccentric wisdom under the person of (ioethe's Mother, the 
Fran Rath, whilst she herself is still a child, who. (1807) sits 
upon 'the shawl' at the foot of the Fran Rath, and listens 
devoutly to the tilled mother of the ureal poet. Moreover. 
Itettiua dins nut conceal that she solely, or at any rate princi- 
pally, propounds In r views from the Fran Rath. \">l in fact, 
it could not he otherwise, since we come to hear the newest philo- 
sophical wisdom which makes a strange enough figure in the 
mouth of (ioethe's mother. If we mistake not. the intimate 
intercourse with lirtiim Bauer is also an essential impulse lor 
Fran von Arnim. and we must not therefore wonder if the Fran 
Rath loses her way in pure philosophical hypotheses, wherein 
she avail* herself of the known phrases of the school. It is 
true, she quickly recovers herself again, clothes her perceptions 
in poetical garb, mounts hravel) to the boldest visions, or. (and 
this ofleuest happens.) becomes a humorist, spices her dis- 
courses in frank fori dialect by idiomatic expressions, and hits 
oil' in her merriest humors capital sketches. For the most part. 
the whole humoristic dress seems only assumed in order to 
make the matter, which is in the last degree radical, less inju- 
rious. As to the object of these 'sayings and narratives re- 
ported from memory ' of the Fran Rath', (since she leads tin* 
conversation throughout.) our sketch must be short. ' It is 
Freedom which constitutes the truest being of man. Man 
should be free from all traditions, from all prejudices, since 
every holding on somewhat traditional, is unbelief, spiritual 
selfuiiirder. The tiod's impulse to truth is the only right belief. 
Man himself should handle and prove, 'since whoever reflects oil a 
matter, has always a hitter right to truth, than who lets himself 
be slapped on the cheek by an arliclc-of-Faith.' By •"•in she 
understands that which derogates from the soul, since every 
hindrance ami constraint interrupts the Ueeomiiig of the soul. 
In general, art and science have only the destination to make 
free what is hound. Itut the human spirit can rule all, and. 
in that sense. • man is Cod. only we are not arrived so far as to 
describe the true pure Man in us.' If, in the department of 
religion, this principle leads to the overthrow of the whole his- 
torical Christendom, so. in the political world, it leads to the 
ruin of all our actual governments. Therefore she wishes for a 
strong reformer, as Napoleon promised for a time to he, who, 
however, already in 1807. when these conversations are ascribed 
to the Fran Rath, had shown that instead of a world's liberator, 
he would be a world's oppressor. Hettina makes variations on 
the verse. and wake an avenger, a hero awake!' ami in this 
sense is also her dedication to read. It were noble if a stronger 
one should come, who in more beautiful moderation, in per- 
fecter clearness of s,,nl and freedom of thought, should plant 
the tree of equity. Where remains the Regent, if it is not the 



genius nl humanity ' that Is the F.XCCIItive principle, in her 
system. The state has the sillie will, the -ami conscience- 
voice I'm- good and evil as the Christ: yet it crumbles itself 
awav into dojiiiiaticalnc-.s of civil ntliccrs again*! one another. 

The transgressor is the slate's own iraii-gre** ' tin- proof that 

it, as man. has trespassed against humanity. Tin- old slate's 
doctors, who excite it to a will, are also its disease. Hut they 
who do not agree in this will, and cannot struggle through soul 
narrowing illations, are the demagogues, again*! whom the 
unsound stale trespasses, so long as It knows not how to bring 
their sound strength into harmony. \nd precisely to those 
must it dedicate itself, since they are its integration and restora- 
tion, whilst the others who conform to it. make it more sunken and 
stagnant. If it be objected, that this her truth is only a poetic 
dream which in the actual world has no place, she answeis; 
'even were th>' truth a dream, it is not therefore to he denied ; 
let us dedicate our genius to this dream, let us form an Ideal 
Paradise, which the spiritual system of Nature requires at our 
hands.' 'Is the whole fabric of state, she asks, only a worse 
arranged hospital, where the selfish or the ambitious would fasten 
on the poor human race the foolish fantastic malversations of 
their roguery for beneficent cooperation.' and with it the 
political economy, so destitute of all genius to hind the useful 
with the beautiful, on which these state's doctors plume them- 
selves so much, and so with their triviality exhibit as a pattern 
to us. a wretched picture of ignorance, of selfishness, and of 
iniquity; when I come on that. I feel my veins swell with wrath. 
If I come on the belied nature, or how should I call this Spectre of 
actuality! Yea justly ! No! w ith these men armed in mail against 
every poetic truth, we must not parley: the great fools' conspi- 
racy of that actuality-spectre defends with mock reasoning its 
Turkish states'-conduet. before which certainly the revelation 
of the Ideal withdraws into a poetic dream-region.' Hut 
whilst the existing statt' in itself is merely null, whilst the trans- 
gressor against this state is not incorporated with its author- 
izations with its directions and tendencies, so is the transgressor 
ever the accuser of tin- state itself. In general, must the state 
draw up to itself at least the lowest class, and not let it sink in 
mire: and Hettina lets the Fran Rath make the proposal, instead 
of shutting up the felon in penitentiaries, to instruct him in the 
sciences, as from his native energies, from his unbroken powers, 
great performances might be looked for. Hut in order also to 
show practically the truth of her assertions, that the present 
state does not fulfil its duties especially to the poorest class, at 
the close of the book are inserted. • Fxperienees of a young 
Swis:. in Voigtland.' This person visited the so-called Family- 
houses, which compose a colony of extremest poverty. There 

he went into many chambers, listened to the history of the life, 
still oftener to the history of the day, of the inhabitants; in- 
formed himself of their merit and their wants, and comes to the 
gloomiest results. The hard reproaches, which were made 
against the Overseers of the Poor, appear unhappily only too 
well founded. W'e have hastily sketched, with a few literal quo- 
tations, the contents of this remarkable book of this remark- 
able woman, and there remains no space further to elaborate 
judgment. The highflying idealism, which the Fran von Arnim 
cherishes, founders and must founder against the actuality which, 
as opposed to her imagination, she holds for absolute nothing. 
So reality, with her, always converts itself to spectres, whilst 
these dreams are to her the only reality. In our opinion an 
energetic thorough experiment for the realization of her ideas 
would plunge us in a deeper misery than we at present have to 
deplore." 



* We translate the following extract from the Berlin Correspondence 
of the Deutsche Scluiellposl of September 

145.35 quiet weather beaten with poetry having weathered so many- 
epics of late] Probably those of Michael Drayton, Joshua Sylvester, 
Phineas Fletcher, Sir William Davenant, and Abraham Cowley. See The 
Transcendentalists and Minerva . II, pp. 371-373. 



41 

146.1 good deal of fault to find with your ode to Beauty. . .stereo- 
typed lines] Emerson took seriously a part of Thoreau's critism of his 
"Ode to Beauty" as first published in The Dial . IV, no. 2 (Oct., 1843), 
pp. 257-258, omitting the phrase "Remediless thirst" in later versions. 

146.8 Jane Taylors Philosopher's Scales....] Thoreau wrote to Emer- 
son: "I am frequently reminded, I believe of Jane Taylors Philosopher's 
Scales and how the world 'Flew out with a bounce' which — 'yerked the phi- 
losopher out of his cell.' or else of 'From the climes of the sun all 
war-worn and weary.'" See "The Philosopher's Scales," The Writings of 
Jane Taylor . (5 vols.) Boston, 1832, III, 117-120. (I have not located 
the line, "From the climes of the sun all war-worn and weary.") 



THE PHILOSOPHER'S SCALES 117 

nocil not blush at a future day. It may be useful 
to you t<> bear in mind this idea; and to inquire. 
from time to time, if you are pursuing that course, 
which would lie likely to furnish good materials to 
your biographer." 



XV. 

Till". I'ltlLosnrill'.R s SCALK3 

In days of yore, as Gothic fill tie tells, 
When learning dimly gleamed from grated cells, 
When wild Astrology's distorted eye 
Shunned the fair field of true philosophy, 
Aud wandering through the depths of mental night 
Sought dark predictions 'mid the worlds of light: — 
When curious Alehymy, with puzzled hrow, 
Attempted things thai Science laughs at now. 
Losing the useful purpose she consults, 
In vain chimeras and unknown results: — 
In those gray times there lived a reverend sage, 
Whose wisdom shed its lustre on the age. 
A monk he was, immured in cloistered walls, 
Where now the ivy'd ruin cruiuhling falls. 
T was a profound seclusion that he chose; 
The noisy world disturbed not that repose: 
The flow of murmuring waters, day by day, 
And whistling winds that forced their tardy way 
Through reverend trees, of ages growth that made. 



118 



THE PHILOSOPHER'S STALES. 



Around the holy pile a deep monastic shade ; 

The chanted psalm, or solitary prayer — 

Such were the sounds that broke the silence there. 



'T was here, when his rites sacerdotal were o'er, 

In the depth of his cell with its stone-covered floor. 

Resigning to thought his chimerical brain, 

He formed the contrivance we now shall explain: 

But whether by magic or alchyiny's powers, 

We know not, indeed 't is no business of ours: 

Perhaps it was only by patience and care, 

At last that he brought Ins in :n i< a to Lear. 

In youth 't was projected ; but years stole away, 

And ere 't was complete he was wrinkled and gray ; 

Hut success is s< cure unless energy fails ; 

And at length he produced The Philosophtrs Scales. 



What were they ? — you ask : you shall presently see ; 
These scales were not made to weigh sugar and tea; 
O no ; — for such properties wondrous had they, 
That qualities, feelings, and thoughts they could weigh ; 
Together with articles small or immense, 
From mountains or planets, to atoms of sense: 
Nought was there so bulky, hut there it could lay ; 
And nought so ethereal, but there it would stay ; 
And nought so reluctant, but in it must go ; 
All which some examples more clearly will show. 

The first thing he tried was the head of Voltaire, 
Which retained all the wit that had ever been there ; 
As a weight, he threw in a torn scrap of a leaf, 
Containing the prayer of the penitent thief; 



THE PHILOSOPHER'S SCALES. II'J 

When the skull rose aloft with so sudden a spell, 
As to Itound like a ball on the roof of the cell. 

Next time lie put in .llerander the Great, 
With a garment that Dorcas had made— for a weight; 
And though clad in armor from sandals to crown, 
The hero rose up, and the garment went down. 

A long row of alms houses, amply endowed, 
By a well-esteemed pharisee, busy and proud. 
Now loaded one scale, while the other was prest 
Ky those mites the poor widow dropped into the chest; — 
I p flew tin' endowment, not weighing an ounce, 
And down, down, the farthing's worth came with a 
bounce. 

Again, he performed an experiment rare ; 
A monk, with austerities bleeding and bare, 
Climbed into his scale ; in the other was laid 
The heart of our Howarti, now partly decayed; 
When he found, with surprise, that the whole of his 

brother 
Weighed less, by sonic pounds, than this bit of the other. 

By further experiments (no matter how) 
He found that ten chariots weighed less than one plough. 
A sword, with gilt trappings, rose up in the scale, 
Though balanced by only a ten-penny nail; 
A shield and a helmet, a buckler and soear. 
Weighed less than a widow's uncrystallized tear. 
A lord and a lady went up at full sail, 
When a bee chanced to light on the opposite scale. 
Ten doctors, ten lawyers, two courtiers, one earl, 
Ten counsellor's wigs full of powder and curl, 



42 



120 



THE PHILOSOPHER'S SCALES. 



All heaped in one Iwlaiicc, and swinging from thence, 
Weigl ifd less than some atoms of candor ami sense ; — 
A first-water diamond, with brilliants Ugirt, 
Than our good potato, just washed from the ilirt; 
Yet, not mountains of silvrr and gold would suffice, 
One iiearl to outweigh — 't was the "|>oarl of great price. 

At last the whole world was Ixnvlcd ill at the grate; 
With the soul of a l>Cggar to serve for a weight, 
When the former sprung up with so strong a rebuff, 
That it made a vast rent, and escaped at the roof; 
Whence, balanced in air, it ascended on high, 
And sailed up aloft, a balloon ill the sky; 



While the scale with the soul in, so mightily fell, 
That it jerked the philosopher out of his cell. 



Dear reader, if e'er self-deception prevails, 
We pray yon to try The Philoso/ihir's Scales: 
Hut if they are lost in the ruins around, 
Perhaps a good substitute thus may l>e found: — 
Let judgment ami conscience in circles Ih- cut, 
To which strings of thought may be carefully put : 
Let these lie made even with caution extreme, 
And impartiality use for a beam : 
Then bring those good actions which pride overrates, 
And tear up your motives to serve for the weights. 



The rhythm of Jane Taylor's "The Philosopher's Scales" as well as the 
opening line reminds one of Thoreau's verses in the note on 8.11, suggest- 
ing that he may have memorized portions of Taylor's Writings for declama- 
tions and exhibitions during his last year in the Concord Academy and 
elsewhere. See my "Young Henry Thoreau in the Annals of the Concord Acad- 
emy (1829-1833)," Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 9 (IV Quarter 1957), pp. 
1-42. 

146.15 To read the lecture on the Comic, is... to be... in our Lyceum 
once more.] Emerson's "The Comic" appeared in The Dial . IV, no. 2 (Oct., 
1843), pp. 247-256. 

149.7 the new Hazlitt's Montaigne] The Complete Works of Michael de 
Montaigne ; comprising: the Essays , translated by Cotton ; the Letters ; the 
Journey into Germany and Italy , now first translated : a life by the edi - 
tor ; notes ; . . . critical, opinions ; .. . the lloges of MM. Jay and Villemain ; 
a bibliographical notice... and copious indexes: by William Hazlitt . Lon- 
don, 1842. 

149.9 Then I have had Saadis' Gulistan Ross's translation] See The 
Gulistan . or Flower-Garden . of Shaikh Sadi or Shiraz : translated into 
English by James Ross, Esq. from the Persian Text of Tentius. . .Together 
with An Essay on Sadi's Life and Genius, London, 1823. Emerson borrowed 
this translation from Harvard College on Oct. 4, 1843, under the privilege 
of Convers Francis. See The Transcendentalists and Minerva . I, 27 and 40. 

149.10 Marot] Emerson borrowed from Harvard under the privilege of 
Convers Francis on Oct. 4, 1843, volume I of either: Clement Marot, 
O^Euvres Completes , (nouv. 6d., 3 vols.) Paris, 1824j 6*Euvres de Cllment 
Marot avec les ouvrages de Jean Marot son Pere , ( 4 vols. ) La Haye, 1731 . 
See The Transcendentalists and Minerva . I, 27 and 37. 

149.10 Roman de la Rose] Emerson borrowed from Harvard on Oct. 4, 

1843, under the privilege of Convers Francis, vol. I of Le Roman de la 
Rose . par Guillaume de Lorris et Jehan de Meung, (nouv. e"d. , 4 vols . , ed. 
Dominique Martin M£on) Paris, 1814. See The Transcendentalists and Min - 
erva . I, 27 and 40. 

149.10 Robert of Gloucester's rhymed chronicle] Emerson borrowed 
from Harvard on Oct. 4, 1843, under the privilege of Convers Francis: 
Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle , transcrib'd and now first published by 
Thomas Hearne, (2 vols.) Oxford, 1724. He returned them on Jan. 17, 

1844. See The Transcendentalists and Minerva. I, 27 and 40. 



150.3 your "Chapman's Translation of the Greek Pastoral Poets"] See 



43 

The Transcendentalists and Minerva . II, 371-372. The Mercantile Library 
owned The Greek Pastoral Poets . Theocritus . Bion and Moschus . done into 
English by Matthew James Chapman, London, 1837. 

150.4 "Ossian's Genuine Remains"] See The Transcendentalists and 
Minerva . II, 371-372. The Mercantile Library owned The Genuine Remains 
of Qssian . literally translated : with a Preliminary Dissertation , by 
Patrick Macgregor, London, 1841. 

154.16 We desire to go without purse or staff] Cf. Mark 6:8; Luke 
10:4; Luke 22:35-36. 

155.30 parvis componere magna ] I.e .. "To compare great things with 
small." See Virgil's Eclogues . I, 23. 

157.20 It neither will enter the kingdom of heaven or have others to 
do so.] See Matthew 23:13 — "But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hy- 
pocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men; for ye nei- 
ther go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in." 

161.26 Such... know nothing of the universal man] For this Transcen- 
dental concept, see Emerson the Essayist . II, 440. 

164.14 'fit audience, and not few. 1 ] Cf. Paradise Lost . Book VII, 
lines 30-31: ...still govern thou my Song, 

Urania, and fit audience find, though few. 

166.7 For as yet the Red-cross knight has shown us only... his shield 
...tumbling upon the plain.] An obvious reference to Spenser's Faerie 
Queene . Book I. 

169.3 A very Peter I shall become: on this rock He has built his 
church . ] See Matthew 16:18 — "...thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will 
build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." 

170.1 "Ye cannot serve God and Mammon"] See Matthew 6:24 and Luke 
16:13. See 356.18. 

170.11 Thoreau met Horace Greeley] The Editors believe that Thoreau 
did not meet Greeley until his period on Staten Island. According to the 
records of the Concord Lyceum, Greeley lectured before it on "Protection 
and Free Trade," December 19, 1842, Thoreau presumably being present as 
an official. See note on 77.34. 

174.25 somewhere in St. Paul. ..'Look not back to the things which are 
behind, but rather to these which are before 1 ] See Philippians 3:13-14 — 
"...but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, 
and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the 
mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus." 

180.15 Roach or Chiverin . . . . The former described by Storer] See pp. 
91-92 in a volume in Thoreau 's library: Massachusetts Zoological and 
Botanical Survey: David Humphreys Storer and William B. 0. Peabody, Re - 
ports on the Fishes . Reptiles , and Birds of Massachusetts . Boston, 1839. 
Cf. also David Humphrey Storer, A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America . 
Cambridge, 1846, pp. 160-161. Contents of the former: "Reports on the 
ichthyology and herpetology of Massachusetts" by D. H. Storer; "A Report 
of the ornithology of Massachusetts" by W. B. O. Peabody. 



44 

186.6 "the green buds, they are a-swellin ' . " ] An echo of the ballad 
entitled "Barbara Allen's Cruelty": 

All in the merry month of May, 
When green buds they were swellin', 
Young Jemmy Grove on his death-bed lay, 
For love of Barbara Allen. 

189.13 He occasionally surveys mankind from my shoulders as wisely 
as ever Johnson did. J An allusion to Samuel Johnson's "Vanity of Human 
Wishes," lines 1-4: 

Let observation with extensive view, 
Survey mankind, from China to Peru; 
Remark each anxious toil, each eager strife, 
And watch the busy scenes of crowded life. 
Cf. the note on 84.1-3. 

189.17 according to his "mere will and good pleasure."] Possibly an 
echo of Philippians 2:13 — "For it is God that worketh in you both to will 
and to do of his good pleasure." See also Ephesians 1:5 — "Having pre- 
destinated us .. .according to the good pleasure of his will." 

189.33 are thrown down and cast into the pines] An obvious parody 
of Matthew 7:19— "Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn 
down, and cast into the fire." 

190.7 This comes of reading the New Testament. Was n't one of the 
Apostles a tanner? For Simon, a tanner of Joppa, who, by the way, was 
not an "apostle," see Acts 9:43, 10:6, and 10:32. 

190.37 the old joke of a diploma] See "Thoreau's Diploma Again," 
Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 16 (III Quarter 1959), 48-49. 

191.30 even in death, by which we "mingle with the herd of common 
men."] Compare George Shirley's song, "Cupid and Death": "Death calls 
ye to the crowd of common men." 

192.1 Ethiopian cannot change his skin nor the leopard his spots] 
See Jeremiah 13:23 — "Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard 
his spots?" 

194.13 to Edith who long ago drew from you verses which I carefully 
preserve] See notes on 134.11 and 144.21. 

When Edith Emerson was born on November 22, 1841, her father wrote in 
his journals:* " Edith . There came into the house a young maiden, but 
she seemed to be more than a thousand years old. She came into the house 
naked and helpless, but she had for her defence more than the strength of 
millions. She brought into the day the manners of the Night." These 
lines reflect Emerson's thoughts on infancy expressed in the last chapter 
of Nature (1836) and the doctrine of the "Lapse" expressed in Wordsworth's 
"Ode on Intimations of Immortality." They remind the reader of the faith 
of Bronson Alcott, expressed in his two manuscripts labelled "Psyche," 
from one of which I have published generous extracts. 

Even before Edith's birth, 3 Thoreau had become a resident in Emerson's 
home, serving as a handy man. He had daily association with Edith until 
May 1, 1843, when he left for Staten Island, witnessing the first seven- 
teen months of her growth. That he became fond of her is evident in his 
report on January 24, 1843, to Emerson, who was lecturing in Philadel- 



45 

phia: 4 "...Edith takes rapid strides in the arts and sciences — or music 
and natural history — as well as over the carpet ;... she says 'papa' less 
and less abstractedly every day, looking in mv. face, — which may sound 
like a Ranz des Vaches to yourself." That he missed her while living 
with William Emerson in New York is implied in extant correspondence. 
Emerson wrote to Henry on July 20, 1843 : 5 "Edith & Ellen are in high 
health, and as pussy has this afternoon nearly killed a young oriole, Edie 
tells all comers with great energy her one story, 'Birdy— sick. •" And 
three months later (October 16, 1843), Henry wrote to Lidian:® "How does 
the Saxon Edith do? Can you tell yet to which school of philosophy she 
belongs — whether she will be a fair saint of some Christian order, or a 
follower of Plato and the heathen?" 

Other references to Edith appear in later letters, but the period when 
she was about a year or a year and a half old — when Thoreau was nearing 
the end of his first residency in the Emerson home— is, for our purposes, 
the most important. To it Emerson referred three years later in a letter 
to Thoreau from Manchester, England (December 2, 1847), while Thoreau was 
for a second time serving as protector in Emerson's household:'' "Thanks, 
evermore thanks for the kindness which I well discern to the youths of 
the house, to my darling little horseman. .. [Edward] , to Edith who long 
ago drew from you verses which I carefully preserve, & to Ellen, who by 
speech & now by letter I find old enough to be companionable...," The 
verses which Edith "long ago drew from" Henry were copied into page 95 
of Emerson's MS. OP (now Houghton 137) which, with permission, I here 
edit and reproduce, dating them early in 1843. In them we hear once 
again the doctrine of the "Lapse" and echoes of Wordsworth's lines: 

Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might 

Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height, 

Why with such earnest pains dost thou provoke 

The years to bring the inevitable yoke, 

Thus blindly with thy blessedness at strife? 

Full soon thy Soul shall have her earthly freight.... 

Thoreau 's verses also foreshadow his lines in Walden about his own ir- 
revocable youth: "I long ago lost a hound, a bay horse, and a turtle- 
dove. ..." 



Journals. 71, 130. 
Emerson the Essayist, 



1 
2 
II, 101-125. 

3 See Letters . II, 394. 
Rusk says Henry began his 
two-year residence about 
April 20, 1841. 

4 Thoreau* s Correspondence , 
page 76. 

5 Ibid . f p. 126. 

6 Ibid . r p. 144. 

7 Ibid . r p. 194. 

8 I am grateful to Edward 
W. Forbes and to RWEMA for 
this courtesy. 



To Edith . 

Thou little bud of being, Edith named, 

Vith whom I've made acquaintance on this earth, 

Who knowest me without impediment, 

As flowers know the winds that stir their leaves, 

And rid*st upon my shoulders as the sphere, 

Turning on me thy sage reserved eye, 

Behind whose broad & charitable gaze 

Floats the still true & universal soul 

With the pure azure of the general day, 

Not yet a peopled 4 a vulgar town, 

Rather a pure untarnished country ground; 

For thou art whole, not yet begun to die, 

While men look on me with their shrivelled rays 

Streaming through some small chink of the broad sky; 

Pure youthful soul, thou hast begun to be, 

To cumulate thy sin 4 piety. 



46 



/ /-<•' y^ [Emerson's 7 ' 

<£ <-*b>0 : '> handwriting] ' 

194.27 Every man in England carries a little book. . .called "Brad- 
shaws Guide" .. .published anew on the first day of every month & costs 
sixpence.] The Boston Athenaeum has the following: Bradshaw's Monthly 
Railway and Steam Navigation Guide for Great Britain . Ireland . &c. . Aug., 
1844; July, 1845; July, 1847; June, 1850; Bradshaw's Railway Companion 
for Great Britain and Ireland . Feb., 1843. See also Bradshaw's Monthly 
Continental Railway Guide for Europe . All were published in London. 

196.9 You are not so far off but the affairs of this world still at- 
tach to you.] A possible allusion to 2 Timothy 2:3-4— "Thou therefore 
endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ. No man that warreth 
entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him 
who hath chosen him to be a soldier." 

211.1 the copy of the "Revue des Deux Mondes," containing a notice of 
Mr. Emerson] On March 8, 1848, Thoreau asked James Elliot Cabot to se- 
cure a copy for him. See Emile Monte"gut, "Un Penseur et Poete AmeVicain: 
Ralph Waldo Emerson," Revue des Deux Mondes . XIX, pp. 462-493 (l er aout 
1847): 

UN PEJiSEIR ET POETE ASER1CAIN. RALPH WALDO EMERSON. 



I. — huayi, two itriei. — Xa(ure and Lettum on Ike Timet. — London, I81C. 
II. — I'oemi. — London, (847. 



47 



Malgre les relations de plus en plus l'roquenlos qui > i-lali]i>sont outre 
nous ct I'Amoriqiie, nous n'avons encore de ce nioiulo Iniiitain qu uno 
idee asscz fausse. Nous le vovons a travel's lis roniaus di> Cooper. Us 
pocmes do Chateaubriand, quelquefois aussi a travels lis lirils di's 
econoinistes. Tanlot I'Aiucriquc s'ollrc a nousconinio lo pays dos grands 
lleuvcs, des cataractcs, des foivls impeiietrahlos, dos horizons sans 
borncs; tantot olio n'esl plus a nos ycux quo lo pays tin commerce ot 
des chemins dc for. A cote dos iinuieiiscs savancs, a onto du dedalo des 
voios do for ct des canaux, on pom rait cependant explorer lonl mi 
mondc trop pcti coiimi, celui oil s'agito, oil grandit la ponsee anieri- 
caine. Kgalcincnt a I'eearl des vastos solitudes ot dos i ilrs hriiyantcs. 
n'y a-t-il pas en Amcrique dos regions oil l'lioinnie eoliappo a ia lor- 
peurde lisolemcnt eoinnic a la fievrc dos inlurC-W matcricls"? Uui, saus 
doute, et la voos ne rotrouvercz ni l'Ameriquc des podtes ni celle des 
economisles, plus do deserts, mais des terros labourites; plus de vie 
salvage, mais la rudesse domocratique; plus de mtcurs rnmanesqucs, 
mais lo foyer protestant ot la famillc. Penetrans, par exemple, dans 
1'ctol ile Massaolniselts : il y a la one dc ces rotrailes favorisees dont 
nous parlous. Gcttc retraile est un oliarmant collage, ct celui qui I'ha- 
bitc est un sage, Halpli Waldo Kmerson. 

Cost un cottage en face dune colline, lui-momo nous l'apprend. 
Tout aulour do cetto haliitalion la nature so niontre non pas grandiose, 
terrible et sauvage, mais graeieusc, souriante et aitiiablo. « La nature 
dit: « 1,'homine est ma creature, et en dopit do tons scs impertinens 
u chagrins il sera joyeux avec moi... » Au fond des liois jo ne suis 
pas soul el inoonnu : les planles inolinont lour ti'te devant moi, el je 
jciir rends lour saint. » I'our I'liote du cottage, le paysage s'anime en 
effol, il respire jo ne sais quoi de social. « Lo oliarmant paysage que 
j'ai devant les yeux est induliitaldcment forme par quolqiio vingt ou 
tronte formes, et cependant porsonne no pout dire que lo paysage lui 
apparlii ut. » On reconnail di'ja dans oes quolques lignos la inanierc 
d'Kmerson. II y a dans tonics ses descriptions do la nature eomme un 
murmure leger, un bruit paisilde, pared an hoiirilonnemonl des moii- 
clics diiraul les nulls dote, dirait le lakislo Wordsworth. La nature 
cnlii'i'o est pour lui dans le paysage qui entoure sa demeuro. Ton les les 
qualiles, Ions les trails distinolifsdc 1'ccrivam ot du pliilosoplie, la phi- 
losopliie, la sagesse, I'liumanite, la sympalliic avec la nature plulol 
quo I amour do la nature, so retniuvenl dans la description do eeltc 
Unliable ivh iile. et, sill' le seuil de l'habilalion, il soluble deja qu on 
connaisse I'lialiitant, 

Halpli Waldo Kmerson est no ot habile dans lo Massaoluisi lis. a Con- 
cord, il a ile minislrc unilaiie, ol oe fail incrite consideration. Los imi- 
taires soul, do- tons les sootairos proloslans, les plus hardis id lis plus 
inilopendans. lis soul a coup siir les plus demoeratos eoniino les q lin- 
kers sunt les plus philanthropes. Lour exogose foiiriuillc d'lioii sies. 
lla/litl, voulanl designer dun seul mot les heresies dramaliqiics do 
Joanna Haillic. dit quelle est « un unilaiie en poosie. » Kmerson, qui 
s'csl si-pare do son e;:liso a cause do son interpretation do la cene, a 
conserve les loud. moos bardies do celle seole el son impatience Af loule 
animate. « Yoyoz. s'corio-l-il dans uno aposlropbe ironique. cos nobles 
intelligences! olios n'osonl icouler Dion lui-meme a nininsqu'il no parle. 
la pliraseologic do jo no sais quel H.ivid. Jcrcinic on 1'aul. » A Hoston, 
centre ol inolropolo dos unilaires. Kmerson a prommeo qiielques d's- 
cours ploins d'eloqiioiiee sur les lon.laneos conlcmporainos. Kn Isii. 
il a edit uno brochure sur I'J^inaticiiiiilioii ths uiijrcs ilims Irs co'oniis 
anylahr* dc I'/nde occuientule. II rodigo uue publication pcrindiquc 
intitulec the Dial. Les ecrits d'Kmerson poiivent servir a completer ccs 
indications biograpliiques. Nous savons qu'il vit dans la solitude, et il 
laisse cut re voir dans pliisicurs do ses essais qu'il est marie on qu'il la 
i le. L'i'dileiir anglais du pliilosoplie amcricaiu, M. C.arlyle, nous »p- 
prond qu 'Kmerson est riebe on du moiiis au-dessus do tout besoin. 
Cello solitude et eolle aisance siifliraient pour nionlrer on lui line sorto 
de Montaigne purilain. Ouaiil a son caraelere, si nous en croyons qiiel- 
ques passages de ses fcssais, Kmerson aiine niieux I'huinanile quo le 
commerce dos homines, et , comme tons les pensours qui vivent trop 
dans la solitude, il supporte difficilemcnt la contradiction. Si par hasard 
il a soutl'ert. il a ilii soiitlrir avec calme, mais en conconlraiit en lui- 
momo sa soulirance pluttit qu'en la laissant so fondre a la dome llamme 
do la resignation. Sa conversation doit etro timide. rare et a courto 
haloine. Jo no crois pas qu'il ait lo soufllo do I'iniprov isation indelinie. 



Tel jo mo ligure eel bonilllo rciuarquahle. bien dilVerent (surtout quant 
a la faciilte do ('improvisation, do son editeur C.arlyle, ardent esprit , 
qui s'epanebe avec line eloquence sibylline, et jolte on memo temps 
dans ses eruptions liiiinorisliqiies la lavo prociouse et les condres, les 
images do bunco, les gorbes d'otiucellos, les llammcs sulfureuses et la 
plus pure lumiere. 

Kntro eos osprits si diffcrens, il y a cependant ile secretes afl'uiilos. 
L'biimorisle anglais ol lo penseur du Massaolniselts so sentent attires 
I'un vers ('autre. Cost Carlylo qui a fait connaitro Kmerson a I'Anglc- 
torre, cost Kmerson qui a edile les ouvrages de Carlylo aux Klats-l'nis. 
II apparticudrait a Carlylo do nous renseigner plus amploment qu'il ne. 
l'a encore fait sur la vie, les etudes, le caraelere du pliilosoplie aniori- 
cain, priucipalement sur 1' influence qu'il exoroo dans son pays. II yanrait 
interet a savoirquel accuoil les citoyens dos Ktats-l'nis out fait a cello 
philosophic, et si dans cc pays dc I industricetdc I'aclivitc matoriellecos 
reveries do lame out chance do rencoillrcr des disciples et des cnlllOU- 
siasles. ( Vest encore aux i-crils d'Kmerson qu'il faut recourir pour s'eclai- 
rcr sur ce point. Kmerson nous laisse devincr qu'il a cu a suhir bicn 
des critiques. « On a accuse ma philosophic, dit-il dans son Kssni sur 
I' amour, do noire pas sooialo, el on a pretendu que dans nics discours 
publics mini respect pour ('intelligence medonne unc injuste froidcur 
pour les relations porsonnellos. » Ce roproche n'est pas sans quclqiic 
fondoment, mais devait-il parbr dos KUits-Unis? Les relations socialos 
dc r.Vineriquo du Nord sont encore bien grossicres, singuliereinont 
brutalos ot malericllcs, et je ne vois rien d'etonnant a cc qu'unc intel- 
ligence comme cello d'Kmerson ait voulu roagir contrc les mu-urs de 
son pays. Toutelois celle critique niontre que la philosophic d'Kmerson 
a evoille la discussion autour d'ellc. Klrc critique, cost deja avoir do 
l'inlluence; rcslc a savoir si eclte influence est considerable. Dans un 

livro public on Amcriquu ot intitule I'n/iirrs <wr In litleralurc rt farf, 
par Marguerite Fuller, nous Irouvmis la ropoiise a cello question : 
« L inlluenoe d Kmerson iios'otenil pas encore a leavers mi grand espaco 
il esl Imp au-dessus do sou pays et de son leinps pour olio compris lout 
do suite ot onlierenionl'. mais ootte philosophic crouse profoiidomonl t; i 
chaqiio aiinee elar^it son corelo. Kmerson est le prophctc dos lomps 
liieilleurs. In jour on lautre riiillueuoe no pout lui liianqiicr. » Lo 

jour mi aux klats-l'nis la superiorite d'Kinorsoii sera reco ie sans 

op|nisilion. mi ses doctrines auronl do forvonspinselylos. oil la major ilo 
des intelligences so prononcera on sa favour, il y aura un grand olian- 

gc id dans les niii'urs, les habitudes, les tendances do I'Amcrique. 

Mints qui denial ide/ quoliO action losoci'ivaiiisexoroonl sur lour pavs, 
prolile/. du spectacle que vons oll'reul un peuple jeuno et uue nation qui 
n est pas encore fnrnne. Voye/.-la fain* sou education, ol vmis recoil- 
Haiti e/. quelle trace les penseiirs ol les poolos laissenl derriere eux , 
coiiiuienl ils ohangenl la nature lumiaiiieot comhien saus eux olio scrait 
pile encore qu'ollo n"esl. Lodiicalioii progressive des Klals-1'nis est 
poiil-olro lo plus grand spectacle do noire temps. Kilo placera vivanlos 
sous lis yeux drs nations eiiropeciincs les lois du developpemeul do la 
civilisation, poiiiblemenl ol nil iocs jusqu ace jour dans les obscures Ira- 
dilious do li'iir hisloiro. 

Avanl Kmerson. la philosophic qui coiuplail les plus noinhrcux par- 
tisans aux Klals-lnisetail celle dc Thomas ISnivvn, successeurdc Ihigald 
Stewart dans hi cliaire d'Kdimbourg. Celle philosophie, d'un spirilua- 
lisme Ins niilige, esl issue do laimablo ol pen fecoude ecole ccossaise. 
Ileuv volumes do I'r.igiuens de lloiijamiii Conslanl, de lloyor-Collard, 
do JoiilVrny it do M. Cousin, Iraduils on anglais, onlobleim beam imp 
do siieios. Kn admeltaiil quo I'ecole ccossaise, ecole loule do polomiqiu! 
ct qui u'exislerail pas si Hume n'avail point ccrit. pul jeter quolqiio part 
les gcrmes il'iine philosophie, ces gcrmos prosperor.iieul en Amcrique 
inoins que parloul ail lours. Que pout enscignor aux Aniorieains la phi- 
losophic ccossaise"? Uue les homines oroionl >ans raisoinior a 1'exislence 
do la maliere; ils le saveut suflisanunenl, llieu nierci ! Hun autre cote, 
recleclisme n'esl pas uue doctrine propre aux pouples joiines. I.i- 
cleolisme est le dernier resullal aiiquel arrive la philosophie oluv lis 
peuplos qui out beaucoup pense. L'oolootisnie repose sur line suite do 

traditions philusophiqucs, ol les Amorioains non mil auciinc. K rson 

est lo premier qui . en Aiiiorique, ail ereiiso la lerre du sol natal pour 
en lairo j.nlbr do nouvolles sources philosophiqiies. 



48 



II. y a flic/ KiiiiM'soii mi philnsophe el tin pode. Quelle place l'aiil-il 
llli nssigner pnrmi Irs philosophes ct parmi K-s jioi-to? U'H-lIc <l«)c tiiiu<, 
cnlln, jii'iit-(ui ijror tie sos cerits? Cost line double qucstiun a nsou- 
dre: oc sera |c siijct des deux parlies do colic elude. 

I. 

Kiiiitsoii est mi sago rommc Montaigne, rommc Cliarrun . rommc 
Shakespeare. Voila ses voritables mailros. II nous apprend que, pen- 
dant mi temps, il se pril d'amunr pour Montaigne, se persuadanl ipi'il 
n'aurait jamais liesoin d'uu aulre livre. el puis que eel onlhousiasino 

se porta sur Shakespeare. II est, run eu\. on eliereheur sans fir* 

phi loi qu'un pliilusoplie dogmatiquc. lei. nous dcinus faire remanpier 
la dillirenee qui e\is|e entre le sap! dans les temps aneieiis el le sage 
dans les lomps modernes. Le sago dans les temps aneii us elail plusdng- 
malique. Clii'Z Sot-rate, Xenon, Sonequc I , il y a nil esprit luen plus 
systciiialiquc, line logique lijeu plus ri gnu reuse que elie/ la plnparl 
des sa^es modernes. An milieu de la \ ie des sens, eomliiile par liuis les 
caprices, dngmaliscr, c'ost-a-dire eoneentrer sa pensee sur mi soul 
poinl et renter sa vie sur line seule pensi'e, e'elait viaiinenl elre sage 
alors. Dans les temps modernes. la pensec a eu plus d'liori/ons, les 
|miuls de vue se sunt multiplies el les sciences agrandios: niaisaussi 
1'espril luimain et la vie liumaine out mi devanl en\ plus de preci- 
pices, d'ouibuehos, de trappes lie loule espece. Alois le genie du sago 
csl deveiui la circonspeclion et la prudence: le sage a ele u loins auda- 
eieux que dans I'auliqiiilc, mais plus ruse. Mart-haul avec hesitation, 
sou veil I il a etc sceplique ctacru faire assez en inainlenant rcquilihri! 
do I'linmmc au milieu de taut tie piegos. Tel est le role qu'nnl joue 
Montaigne, Charrnn el Shakespeare, le grand nbservaleur. Kmersoii 
remplit le memo role d'obsorvalcur et tie eliereheur sans lin. avec unc 
audaco et line concentralion tie pensee tpii It: rapproihenl en ineinc 
temps ties sages tit; I'antiquitc. 

Ileux choses eonsliliient le sage dans les temps modernes : I'ahsence 
dc I'esp- it dogmatiquc et la criliipie ties principes. I.es penseiirs qu'on 
pent ranker dans retle famille de sagos n'out guore de syslomo precis. 
Lour genie est hien plutot tie senlir la verile que de I'evpliquor. Chez 
dux, (toint tie niethoile, tl'art, si Ton cnlend par la le lalenl 'le la com- 
position et le hid equilihrc ties parlies, pen de raisonueinens suhlils et 
nu'taphysiques. || y a souvent des conlradiclionsdans leurs ecrils: qui le 
nicr.r.'Lcur valour pour cola n'est pas remise en question. Lnrsqu'uu plii- 
losophe dogmatiquc arrive a se eontredire, tout esl penlu pour lui, les 
travaux tie sa vie enlierc tomhent en poussiere; mais la seule airairc 
du sage est tic penser sans clagucr aucune ties penscos ipii pourraieiit 
conlrarier un systome doja etahli on des opinions aiilerieurement 
emises. Aus-i il exprimo des scntimens, ties ideos, ties opinions memo 

(I) II c-l iimii.1. dc mppclcr, pour prouvpr frtti- nsM-rlitm. ili-s ,itr.iu-4i U'-s lira ni-'ou- 
reusciiu.nl logiquci tic l'\rrliun cl tic qudiiucs slokicus. 

conlradicloircs, en leg donnant |>onr tics doulcs tpii sc son teveillcs dans 
son esprit, Lorsque |e pliilusoplie dogmatiquc a une fois siisi une idee, 
•1 la feconile; lors<|u il a Irouve une verile, il la fonuule el la pose 
touuiie loi. I.e sage, au conlraire, reunil loutes les pensees coniine au- 
tant tie sujels de reflexion et tie travail. L'n hcscarlos el un Leibnitz 
•out, il faut lavoucr, les legislaleurs do la verile, ceux qui trouvent le 
prineipe et forinulenl la loi; mais aussi un Montaigne, un Cliarron. un 
Kmcrson, sont, si je puis le dire, les jurisles et les critiques tie la ve- 
rile : ils appliqucut I'mllexihle el iiniuuahle verile aux actions des 
homines, el souvent ils se senleul embarrasses. He la, inlerprelations tie 
priuei|ies, eouuueulaires moraux, antinomies; tie la sceplieisine com me 
dans Montaigne ou routine dans Kmcrson, thseours el rapporls d oppo- 
sition, pour<|u'oil se incite a la recherche tie I dales iioiim lies, les an- 
ciennes lie |Nluvant suflire. Voila le role utile ties sages; ils soul les cri- 
tiques des priuei|ies. 

La verile, que le sage ne saurail pas foriunlcr en lois, il sail, nous le 
repdoiis, lappliqucr aux ados de la lie de cbaque jour. Auisi il fail 
I education dc Illumine, redrossant chaque tort a mesure qu'il se pre- 
senle. II domic sou opinion sur les eas particuliers et les fails isolcs. 
Itfltc manure tie penser et de jugcr se reticle dans sa maniere d'ecrirc. 
Ilecrit non |Hiur laisscr un cdilice, mais pour donucr son opinion sur tel 
OU lei sujeltpii s'est prcscnlc asa pensee. It ahaiitloune ad'autrcs la gloirc 
d'clcvcr un monument philosophiquc, car souvent il considcrc la gloire 



bumainc coiiimu unc vanitc; mais oe qu'il uc considcrc pas comma 
vaincsctfri voles, ee wilt lesorroursot Icsmccliancctcsluuuaincs 1 il sait 
<|u'il tloil les combuttre, et quo la premiere verile, cost tie dclruire I'er- 
reur. II est content lorsqu'il a cxprimc une pensee, decouvert un senti- 
ment, jete un simple apborisme. II ecrit un peu a batons roiupus, sans 
ensemble commc sans svslemc, nc s'inquietant pas do ['ensemble, mail 
bien plutot du detail. On a reproche a Shakespeare tie manquer d'unitc; 
'I a vraiment bien autre chose a faire : il faut que loutes scs observa- 
tions prennent place dans sou o'uvre, et pour cola il creera tlans scs 
tragedies des episodes sans rapports immediate avec le sujet, ties per- 
sonnages secondares, uniquement |iour verifier unc ou deux observa- 
tions, pour mettro en lunucrc unc ou deux maximes. La metbodc du 
sage est simple : die consistc a se coidier a sa pensec et a sa nature. La 
spontaneile a le pas cbez lui sur la meditation. Ce nest point I absence 
d'education et dc culture qui determine cette s|K>ntaneile dc concep- 
tion. Ce qui l'explique, c'cst I'babiludc de penser habitucllemenl ct con- 
tinucllcmcnt. Alors les idecs sc prescntcnt en foule ct sans efforts : dies 
s'appuient les uncs sur les autres sans logique apparcntc, mais au fond 
avec un encbainement d'aulanl plus naturcl qu'il est lc fruit dune 
longue sine de meditations. La plante donne sans interruption ses 
fcuilles, ses houlons el ses (leurs, car c lie a pris sa force et sa seve tlans 
cessoinsquc lui out piwligues les travaux lahns tie I'espril. Voila eoin- 
ineiitje coinprends le sage; Kmersoii appartient a eelte classe tie pbi- 
losophes. 

Kmerson a loutes les ipialiles du sage : loriginalile, la spnnlantilf. 
lohservatiou sagace, la tlelic.de analvse, la critique, labsence tie dog- 
lnalisine. II rassemble Ions les maleriaux dune pbilosopbie sans par- 
venu 1 a la rciluirc en sysleme; il pense un pen an basartl el reve sou- 
venl sans Irouver tic liinilcs bien lives on s'arrele cette reverie. La 
principalc qualile tin sage, tpii esl la erilitpie, est emineiite dans Kmer- 
soii. II tlit tlans un tie scs essais : « L bointeopalhie est insigniliante 
coniine art tie gllerir, mais dune grande valeur coniine criliipie tie 
I'bvgiene el tie la pratique medirale de noire temps. II en est aiusi du 
mamielisme. tin swetlenborgisme. tin foiirierisme el tie 1'eglise millc- 
nieime. Ce sont tl'assez panvres pntenlions, mais tie bonnes critiques 

do la science, tie la philosophic el tin culle tin jour. » I.es liv res d'K r- 

soil soul aussi fori reinarquahles. non-senlenienl par la philosophic 
qu'ils renlermenl, mais enenre par la criliipie tie noire lomps. Nos s\s- 
loiiiesdemocraliqueseloull'entils riiuliuthi au sein des masses. Kmer- 
soii so leve et protosle hardiilieut au iiom ties droits tie la porsoiuialilc 
Immaine. L'egoisnie nous eiiiabit, la richesse el 1'nuibilion noussol- 
licilenl : Kmersoii preml lindividu et lui tlit : «Crois-en la pensee. « 
Lintlustrie lue lidoal. die so promene a Iravers le nioiule, le procla- 
mant sa conqmMe : Kmersoii, apres Jean-Paul qui la lldril si enorgi- 
queiueutsous le nom A'arlohllrie, apres Carlyle qui la nomine un A< ; - 
nnfinr suns yeux , lui reproclic do manquer d'amour et lui declare 
quelle nc sera vivantc qu'apros avoir banni regoisme tie son sein. Li 
manic ties vovages nous tlislrail, les louristes ridicules abondent parmi 
nous; Kmerson baptise les voyages du nom tie paradis dm fuus. Nous 
nous trainons dans lornierc tie Part; n'osant pas penser d'mie maniere 
originate , nous ecriions des biographies el dcs critiques: Emerson nous 
invective oinercment : « I'ourquoi n'aurions-nous pas un art original, 
une pbilosopbie d'intllilion et non plus de tradition? Nos pores conlem- 
plaicnt Oieu fate a face, ct nous a travcrs leurs yeux. Le solvit brille 
encore anjounlbui. » Partoul il nous montre nos inlifiniles, et, eonuue 
un apolre tin progres, se leve et semble repeter les hollos paroles tie 
Fausl • « Lc niontlc desesprits nest pas ferine. Heboul! haigne, disciple, 
intaligablement la poilrine feconile dans la pourpre tie laurore. » C'est 
un sago: aussi rien nc 1 etoiuie ct nc lellraic; il se moqiic sculenient 
de noire pretendu bien-etre ct pense que noire vie pourrait elre jilus 
simple et plus aisee que nous nc la I'aisous. lies hauteurs screines oil il 
trouve le calme, il rcganle noire montle, juge que nous en faisons 
un cnler, ruille nos descspoirs ridicules et nos malbcurs volonlaircs, cl 

croit qu'il nc scrait pas liesoin do lanl tie grinccmrns de dents et de 
mains turdues de rwje. II est d'ailleurs pie in d'equite pour les doctrines 
ct la socii'le quit critique; il trouve que les consorvaleurs out ties prin- 
cipes legitimes, il pense que les transrendantiilislrs pourraienl bien avoir 
raison; il no fait pas li do nos doctrines soeialisles. II va cbereber ses 
anionics a travcrs Ihistoire enlierc tie la pbilosopbie, coinnio Mini- 



taignc sis e xcniplcs dans It's eolltlllllcs ill' Inns lis pcuplcs. it npl'i'* 
avoir ironic iiinsi Ionics Irs iloclriiics llloill'l'lll s iltcc cninplaisiiur el 
patience, ciiiiiiiii! mi |ihil<M«>|ilir antique ses sen ilcurs el set \nlsin«. II 
rnmpl Ic sili'iui' |iniir nuns donnor des iii,i\iinrs qu'nu ilirail sorties 
lanlul ili' I'iVoIu dii l*oi'ti«|iic , coinmc cello-ei ; u |-'ais liiiijimrs 1 c • | itc 
In as | it-iir <l<- fairc; i. lanlul des jardins ill! I' Academic, cnininc t clle-la: 
o I'll ami est nn liommc avec lctpiel jo |>nis limjiilirs i-lrc shunt', n 
Quanl i'i Ini, il rniinait scs devoirs dc philosophc. el il si- n piti- pour 
lui-mciiic li! Hint ili' Sidney : « Descends ilillis lull ctcur I't ooris. u 

Emerson, nuns I'iivoiis (lit, apparlicill anssi a la laniillc do sages ail- 
cii'iis par certains cities: il loir rcsscmhlc parson aiitlaccnu |ilulul par 
sa |iiiissiiiiii! ili' coiiccnlralion. |iarsoii raraclcrc. Ccci lent i-lre cxpli- 
quc. I .a forme tic I'rssai rsl singulicrcinciil prnprc a reccxoir Ionics 
les imaginations I'orluiles, lollies les icu'iies, limit's les pensi vs liasar- 
dccs qui sunt Ic parlage tin moralislc el ili' I'liumorislc. TohI Ic nioildo 
sail cc qu'esl ilcvcnu I'cssai cnlrc les mains tic .Montaigne. Emerson 
aussi a jctc scs pensccs ilans cello forme ilc I'cssai si rcpauduc dans la 
liltcraliirc anglaiso. nil file a prodilit des chcls-d'u'iiuc: inais. lout en 
l'cniployaul. il la singulierement niodificc. Oui dil 1 essai anglais dc- 
puis Addison jusqu'a lla/lill cl Lamb ilit ['humour a\cc scs millc sail- 
lies, scs detours sans tin, scs ponsces iniprcviics, <lit enlin !o inani|iie 
d'uniti- radicle par la rieliessc el I inliiiie varicte lies details. II y a dans 
Emerson ini art dc ei>ni|iositiou tgui le distingue tics aulres inoralislcs. 
Chacuii dc scs essais aliunde en details el en observations; inais, arrive, 
a la lin dii rhapilro, on doeoiivre tres hicn I'liarinonic sous eel apparent 
desordre. Cc <pii leur iinprime eelle unite, e'esl Ic carai tire tic Iccri- 
vain. « Ik's essais, dil Cariylc, soul les soliloques dune anie vraie. » 
Nous lie croyons pas en ell'et i|u'Klllcrson ccmc pour fairc parade tie, 
sagacilc el dc science: ee ne soul pas seiilenicnt scs imaginations et scs 
pensccs qu'il nous doune, e'esl encore >on caraclerc. II unit la penetra- 
tion tin critique, la linesse tin moralislc a la lenacile dc I'apiilro el a 
raudacc du predicant purilaiu. Voila cu quoi il sc ratlaclic a la lignce 
ilcs sagos .nititpics : il a dc ceux-ci la tone ct le caractcro: il a tics sages 
model lies la prudence ct la reverie. 

Kn vci tu dc telle double parculc, Emerson est a la foi> nil moralislc 
cllecrcaleurd'unc pliilosopliie morale. I'ar sa resseinlilance a\oc eelte 
famillc d esprils donl Montaigne est le pore, il esl un inoralisle, par sa 
ressemblance avec les sages dc i'antiquitc, il tend a criger ses medita- 
lions en doctrines, a en lirer en quclquc sortc one philosophic morale. 
II convient de deflnir exactement ces deux termes, afin tic distingucr 
les deux caraclercsdu talent d'Emcrson. La philosophic morale chcrehc 
aetablir l'immuable dans ce qui est instable, lelcrncl dansle passagcr, 
la regie an milieu dc lanarchie des passions humaines: cllc clove la vie 
humainc a la hauteur de I'absolu, elle fait dc la sagesse la science dc 
la vie. Les moralistes, au contrairc, sont ccux qui se plaiscnt essential- 
lement au phenomene et au passagcr, ccux (|uc ccttc varicte inflnic dc 
faiblesscs ct de desirs atlirc, qui comptent, cxpliquent et reelierehent 
les plus secretes corruptions du creur, les plus sublils lourmensde l'cs- 
prit, les innombrablcs dcfaillances dc lame: La Rochefoucauld, La 
Bruyerc, Addison. II \ a beaucoup du moralislc dans Emerson, ct, si Ton 
pouvait prophctiser sur des choscs aussi picnics dc hasards que les trans- 
formations du talent, jc dirais qu'il viendra un jour on lc philosophc 
s'effaccra chez Emerson derricre le moralislc. Deja, dans scs dcrnicrs 
essais, la transformation est prcsquc aceomplie. 

Ccttc philosophic morale nous suggerc unc rellexion que nous ne pou- 
vons ocarlcr, ct tpii sc ratlaclic cu plus dun point a notrc sujet. I'no 
pliilosopliie purcment morale est un mauvais augure pour le temps oil 
elle apparail; cllc indique unc cpoque troubleo, indecisc, plcinc d'lie- 
silation. Le penscurdetourne les ycuxde la socictc qui rcntourc, parcc 
qu'il nc sail pas bien au juste oil cllc va; il sc renferme en lui-mome, 
csperant au moins qu'il |>ourra Irouver plus facilement le but oil 
1'liomme isolc dc la foulc, l'individu doit tendrc. Bans'les societcs sta- 
bles ctsolidcmenleUiblies au contrairc, les doctrines mctaphysiqucs re- 
gnent, cl les consequences morales en decoulcnl tout natiircllenicnt. 
Avant dc penser a notrc terrc, on pense a I'univcrs; avanl tie penscra 
l'liiunanile, on |>cnsc a cc tpii est en dehors d'clle. Aloes les principes 
mctaphysiqucs precedent les principes dc morale, les engendrent ct 
leur commandent. C'cst tpiantl l'liommc nc Irouve rien a criliqucr a sa 
situation ni ii sa vie qu'il chcrehc a resoudrc les ctcrncls problemes du 
principe des choscs, de la creation, de l'infitii. Le jicnseur cl la socicte 



49 



%lTitltl Kin t'l I'yiilrtt tlallH In rtglllaritt) el I'ohlCd ftfCliOKlienl lc.« ques- 
llotin qui fC|K«*nl sur I'ordfd cl Id n>gUlArlUS la science cl Plioimne 
Mint en rapport Ittimudlat. La pliilosopliie morold, oil ruitlrairc, nest 
Jamais I'cfUvre d'une ipoque satlsfttllo (IcIlo-mtMnc; elle est one sorte 
do reprochc dc la conscience) cllc rcsscmblc h un rcmonls. Elle est 
comme une Justification ou unc condamnatlon , commc un plaidoycr 
pour ou centre. Lorsqu'uno phllosophle purcmenl morale sc prescntc, 
il faut quo l'liommo ot la socieW aient quelque chose a sc rcprochcr; il 
faut quo I'liomme ait perdu ou du moins oublic le vrai sens dc scs de- 
voirs, puisqu'il taut qu'on le lui rappelle; il faut qu'il ait cxagcre quel- 
que principe ou qu'il en ait obscurci quelque autre. Ccttc pensce est 
suggercc par la lecture de chaqnc page d'Emcrson. 

Quelle place doivent occiqier |>armi les livres philosophiqnesles En- 
tail d'Emcrson? Lc* J-.'tiait de Montaigne ont etc nommes le breviairc 
des honnetcs gens, c'esl-a-dire un dc ces livres donl I'liomme honiicte 
doil lire chaquc jour quelqucs pages. Les K*tah d'Emcrson peuvent 
t!tre Ins moins freqiiemment; c'cst le soir, lorsque la conversation dc- 
vienl serieusc et elevee. qu'on pcul les apprecicr. lla/lill. le spiritucl 
crilitpie, I'ctineelant Immorisle. a fait un livre intitule Tablt Talk (con- 
versations dc table). Ce sont des essais brillans et pleiusdc verve sur les 
sujets les plus divers, sur des sonnets de Milton, sur un paysage du 
Poussin, sur la peinlurc, sur la lecture des vieux livres, etc. Eh bien! 
il me semble que les f-.'ssais d'Emcrson |>ourraient s'appclcr lc Vulde 
Talk ties philosophcs. Nill livre nest micux fait |>our etre In par unc 
reunion tie |>enseurs, |K>tir leur apportcr dc noinbreiix sujets de dis- 
cussion, |iour clever et |ioiiraniincr leurs cntrcliens. Emerson a ccrit Ic 
Tahlr talk des sages; lla/litt nous a donne le Tabic Talk des arlisles ct des 
poetes. 

Si, comme philosophc, Emerson apparlienl a la famillc des mora- 
lislcs niodcriies et des sages anciens, commc eerivain , il est par excel- 
lence un de ces esprit* rare* qui apparaisscnt dans les litteraliires, 
qiiflqiicfois pour teiiir la place des genies createiirs, quelipicfois pour 
les seconder nil pour tenter des voies nonu'llcs. Les ileux nonis dc 
Thomas Carlylo et tic Henri Heine ituliqiicront stifllsammenl tic quelle 
classe tl'esprits nous Minions parler. Ces deux homines s'clcvenl eer- 
laiiicmciit liicn au-dessus du niveau intclleetuel tie leur pays, comma 
Emerson au-dessus de la lilterature aincricaiue. Je ne crois pas qu'on 
puisse attribiier les dons tin genie a ces deux eerivains, el ccpeiulanl on 
convieiiilra que re sunt deux esprils bien tliflicilcs a Irouver cl a rcni- 
placer. I'll de leurs mcriles esl tie |touvoir crecr et |MMiser tlune nia- 
niere originate au milieu tics homines dc genie et aprcs eux. I'.cncra- 
leincnl, de tcls homines suppleenl a la puissance par I'originalilc; ils 
nc foul pas la gloire d'une lilterature, mais ils la prolougeiil: ils nc I'out 
pas faire de grands pas a la soeiele, mais ils eontiuuent a tenir son in- 
telligence en haleine. Ils inainlienncnl la vie inlcllecliielle, voila leur 
veritable gloire. ItallS le nieine siirlc que Voltaire, Jcan-Jaetpics et 
Montcstpiit u, Bidcrot, esprit rare s'il en fill, ajoulc encore a la gloire 
philosophiqiic du xviu' siecle. Aprcs- la grantlc gcncralion qui, en Alle- 
magneel en Anglelerre, a in •rquc si glorieusemenl le eoinmeneement 
de ce siecle, Henri Heine el T .onias Carlyle inainliennent, I'mi Ic muii- 
vement |MM ; liipie el |>olilique de r.\lleniagne, l'autre les traditions dc 
Vhiimnur anglaise cl de I'cspril proleslant. 

Ces enprin rare*, parmi lesquels nous [daeons Emerson, n'ont pas 
ccttc eloquence qui natt d'une pensec forte ct continue; inais its ont l'clo- 
quencc de linstinct, si jc puis dia*, une elwpicnce essentiellemenl ca- 
pricieuse. Cc ne sonl que des eclairs, mais des eclairs continuels qui 
naisscnt les mis ties aulres, cngendres par la rhalcurdc limagination. 
Si je pouvais me scrvir tic ces expressions scienliliques, jc dirais que 
Icicctricite dominc chez eux les aulres agensde la vie. Lc liasard dc la 
pensce les mailrisc; ils s'abandonuent a ces fortuites combinaisons d i- 
dees et d'images fournics par la menioirc et ('imagination, a ccttc elo- 
quencc iinprevuc, a celte verve cutrainaule que seul le genie sail 
contcnir. ("est aussi Ic liasard de la pensce qui enlrainc Emerson; mais, 
chez lui, cet abandon n'a ricn de dangereux. Le moralislc amcricain 
|H'ut se conller au courant dc ses reveries avec la certitude de ne jamais 
perdre dc vue ni le but a atlciinlre, ni lc cheinin parcoiiru. Le flotdc 
sa uietlitatiou monte Icntcmcnt, mais il nc devic cl nc s'abaissc jamais. 
Lorstpieje lis un poetc, un oratcur, un philosophc, jc distingue onli- 
nairemenl Ic moment oil il va prendre son cssor pour devenir eloquent. 
II \ a alors un mouvcineiit iuallendu, comme unc excitation impriince 



50 



a ['imagination aiiu qu die puisso s'elancer, un effort souvont faclice, 
tin coup d'aile. (Ihi'z Emerson, il n'y a rii'ii de pared. Sa pensee s'elove 
mii? effort ot sans bruit, graducllcmcul et sans precipitation; il arrive a 
(eloquence sans iju'on so soil npcrru qu'il allail I'altcindrc. I'm.' fois ar- 
rive a nnceerlaine hauteur, il s'arroto et so plate dans unc sorto tie re- 
gion intcrmediaire entrc la terrc el le eiel; aussi sa pliilosophic ovilc- 
l-cllc Icsiiiconvcnicnsdii mysticisnieet les lieux eouiiuunsde la morale 
ordinaire. In enllioiisiasme i|ui n'est pas do I'exallalion, une suite d'e- 
laneeinent ipii nest pas dn desir, une contemplation qui nest pas dc 
1'cxlase, une imagination toute dc lame teinle des relicts les plus purs 
de la nature, le soutiennent dans celte sphere intermediaire enlre le 
inonde visible et I inline 1) en haul il voit riiiiinauilc, il eiiteud lesder- 
niers limits de la terre, devenus plus purs a mesurc ij nils moutaient, et 
il eontemple suns eblouissemcnt la lumiere du eiel. II y a un mot qui 
revienl souvent dans ses Eisait : « Je crois a leteniile. » Kt olVoctivc- 
menl, ses ccrils seinhlent porter lempreinle de celte eroyance: une lu- 
miere venue d'en haul en eclaire toutes les parties d'une cgale Incur, 
l'as d'cblouisscmens eommc ehe/. les mystiques, pas de leintes d'au- 
rorc, de clair-obscur, de crcpiiscule, et de Ions ecs etl'els du slyle 
modcrne, inais une lumiere bienfaisantc et salutaire propre a lain: 
gernirr el inurir la pensee, ear e*est un relict de la lumiere morale. 
I'll passage sur la beanie morale que j'exlrais de son opuscule intitule 
Suture fcra niieux apprceicr ec qu'il \ a d'elevation dignc ct austere 
dans cette pensec sans vulgarilo tonune sans enllure. 

« l.a presence dc l'dcmonl spirilucl est cssenlicllc pour la perfection dc la 
bcautl dc la nature. La haute et divine hcauto, qui pent Aire aimcc sans niol- 
lessc, est cello que nnus trouvons unie k la volontc humane it qui 11*1:11 prut 
ctrc separee. La lieauto est la marque que llieu iinprime sur la vcrtu. Chaque 
action naturelle est grarieuse. Chaque action heroique est du plus hicnscanle, 
ct force le lieu oil elle s'accomplit et les spertateurs a rosplendir autour d'clle. 
Les grandes actions nous ensoignent que I'univcrs est en rcta la propriotc de 
chaque individu. Toute creature ralioiinelle a la nature entiere pour sou douairc 
ct son domaine. l.a nature est a I'lionunc s'd le veut. II peut se Soparer d'elle; il 
pent sc retirer dans un coin ct abdiqiier son myaunio, couinie |,i pi u part des 
homines le foul; inais par sa constitution il est enchaiuc au inonde. II (ire le 
inonde a lui en proportion de I'cnergie de sa volontc. et de sa pensee. « TmuIus 
les choses au mnyrn dcsqucllcs les hoiuines navigucnt, ronstruisont it lahou- 
rcut, obcisscnt a la vei'lu, >i dit un aneien liistoriell. u l.es vents et lis values 
KOIlt toujour* du cote du plus habile navigateur, » dtl Cihhon. Ainsi du suli'l, 
de la lune et de lous les aslres du eiel. I.orsqu'une uolile aetioll est aienillplie 
par liasiinl dans une seine d'une grande lieauli: nalurelle; lorsque Lcoiiidus et 
ses Irois rents martyrs inetlent tout un jour il mourn', el ijue lesoleil el la lune 
viciuient Pun apres I'aulre les conteinpler ilans I'etroit dclile des Thcrnlopylcs; 

lorsqu'Arnold de Winkelriecl rccueille dans son Dane i gcrlic de lances autri- 

chiennes pour nuvrir la lignc a ses rnnipagnons, au milieu des halites \lpes, 
sous I'omhro dc I'avalani lie : est-ie que res hems n'ajoulonl pas la lieaule de la 
scene a la hcaute de faction? I.nrsque la liarque de Colomh approclie du nvagc 
americain, que le Imrd de la mer se garnit de sauvagrs sortant de luurs Imttcs 
de roseaiix , que la mer s'ctoud par derriere et les nmntugiics pourprees de I'ar- 
rliipcl iinlien tout aulour, pouvons-nous separer riionime de l.i peinture vi- 
vante? ICst-cc que le Nouveau-Moiide, avec ses bosquets du palmier* el ses sa- 
vanes, no I'enveloppe pas is, nunc d'une lielle draperie'.' Toujours d'une niemc 
faeon, la lieaute naturelle consent il s'ellaeer et enveloppe les •.'ramies actions. 
Lorsque sir Marry Vane Cut aniene a la Tour, iissis dans un loniliereaii , pour 
souirrir l,i morl conime chainpion des lois anglaisos, quelqu'un de la inullitude 
s'ecria : « Votis n'avez jamais cu un siege aussi glurioux ! » Charles II, pour in- 
tiiuiiler les citoyens de l.ondres, lit trainer a I'ecliafaud le patriotc lord lius- 
sell dans une voiture ouverto parini les principalis roes de la villi . Pour nie 
scrvir du simple recit de sou liiographc, n la inullitude s'imagiua qu Vile voyait 
la liberie et la vertu assises a ses cnles. » Parini lis ohjuls les plus snrdides, 1111 
acle veridique oil IhTuique sen, hie allirer a lui le eiel eolllllle son temple, et le 
sole 1 1 colli ine son llaniheau. l.a nature el, oil ses bras pour 1 Ireimlre riiouune, 
pourvu que nos peiisees soient il'iine grandeur cgale .1 la sieiuie. Voloiitiers elle 
seme sous ses pas la r,,se et la viol, tic, el courlie les lignes de sa grandeur et de 
sa grace pour la decoration de son enfant cheri. I 11 hoiiunu vcrtu, u\ est in 
unisson avec les niii'iirsdc la nature et se fait la liguru eentrale du inonde visible. 
Ilninere, I'indare, Soerate, I'liocion, s'associent eiix-iiicines dans noire uieiuoiru 
avec la geographic el le 1-t1111.it de la (iri'ce. Li's rieux Msdiles et la terre -;m- 
patliisrnt avec Jesus. Hans la vie commune, quiconque a \u un lioiuuie d'un 
puissant caracli'ie et d'un heureux genie aura reinarque avec quelle aisance il 
attire ii lui les cli-ises qui t'eiiloureut; — les persunnes, les opinions, le juur, la 
nature, deviennent les servituurs de I'liomuie. > 

Emerson ne s'elevc pas moins baut quand il vioiit a parler de l'his- 
toire : 



« L'esprit liumain ecrit son liistoire et doit la lire. Lc sphinx doit res,, mire sa 
propre eniglllO. Si toute I'llistoire est dans un hoinuie, elle peul elle lullte cx- 
pliquee par I'cxpurience imlividuelle. II y a une relation enlre hs lieui'esile 11,, Ire 
>ic et les siecles du temps. Conime lair que je respire est tire des grands reser- 
voirs de la nature, conime la luiniere qui toinbe sur moll livru mi nt d'une ctoile 
distanle de cent millions de indies, eouune le pmds de moil caps depend de 
l'equilihre dis forces centrifuge el eenlripele, aiilsi les hemes devraiellt etro 
instruites par les ages, et les ages expliques par les Inures. Chaque individu est 
une incarnation dc l'esprit umvurscl. Tonics les proprieles de eel esprit s'accordent 
en lui. Chaque pas dans I'existence pri*ee jelte une lumiere sur re qu'onl accom- 
pli lis gr. miles masses des homines, et les i rises de la vie se rapporleul aux crises 
nalo , Males. Chaque revolution futd'ahord line pensee privur, et, lorsipie la IlienlC 
pensee se presentera a un autre hoinuie, il aura trouve la ele du sieele. Cha- 
que nforuie lui d'abord une opinion particulierc, ct. lorsque de nouveau elle 
deviendra une opinion partivuliere, la solution du prohleme sera tiouvee. l.e fait 
raconle doit eorrespondre a quelque chose en 11101 pour etie crovalile nu seule- 
iiient iiilelligihle. Lorsque nous lisons, nous devmis nous lane decs, Itouiains, 
Tures, pretre, roi, martyr et hourreau; IlilUS devmis rallailn i ces images a quel- 
que realite eaclne dans notre experience secrete, sinon in, us no virions rien, 
nous u'apprendrous rien, nous ue retiemlrons rien. Ce qui est arrive a Asdruhal 
Ct a Cesar llorgia est une illustration de la puissance et des depravations de 
l'esprit, aussi hien que ce qui nous est arrive. Chaque nouvelle loi, chaque inou- 
\eini nl politique a son sens en vous. Id gar, I,/, eharuue de ces lois el elites : 
a lei est une de lues pensees. Sous ce masque fantaslique, odieux on giaeieux, 
ma nature de I'rotee se cache. » Ceci renudie au defaut de la trop grande pioxi- 
mite dc nos propres actions et les jelte dans la perspective, lie Illume que I'c- 
crcvisse, le scorpion, la halauce, perdeut leur hassesse lorsqu'ils sunt suspendus 
au-dessus de ma tete eouune sigues du /.odiaquc, amsi je puis voir sans pas- 
sion nos propres vices dans les person lies eloignees de Salomon, d'Alcihiadc ct 
de Calilina. » 

II y aclicz Kmerson un sentiment de la nature exquis et penetrant 
plutot c|uc large. Ne clierchcz pas dans ses cssais les gramls scntiiuens 
a la J(!un-Jaeques et les eutbousiasmes a la Diderot. Le sentiment qu'il 
eprouve pour la nature tient de la sympatlue plus que de I'amour. 
Quand il enlre sous ses ombrages, c'csl pour rafraicbir son front ct dis- 
traire s;i pensee. Ces promenades, ces contemplations, lui apparaissent 
cotnnicaulantde bains salulaircs |iour lame ct le corps, qui se rctrem- 
pent dans lair exUirieur et rcgagnent en regardant le eiel l'energie 
perdue ilans la lultedc chaque jour. C'esl le cote rcligieux de la nature 
qui latlire et lui fait rencontrer, en les adoucissant, les images bibli- 
ques : « Si un bomme vit avec Dieu, sa voix deviendra aussi douce que 
le murmure du ruisseau et le fremissement de la moisson. » Tout ce 
que la nature a d'immateriel, la grace, la fraicheur, le parfum, l'bar- 

monic, Emerson le scut vixement el le repand dans ses pages. On croit 
y surprciiihc lc murmure de la iiioissoii quand idle se combe sous le 
veut. I'mlcni'ilii pin loiiieiix, lc biiuiiluniieniciit des insecles. II \ a la. 
vraimeiil un senliinenl original, la contemplation est pour le moral isle 
americain Yhygifur «V I'ainr. On a rappele.a propnsd 'Emerson, le iiuui 
d'Obermann. Je ue crois pas qu'il \ ait enlre eux le moindre rapporl. 
Emerson, fort de sa couviclinu morale, voit lout en bien el dit que la 
nature nf/ii uir toujour* un nptimhmr, jamais un prssimismr. Oberniann, 
louriiaill partoiit ses regards eunuve*. ne rencontre que lassitude et ile- 
goul, eotnnie 1111 malade qui. vovanl tout en jaiuie. aflirmerail que 
sa perception esl la seule \raie. L'un. plein dc sanle, est solitaire par 
force de caractire: laulic I, ingiiissanl, plilhisique. est solitaire par fai- 
bb-sse tie cu'iir el lacbcle morale. 

La sympatliie religiense d'Emerson pour la nature se moutre snrlout 
dans ses poesies. || sen exhale comme 1111 parfum de lleurs s.iux.igcs. 
Tons |cs bruits li'gers. Ionics les notes confuses que le eahne des I'oiels 
pcrinel d'elllendre. vibreul dans les paroles mclodieiiscs quT.mersou 
adressc au Mil silence des solitudes. Qiielqucfois, inais hop iiirenient, 
sa pensee joue axee lc vent, eric din- I'l'space. ei xa cbercber dans les 
regions loiiilaiues lc- penetrans parliuns d'Hatiz el de Saadi, 011 les apres 
odems des lirtiv ores du Nord. Ordinairemenl ses vers no Iradnisent 
qu'llll scul senliinenl, qu un scul culle, ecliii <U' la solitude, l.es per- 
sonnages ct les inlerloculeurs du poi'te americain sunt les arbres, les 
rocliers. les linages, qui seinhlent lui racoiilci les lustoires des temps 
qu'ils out xii s'ciixolcr. Sous ces umbrages lc sage a Irouve son Ely- 
see, le puritaiii a Irouve son Eden bihlique. II \ a dc la lumiere el dc la 
COllleur dans ses vers, uiais c'esl cette lumiere qui nappailient qu aux 
solitudes somhrcs et aux hois cpais. celte lumiere que les Anglais ex- 
piiinciil parfailcmeill par ces mots : Sum"/ wiiaih, sunny yrnres Uiis 



51 



brillans (It: sulci I . (> mot, qui manque dans noire laiiguo, me semblc 
cxprimer ailinirablcineul eelte liiniirro qui. |iouotraiit dans Ins bois 
malgre le fouillage et I'nmbro, s'j concentre ft \ sojourno dorco. pa- 
rail palpable el saisissahlo, el n'a rion de la blanclioiir <l<; la lumiero su- 
periemv. Sunny mliturirs, dit Kmerson en s adiessaiit a ses hois clioris. 
Sunny tolituuuirs. |vourrious-nous dire aussi tics inspiration!! du plii- 
losopho ct des reveries ilu noele. Lui-nieme, on une do ses plus jolies 
pieces, trace le portrait dun lionune qui vit on quelquo sorlo dans I in- 
tiniite de la nature, et nous donno ainsi la personnilication do sa muse. 

« l.a science que cet liommc Wganlo cnninif la meilleure semble fantaslique 
aux auirus hummus. Aniaut de toutes lis rlmses vivantes, il s'utonne ile tout ce 
qu'il rencontre, il s'elonne surtout de tui-mvlliu. — Qui pourrait llii dire re qu'il 
est, ct comment, dans cc nain huinain, so reiicontrent les etcrniles |«asseos et 
futures? 

« J'ai connu un tel hommc, un voyant des forets, uu mcncstrcl de l'annec ua- 
tur.ll. . un ile\in ilrs iihs prinl.uin r.-. i;ii s.ere prophete des spin-res i-t ,|,.g 
niuvo, un M-ridiqiif .1111. nit '| in »ava 1 1 I'.ii i i in lollies les juiis i|iii. iluiiiieiil 
I, , tall, is di-s iiioiiI.i.mi.s. II si inlil.nl • | ■ ■ • - l.i nature lie poliv.ilt fain- ii.iiltv line 
plant- d.llls .un uu In II seerel.il.llls I.I limdlli l' i I I"'. >lll' l.i ' ulllllr n. i«, n M . 

«■ ■ 1 1 - If iM/mi .(in • miiI >i .I-'.- If iniN-f.in , par-ilessmis l.i in i.'f , i nlre If. i... lurs, 
pat mi Im i damps liutiiidi-s I'utiiui* ilu ri ii.ml . l de I hi-mmii, s.ms qu'il arrival ,\ 

ITn-un- in. in i rile mil rail - mm Mi'.'in.il. t.'ii.iil line M un raj |,. 

Mill il liii . ill ii I iv , , it, |d.lff ■ I I il I nil I. ii nllti' I i lnllL'lie _•, in ■•ilnji,. i|,. I,, 

pi. ml.. On . nl -III if in Ii - 1. 1 i.. v I'.ii .ii. ill ,i|i|M'ltf, que Ii s HiM-iiux I'ai.ii- hi in. 
mil'ii.' 1 1 iju'il iiinii.u~~.iil ji.ii' mluilimi sirri-le mi dale, les champs Imiitaius 
II. ii — ,it| I'lireliis, II v ,i dans |. ■ lampa-'nes liiell di-s ■ 1 1 ■ • ~« — que I'n-il uiL-aire 
Mi* d< i *ai\rf pas; Lais s. s .i-p. il-. l.i nalui'f l- s d> \ml.nl p. mi plaii'f .i i <• s.i_-.- 
prmni in nr i l |niiir r.illn. r .i file. II \njail la pi-idiix laire l.'| -.i-'e dans I,-, \m\< t 
il n-.iiil.iil I Iimiui. .In im. il iii i|i- l.i In . assf, il dfi-miM-ail 1 - l>t un. - i-nu\fi-s de 
l.i i n . I. s,ill\.l-_'i i |n iMfl' s'.i|i|M"i li.nl i|i- I ii i. la- que lis anil's lininuifs n'fii- 
li-lld. ul .|u'.i . I is|. in. ,-, i • ■ i|u"ds i pi. ill 1 1. ills I'lilisi-uiiti' fit I lialhel-sf dfMiilait ile- 
i.inl I.- |i|iilusii|i|ii< , i si'iuldait ii mi' .i Im a -"ii i-iiiiimandi'iiifut.., » 

II os| impossible ile mioux surpronilre Ions les secrets di- la solitudo. 
de i nil -ii v ovprimer le senlimenl de liberie qui He tail nailro, l-'aul-il 
r.-iMuior oi'peuilanl . il seinlile quo ees bcaules de la nature inan- 
qiieill de quolque eliose d'ossctltiol; noils siilillllt'S cnmuic inqiiicls 
dune absence Irop prnlougcc. Ce qui est absent, c'csl la \ ie luuuaiiie el 
la rcalilc. Sans doule ee senliiuenl do la solitude sorl d'uu neiir pc- 
iifli v d'lmmauilo. sans ■ |i ii ill - i-i-lli' nature i-l pleiue de rcalilc; in.ns ee 

sinli nl soil du i-iour |i"iu s'alidiquer. el eollo nature elle-memu 

s'ldi-alisi- dans un m.liv uielaplijsique. se loud en images nivsliques, 
s'epuro jusqu'a ee qu il lie resle plus d'elle que le par I'u in el I'liariuonie. 
Alms nuns ili-i-i m\ runs puuiqiini la nature allire Kinersnn : e'esl qu'il 
pelll an llliliei; d'elle penser el revet' a ^m .im-. e esl qu'il aiine a pe- 
uelror les lois secretes, a I'ellf cllir sur les ciuxsqui la soiitieuneul el 

I .i 1 1 1 nt. Le caraelere de la poesie d Kmersou esl melaplivsique mi 

IllirUV. sjlllliiilique. | .nil qu'il est soutoilll dans sc-s pruiiieuailes par 
uu elan vers la solitude, il est |mele; mais a-l-il tronve un Inu asse/, 
iVarlc el uue pl.ue I mi i dispusee pour sou re pi is. aussilol le philosnplie 
reparail. el la medilaliou pi end la placode I lijume. 

Nuns avmis eiileudu comparer la poesie s\nilnilique a la poesie alle- 
irorique: la couqiaraisou esl I'ausse. l.a poesie allium ique ivvel d'tui 
corps uue peusee alislraile el ne parvieul a produirc qii'iiu automate, 
la- si uiliule esl an eiinli aire If corps, l.i lurnie, lapparenci! dune pen- 
see incnunue. i'.r* apparenees llulteul sous uos \eu\ lirillantes el colo- 
ivrs coiuillo des illusions, el I esprit. Hull, ml avoc olios, se peril en con- 
jeelui'es sur colli' idee, sur cello real ile injslerieusc et eaeli. e. Aussi la 
(Miesie sviillioliqiie a-l-elle coninie uu caraelere occulle et calialislique. 
|leii\ cliarinaules slrophes d'Kmorsoti m-aitrout coimnetil il saitsvm- 
boliscr unc idee melapli\siquc. II vent uioulrer que cliaquc objel est 
inseparablemeiil iiui a la nature entiere, que cbaque iudividii esl lie a 
toute I'luunanile. 

o Jf la i-rcivaisilesi-i mlue du i nl. la mile du i iieau i-lianlaiil .i I .uii-.n- »-'iis 

les rauifaiiv de Canine; sin- |i< snir j'ftii|iiiilai I'nisi >n ilaus ..m nnl ,i m.i d n-. 

|l eliante eue.ii-e sa I'liailsnii, mais .1 n |. .i i r< I 1 1 1 1 1 i Ile in im |i|ail |ias, • .ir je u'ai |'.cs 
(in a|i|»irti-r avee mm la mi. re el le i iel. II ■ li.nil.nl .1 in. .11 ,.1. ill. , in. 11s . ux 
cliaiil.iienl a mmi nil. I.fs dilieals < ■ •> 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 _-• - . . . u s 1 . n ■ nt I. 1 1 \ . 1 _- . . 1 . ~ I . . . ! I ■ - ■ I ■ : 
|a demure i.i.-n.- |. tail nl i|i Ir.iii lies |n 1 1, ~ sur I, in . mail, 1 I If lint. in. nl -I- la 

ini-rsaiii.e.-f li-s Mini. u I iles'etre rfl'lli-'ifs mis 1. J'i 11I1V.11 |. s It. iln-s in ~, 

jYssttiai I'l-fiime, it |'.i|.|...it.H ,1 111. 1 .l.in. me i-is ln'sii|-> I inns m 

cnnl inaililf nanl de jiauvres nlijets iufiels el Irisles .1 mil-, lis mil l.i ■ — . I, nr 



beanie sin- |e rivavre. avee le snteil, |e sable el I. saine.'e luunilte d.-s i.i.-ii-s. 

„ I.' .nil . piait sa L-r.n nils.' liani ee l-.i— 1 11. II- ~, .l.|-..|..nl .111 nnli.11 .1.- -. s 

(■iilii|i.iL'iies lir-.'inales; il ne savail pas que ei-qui r.illii.nl le plus d.mss.i I nil.- 
t'-tail inn .1 ee . Im nr l.l.un I'.iliilne l.i tin.'.-. \ l.i lill. e.illlllle I'm- .111 d- - luu-i 

vieilt -i la ' -afe, l.i ji'iuie lille est .ill. e li.il.il. r s •rinil.i.. •. mais le ..n ■ in li.ill- 

Iciiii nl s'est fvanmii; i-'i-sl uue eliarinante l.ninie, mais tmti pas inn- I', e. .. 

Celle poesie. el lios citations ratirolll protivo. nest en quelque snrle 
qu un prelude a la philosophic d'Kmerson. Si ^racioux que soil ce pre- 
lude, ce nest point la, il I'aul hieu le dire, la parlio vraimoul inipor- 
lanle de si it 1 (eii\re. Apri-s avoir conlomplo dans ses hails j»'ciieran\ la 
plivsionoiuie du penseur el du poele. mi voul connailro la doctrine qui 
se Iraduil lour a lour clioz Knierson sous la forme Ivriqno el dans la 
hbre prose de I'cssai. 



la' leeleureuriqiien qui nuvre lis Miliimes d'l-'tne i -mi lie penl se de- 

rendre • I iiui- prenueri iui|Hf--imi <\>' surprise. Tons lis n- des phi- 

losophis anciens ,-l inodcruos sunt cites pele-illi'le par If moralist.! 

aniericain, coninie s'ils evprimaienl la me opinion. Siaqdiques et 

inysliques. ralionalislos el panlhiistes, sunl a cob'' les tins des autres. 
Schellin-. Oken.Spiuo/a. I'lalmi. Kanl.Sweilonbor}.. Coleridge, se ren- 
conlrenl dans la memo pa".c. Il.ttis ee piivs de la democratic, Ions les 
pensfurs paraisseul Ireres. ('.<■ pelc-mole domic au\ doclrines euro- 
peeunes line Iroinpeuse apparetli e d'unile. Au\ jottx d'Kinorson. la dis- 
lanceell'aee les ditl'erences el les ivunil louli-s dans la nieme luniiero. 
Faut-il sen clomier. L'autiquite anjourd'liui nous apparait belle ct 
calllie: croje/.-vous qu'il 1 1 " > ail pas la-ile-smts quelque erreiu".' croje/- 
vous que dans ranliquile il n'y ail pas en des iqirelcs de pnb- niique. du 
reteiitissemenl et du limit dans les miles, des conlruverses pleines de 
liaincs 1 1 , de fouguetix cnthoiisiasuies, — des dissidences.. Mais le lenips 

(I) Ji- in- |.r.iulr.ii iiu'ilil rxeni|ilc \.Uci, dans k- piciiiicr liiro Uc la Melaphysique, 
le jiigonu'ut iJu'Aristoto poile Mir t'latoii. 

a passe ct a detruit les polemiques, le bruit des conlemporains. les en») 
tliousiasmes dun moment, ne laissant subsister que le fond inunortcl 
de ces systiines de l'anliquite, la verite et la beaute. Faut-il s'elonner 
que l'oloie;iicment des lieux produise sur le solitaire du Massachusetts 
le nieme elli- 1 que prnduit sur nous I'eloignemcnt des temps? Kmerson 
voil les ii'iivres de nos philosoplies marquees simplemenl du sccau de 
la verite et du genie liumain, ct non pas frappi'es an coin du yeniut 
loci. 

II n'y a guere qu'une question qui soil posec dans les livres d'Kmer- 
son : Quelle part doit-on fairc a la porsonnalite Immaine. be dcvelop- 
peinent, 1'education, les droits de I'individll, sa legitime inlluence sur 
la societe, voilii toute la philosophic d'Kuieison. C'cst a I'individu 
qu'Kmerson rapporle tout; e'est |iour lui que la poesie trcsse des guir- 
landcs; c'cst |ionr sa santc ct la joie do ses yeux que la nature diploic 
ses richesses varices; e'est pour sa gloiro et son repos que les homines 
ecrivent. combatlent el font des lois. II a ponsse a I'extrcnie ce prin- 
cipc, si bicn que, le livre unc fois ferine, on se demande dans quel 
systeine il (inira par tomlier. l)cux ecucils sonl la a ses coles : le mvsti- 
cisme et le pautheisnic. Les evitera-t-il loujonrs. II pent lumber dans le 
mysticisme par celle extension donuce an developpement de limlivjilu 
qui, detruisant la nature et I'liumanite, laissi; riiomnie seul avee lame 
supriine lover tout) au milieu des illusions du mnnde. Qu'en faut-il 
penser. Sera-l-il loujonrs puritain, nu bicn, cnminc le Kaust de C.oethe, 
CV(Mpiera-t-il les siecles passes ct penelrcra-t-il les sccrels de la nature 
pour si' donner le spectacle de la vie universclle. 

Mais enlin le principc est excellent en Ini-me inc. t -t Kmerson, devait 
le choisir jiour Irois motifs : t" a cause de ses opinions persoVnielles, 
2" ii cause de la situation religicusc des Klats-laiis, :i° a cause du gou- 
vcrncmcntamericain. A. cause de ses opinions persnnnelle, avons-nous 
dit : ipielles sont les opinions politiques ct religieuscs d'Emerson . a quel 
parti apparticnl-il. 

11 Des deux grands partis pnlitiquis qui diviscnt r\mi-rii|uc ii cette hcurn (dit- 
il) je repnndrai que I'un a la meilleuri- rausc et que I'autre pnssede les nieilleiirs 
hommes. be philosophc, le pnftf, I'linnunc ri'ligieux, snuliailernnt de voter avee 
le dcanncrate pour le lihre i-oinmerre, le sufTrajre universnl, I'aliolition des cruau- 
les legates, el pour faciliter de toute maniere, aux jeunes et aux pauvrcs, I'ac- 



c«s aui sources dc la richus.sc el ilu puuvoir; mais raromcnt its pcuvent accep- 
ter, conimc repriscnlans dc ccs libcrulitcs, les pcrsonnes que leur prescnto le 
parti populaire. Kllcs n'ont pas an ncur les fins qui donncnt a ce mot de de- 
moeratie t'esnerance ct la vertu qu'il renfermc. I.' esprit de mitre radicalisms 
ainericain est destructeur et sans clans, il n'a pas d'amnur, il u'a pas de fins 
divines ct ultcricurcs, il est destructeur simplcment, sans hainc et cgoismc. D'un 
autre cotci, le parti conservateur, compose des hommes les plus nioderes, les 
plus eultives, les plus capables de la nation, est timide ct se contentc simple- 
ment d'etre le dofenseur de la proprnHe; il ne venge aucun droit, il n'aspire & 

aucun liion reel, il no hVtril aiinm rri il tic propose aurtmo p..|iee gciiiv 

rcuse, il tie < strait pa-, n'eeril pas, nc rli.nl pas le- ,m., il nan pas la 

religion, n'olalilit pas il'eooles, nVnt'iiuraiH' pas la w ieiico, nVinanripi p.i- IVs- 
clavc, ni: fralerniso pas avec le pauxrc, rimlnii •■» lYmigraiit. Ii'niirmi de ccs 
deux partis, une fois au pouvoir, oil ue doit allendro ipielquc liiculait pmpur- 
lioiinc au» rcssources de la nation, pour la science, Tail oil I hum, mil, . » 

,.. . Voila tine explication frauche, sans hesitation, el qui srpare Emer- 
son (lea's deux p.irtjs ;"t>1;Vtois'. Croit-irVlaV.itil.i^c a la philanthropic? 
II suerombc so uv «* 1 1 1 ,' < 1 1 1 - i 1 , vt » I"« ri i • soil dollar; « mais ce li'csl i|ti'nh 
mediant dollar. » Cfoit-il aux sneictes religieusrs? II s'esl sepnro dr son 
eglisc. (Juaul aux mortes societes IMiques. colonic il lis apprllc. il n'eil 
tienl aucun coinplc. Cost un liommc qui n'esl d aucun parli. d anemic 
eglisc, d'aucune opinion accreditee en Anurique. Ses o|iinions soul 
done Ionics pcrsnnnelles et individucllos. A i|tioi ct a qui eroit-il? A lui. 
De la position d'Kincrson au milieu des partis i'l ill's systrliies amcri- 
cains dc< oulcra lout nalurcllciuciil sa philosophic. II n'apparlicul a au- 
cun parti; ilc la rosnltera, soyez-en sur, la protestation en favour de 
1'illdiviilll conlrc la iiiiilliltiilc. 

Lc second mold qui decide Kiucrson a eloxei I'indixidu au-dessus de 
la sociote, cost li situation n'tigiense do I'Ainoriquo. *. a-t-il rii Aine- 
rique tittc religion qui retjnissc les masses-' II n'j en a point. Le pro- 
testanlisuie, en se di'Cnui|N>sanl UII line. Ionic de secies, lend de plus en 
phis a fa ire colore des religions qui soul relies de quolqiics inilixidus. 
Ccpcudaul il y a un lien qui rapproche loutes ccs series, r esl I esprit 
piuitain. Je m'ctonnc qu'on n'ait pas doja Tail cetle ohserxalion. S'il ar- 
rivail^u'nn jour il y cut (chose fnH desirable) un pays oil le sentiment 
religieux (luminal sans que la croyance inliuie. personile.lle de chacuii 
fut inquiclcc par ce sentiment, ce, pays serail les Klals-I uis. I. esprit 
religieux qui reiiiiirail ainsi tons les en'tirs, en laissanl a liiidixidu cc 
qu'on pcut appelerson opinion dogmaliquc, serail I esprit purilain. t n 
mcine cu'iir, un esprit different, coinnie un inimense sterilire oil, 
renins ensemble, hriilcraicul les eueens et les parfuins les plus divers, 
voila lidcal d'Kmersoii; e'est aussi lideal du ptirilanisuie. 

En faisant du devoloppement el de leducalion de lindividll la base 
de sa philosophic, en disant a lindix idu : « Crois en loi. » Ktnerson rc- 
▼ient aussi, qu'il lc sache oil noil, au principe pose par Descartes, l'au- 
toritti ilu sens individuel. Descartes et Emerson n'onl pas la moiiulrc 
rcsseinblancc cntreeux; mais ils sont dans une situation idenliqtie. 
Emerson est le premier |>hilosoplic ainericain, coinnie Itescai les le pre- 
mier philosophe modcrne. Lorsque Descartes vinl fonder sa philoso- 
phic, il ccarta tous les livres, rcjeta Ionics les traditions; lui aussi crut 
en lui-meme. 11 avail affaire it la scolastique; il ne voulait plusde ses 
explications de physique et de ses debris de logique. Kmerson aussi a 
affaire a une sorte de scolastique. 11 y a dans son pays jc nc sais com- 
bien dc secies, tonics ayant des explications differenlcs, des commen- 
taires ridicules, une exegese risible, des liturgies souvent fort equivo- 
ques. Descartes avait affaire a des scolasliques logiciens, aristotcliciens- 
il fonda une metaphysiquc. Kmerson a autotir de lui des scolasliques 
religieux; quelle philosophic pcut-il croer? ['ne philosophic morale. 

Lc troisiemc motif qui a pu diriger Kmerson dans lc choix dc sa doc- 
trine, e'est le gouverneincnt menie des Ktals-l'nis. Les tendances 
d'Kincrson sont certes Ires dcinocratiqucs; il eslinic nieme que la de- 
mocratic est le ffouveriicment qui convient le mieux a 1'Ainerique. 
On pourrait s'elouner alors de celle philosophic criiee au prolit de 
lindix idu. Ilellcchissons ccpcndanl. All milieu dc celle foule d'in- 
tercls, de passions el tie contradictions, oil rcposer nos \cux'? Au mi- 
lieu de ce tourliillon oil trouver un cieur lianquillc' Sur quelle base 
lixe eli'verous-noiis une philosophic'? Les masses sont admirables sans 
iloule lorsqu'elles sont unaniincs, parce ipialors elles agisseilt coinnie 
un seul individu; mais csl-ce a la foule qu'on petit s'adresscr lout d'a- 
boiil? Kmerson a eu sous les ycux les agitations, les lluctuations de la 
multitude, el e'est pour l'indixidu qu'il a ccrit. 



52 



Kmerson prend limlix idu ct lui dit : « Crois en toi. » Crois en loi avec la 
force dun liouime et la conliancc dun enfant. Pas de dedaill pom soi- 
nicme. pas de limidite. de recherche iiifructtieuscdans lesieuvres d'au- 
trui. Kxite/de reeevoir d'uti autre voire eonviclion. Avez-vous peurdc 
vous isoler des antics homines'? Mais croircquc re qui est vrai pour ~oi 
est vrai pour tous les aulres, eela esl le genie. N'imitons done jamais, 
car lien n'est plus sacre que I'inteyrili de noire propre esprit; cent ce qui 
nous conquiert le suffrage ilu monde. Les recompenses de ccttc con- 
fiance en soi soul loriginalilc et I'hoimetcte, ct eu ell'et plus on est ori- 
ginal ct plus on est sincere, moms on imile ct plus on est lionnete. Kn 
conservant I'iutegrite de sou esprit, on est I'eimeini du IlieilSOllge, ct 
riiumanite vous honore precisemenl parce que vous n'axc/. saciitio a 
l'estimc d aucun liomine en particulier. Parlor pour n'elre pas com- 
battu, ecrire pour eviter la critique, est une triste chose, (lest un pi- 
toyahle conlrat passti axec les homines que de ecder une parlic de sa 
conviction pour n'elre pas tourmeule sur I'autre moitie. La pensce u'a 
pas etc donncc a I lionnue pour plaice aux pensees d'autrui ct caresscr 
ses habitudes. Mais, eependaul, ce sont des mots lies de la polilcssc et 
de lurbanite, inventes pour eviter les contradictions ct tourner les dif- 
lieulles. La volonle n'a dans son voeabulaire que deux mots : oui el mm. 
Le nui ne doil pas hesiter, le mm ne doit pas reculer. 

La conliance en soi esl done le principe de la morale d'Kmersoii. 
Pour arriver a cetle conliance en soi, deux qualiles soul reipiises, la 
non eonformile et la tiou ptrsistanee : la mom conformile, c'esl-a-dire qu'il 
ne laid pas craindre de heurler les prejuges du niondc et ses preten- 
tions ii mieux connailre voire devoir que vous. Coiiime lami dc Jean- 
Jacques, qui rcpelaittoujoursen maliere de morale : « Je ne suis charge 
que dcr inoi seul, » Emerson repute sans cesse : « Croycx-cn voire pen- 
gee, sans vous inquieler de ce que [lensent les autres. Ne redoute/ pas 
non plus de passer pour non persistant dans voire opinion. Vnuloir ctre 
toujours consecpient avec soi-meme, e est vonloir rallachcr par des so- 
phistries ce qui est et ce qui ful. Si vous ne crovez plus a voire opinion 
d'hicr, rejetez-la: si une nouvclle pensce soti're a vous, aeceptez-la. 
a Ah! s'cerieront les vieillcs ladies, vous sercz bien sur alors de n'elre 
pascompris. « N'elre pas compris! e'est le mot dun fou. Ksl-ii si mau- 
vaisdejiide n'elre pascompris? Pylhagore nc fut pascompris, el So- 
crale, et Jesus, et Luther, ct Copemic, et (ialilee, el Newton, et'ehaque 
pur et sage esprit qui jamais pril chair. Eire grand, e'est n'elre pas 
compris. » Kmerson dirail volonliers avec Pascal que e'est une solle 
chose que la coulume, « que celle niaitresse d'erreur <|uc l'on appelle 
fanlaisie et opinion; » mais il va plus loin que Pascal. La coulume doit 
elre suivie, scion Pascal, taut quelle n'attaque pas le droit nature] et 
dixin. II taut eviter de suixre la coulume, scion Emerson , taut quelle 
conlrarie noire opinion individuellc et nalurelle. « yuel .as foul de la 
coulume les grands genies, les antes vraies? s'ecrie-l-il: ils 1'aneanlis- 
sent, et e'est pourquoi l'liisloire nest que la biographic de quelqucs 
homilies, grands parce qu ils out cm en eux. La postcrite suit lours pas 
coinnie line procession. L ne institution nest que V ombre alloiujee d'un 
liouime. » 

Uuelle esl la facultc qui domic cetle conliance en soi? Ksl-ce la vo- 
lonle? csl-ce I'iulelligciicc? Non. Dapres Emerson, e'est I'instinct, la 
sponlaucile. Celle conliance en soi nest pas une force qui dirij;e, elle 
esl un Hot qui enlrainc, car qu'est-cc que I instinct, la sjioiitaneile? Ce 
sont les forces les plus profondes de noire elre, cellcs dont les sources 
niysterieuses jaillissenl au monieiit le plus inattendu , que Panalyse ne 
pcut atleiudie. Ainsi, celle conliance nee de la sjiontaneite nousnienc 
diiecleincnt a I intuition. Porle sur les ailes de la pensce spontauee, 
nous alleignous a Petri', et en plongeailt dans la source de toule exis- 
tence nous devons oublier iieci'ssairemeiil les tumps et les lienx, les 
ehoses et les lionimcs. Ccttc loi dans la puissance de la sponlaniilc nous 
domic la cle de loules les theories d'Kmersou. A la invsterieuse lumiere 
de la pensce sponlancc, nous venous apparailre la nature, siirie inde- 
finic diinagcs el dc sx mimics, I'humaiiile avec son histoirc, suite dc 
failles eliariuantes ou lenihles. (^Iiaque hoinme arrive ainsi a iiue reve- 
lation individuellc. Ksl-ce la du paiilheisme? esl-ce la du nixslicisme? 
Celle Iheorie louche a 1* nn ct a I autre a la fois. Neaiuiioins non- crayons 
pouvoir dire que le nixslicisme d'Kmersoii esl lout sim piemen I un iiivs- 
ticisme purilain. Dans le inxslicisiue calholiqiie, celle suite d intuition 
est reflet dune grace divine, non de I'accom phssemeu I d'un devoir mo- 
ral c! Iiumain. Hetire loin de la foule ct du bruit, an fond dune cellule 



53 



ou dune solitude, I'esprit sYleve |wr lextaso el louche a linlini, aux 
sources de lelre; c'est uue grace qui descend d'cn haul, operr sn'r I'esprit 
el le transport*.'. Dans Emerson, au contraire, l'individu marclieau mi— 
lieu de la foulo: il a mi devoir a accomplir : c'est ce de\oir liumain qui 
remplacc la grace divine. L'individu appuve sur co devoir louche a lin- 
fini. Voila, ce me senihle, en quoi telle thcorie difl'ere du myslicismc 
ordinaire et en quoi cllese ratlaclic an purilanisuie. Lc puritain necroit 
on 'a Dieu et a lui-nieme; en remplissant son devoir, il louche a Dieu. 
Emerson se place, conmie le puritanisnie, cntre lc sloirisinc cl le chris- 
tianisme. « Suis la loi, dil le stoicisine, et lu scrasogal an v dieu\.» — 
a Suis la loi, dil le rlirelion, un jour tu iras Irouver ton Dieu. » Mais le 
puritain est courhe sous lc devoir, el. dun autre cote, il emit que comp- 
ter sur une immnrtalitc future, c'est prcsquc se degrader. II dil avec 
Emerson : « Kn suivanl ma loi, deja je louche a Dieu. » 

L'inslincl, la spontaneile, son! done les faculles divines, scion Emer- 
son, les vrais rapports de I'lioinme a Iiieu. Ces singulicrcs et avcuglcs 
faculles jouent un Imp grand role dans la philosophic d'Einerson pour 
nc pas nous arrdor un instant. Par celle confiancc dans la spontaneile, 
le philosophc amcricain adoucit, attcnue en quolqiic sorte I'auslcritc de 
la doctrine puriiaine. Laraison du puritain lui inontrc la loi, el il la suit 
Qveug lenient, latalcmcnt. L'inslincl aussi est quclquc chose de fatal, mais 
d' une fata I lie plus douce. Laraison, forcccd'aceoinplir son devoir, cour- 
bec (fu'cllc est sous une main de fer, crie souvent, blaspheme dans le 
proleslanlisinc, el semldc dire a Dieu : Mod devoir accompli, qu'ai-jc a 
redouler de loi'.' Dc la dans la lillerature anglaisc bien des pages sombrcs. 
Le Dieu terrible de la bible est aussi eclui du protestanlisme de Knox. 
Mais, si vous incite/ rinstincUoiJa place de la raison, inimedialement 
vims enveloppcx dans la pne^fiibe rude doctrine; vous avez une fa- 
talite douce, gracieusc m 6 me; .71a place dun joug de fer. La confiancc 
instinctive, l'inluilion, ces facultfsaftuglrsqiii accomplisscnt les plus 
grandes cboses a de rarcs momens de (existence, qui enlrainenl a 1'in- 
spiration, au devouement, a I'lieroisme, son! ici la seule regie de la vie. 
La heautc de cette thcorie, c'est de fairc de la vie un pcrpetucl he- 
roi'sme, au lieu d'cn faire, tomme le puritanisnie, un sacrifice, une im- 
molation. 

Ce (pie nou9 nc pouvons approuver toutefois, c'est qu'en verlu de ce 
systeme, Emerson arrive a nier l'cducation, celle de la socicle, du 
foyer, de 1'ccole. « Notre mcilleure education , dit-il, est spontanea?, et 
notrc nature est souvent viciee par la volonle. » Jaloux des droits de 
l'individu, Emerson ne vcut laisser personne <i[)procber de lui; il vcut 
le laisser lui-meme non-seulement elaborer sa dignite et sa grace, 
mais encore developper son intelligence. Pour ccla, il lui recommande 
de sc confier a son instinct; mais linslinct sera lou jours une faculte 
aussi prompte a suivrc le mal que le bien ; il sera lou jours une faculte 
qui, lorsqu'ellc parlc, fait se succeder tons les sentimens dans It; cieur 
de l'hoimne, les plus doux ct les plus feroces. Lnrsquc 1' education est 
venue polir los incurs et lirer ('intelligence ih's tcnehres, il est bon de 
sc conlier a son instinct, et souvent alors il faul aulanl de force pour 
lui obeir au milieu de la socictc et des homines que pour le maitriscr 
dans I'enfanceel lajeunesse. On a rcmarquc que les mystiques (ombent 
souvent dans les diTogloinens les plus honloux du malcrialismc. II en 
est di! memo de lhistinct. II louche a tons les extremes; il esl primili- 
vemenl le fond meinc de noire nature humaine. un vrai chaos ou sunt 
jeles pclc-melc les passions, les vices, les verbis cl les l'acultcs hitel- 
lccluclles. Plus lard, I instinct nc sera plus que liinpulsion, l'inspira- 
tiou parliculiere du caractere etilll genie de l'individu; c'esl alors qu'il 
deviendra ce guide siipcricursi cloqucuimcnt recoininaudo par Emer- 
son. Kn at tiMiil.it 1 1 , il taut dchrmullcr le chaos de l'inslincl primilif, et 
1' education seule pent sc charger de ce soin. leduealion fade par \m 
autre. La ligure de I'ApoIloii ou le corps de I'llercule evisle bien deja 
dans le h|oc de marhre; mais il faul que I'arlisle dcpnuillc ce bloc pour 
en lirer la statue. Jean-Jacques a bien compris tout cela. Lui aussi veul 
laisser a I'hommc sa nature el .-mi instinct, el, par loule sorlc do 
ruses el (Ihahileles. il anieuera I en fan I a se developper dans le droit 
sens. .1 Laissons-lui lout deviner, dit-il; » mais il lui domic les uioyens 
dedeviner: il le place dans les circonslances favorahles, il lui fait sa 
route, el I'entanl, averli par sou seulinienl intcricur, n'a plus qua la 
reconnailre cl a marcher will. 

L instinct el la spontaneile soul done les faculles qui nous anienent 
allien. Quel est le Dieu d'Einerson'? II s'appelle rim 1 mini, lame su- 



preme. || \ a dans celle doctrine de I'alexandrinisiiie, du invslicisnie 
de Svvedenborg et du pinlheisnie. L'boilllllC sent lou, jours ses pensees 
cooler i'n Itii, i| est coinuie uu spectateur ctnunc, il ne sail on isl la 
souive de ces pensees. Cede source, c'est I ame. Lame, le prim ape peil- 
sant, est en dehors de riioinine. II n'v a qu'unc ame. c'est Dieu. qui, 
selon le proverhe vulgairc, vieut nous visiter saus cloches, u (Vest cette 
ame qui, lorsqu'ellc souflle a travels notrc intelligence, s'appelle genie, 
a travcrs notrc volonle verlu, a leavers nos all'eclions amour. Toot 
scmhli! nous monlrer que lame n est pas un organe, mais la cause 
qui aniinc les organcs; quelle nest pas une faculte, mais se sert des 
faculles eoniine de mains et de pieds. » ('.'est done Dieu qui agil dans 
I'esprit et en qui I'lminnie a toule volonle et loule penscc. El plus loin 
Emerson ajoute : « II n'y a pas dans lame de mnraille oil I'hoinme- 
effetcesse, et oil Dieu-cause coinmencc. » Quaiid Dieu ou lame su- 
preme vient nous visiter, nous voyons tous ses atti ibuts : justice, amour, 
puissance, liberie. En lui nous connaissons loutcs cboses. Cbaquc nou- 
vellc visile de l'ame supreme uouseleve plus haul dans I'inlini et brise 
le fini anloiir ile nous. Arrive a cette adoration de l'ame supreme, fa 
lumiere se fait pour l'individu. les temps disparaissent, el an lien du 
passe el de I'avcuir on n'a plus que le present de I'eternilo. iju'esl-cc 
que reiitliousiasme, 1'inspiralinn? ("esl I'adoralion, la terreur de I'es- 
prit a I appmche de Dieu. u Les Iressaillemeiis de Socrale. I'union de 
I'lotin.la vision dePorphyre, la conversion de Paul, I'aurorede lioehme, 
les convulsions defieorge Kox et de ses quakers, I'illiiniiiiisuic dcSwe- 
dcuborg. sont dc ce genre. » Nous allons done lomber dans le invsli- 
cisnie'.' Kmcrson s'anvle sur le bord. Ces visiles do Dieu ne sont, a 
renleinlre. que la recompense que Dieu aecorde a I'bonime sage: celle 
revelation individucllc esl la grace qu'il envoic a lame simple el vc- 
ridiipie qui aecomplil son devoir sans s'inquieter des usagcsdll inonde, 
«• < 1 1 1 i n'a pas de con lours de rose, de beaux amis, de rhcvalcric et d'a- 
venttires; » en d'antrcs lerines, c'esl la sanction religieuscde cette phi- 
losophic. Sous ce point de vue, la doctrine d'Einerson est belle et vrai- 
menl admirable. L'individu transporle dans linlini par la presence de 
Dieu n'est pas poele. ni philosophc, ui liomuie religieux; il esl plus que 
lout cela : ses actions, ses pensees, sa vie lout entiere, sont marquees 
dun caractere d'eternile, suh a/m-ir trtmii, com me dit Spinoza. 

Le vrai sens de cette revelation individuellc, c'esl d'etre la recom- 
pense dc la vie morale; mais die a aussi son originc historique. die a 
sa source dans le protestanlisme. Quelle esl la base du clirislianisuic? 
C'est une revelation primitive faite par Dieu aux hommes. Celle reve- 
lation a etc recueillic cl a forme les dogmes et les crovanccs qui eom- 
posenl la religion; die s'est porpduee par tradition ctelahlie par l'au- 
torile. Le protestanlisme, ayanl brise la tradition et rcjete 1'aulnrite, 
a sape la base du chrislianisnie, la revelation primitive. A la place de 
celle revelation, ilen aetahli une tout individuellc qui parlc a 1'homme 
eonslamment et guide non-seulement sa vie religieuse, mais sa vie 
sociale. De la une grande dilTercncc enlre le myslicismc calholiquc et 
le myslicismc proteslanl, puritain siuloiit. Le myslicismc calboliquc 
dierche I amour; le myslicismc puritain cherebe avant tout la veritc. 
II a des tendances non-seulement philosophiqnes, mais poliliques. ("est 
ce nivsticisme puritain qui inspire Emerson, c'est eclaire en diet par la 
revelation individuellc qu'il ahorde les questions les plus diverscs de 
I'art, de la polili(|uc et des sciences. 

Le pantheisino, on a pu le remanpier, s'inlroduit a pleins Hols dans 
la doctrine de l'ame supreme Idle que I'exposc Emerson; c'esl peut- 
clre paree que l'ecrivain ne (brniule jamais completement sa penscc. 
II y a dans l'essai d'Einerson sur Vorer *<>ul beaucoup d'idecs qui se rap- 
prochentde cellesde Novalis. Lorsqu'Kmcrson cxprime cette penscc: 

« L'homme est la facade dun temple on toule verlu ct lout bien ha- 
bitant; ce nest pas l'homme (pie nous honoions, c'esl l'ame dont il est 
1'orgailC, lame qui ferait courtier nos genoux, si die apparaissait a lea- 
vers les actions dc I'lioinme; n il se rencontre avec Novalis, eel autre 
esprit hesitant commc lui cntre le chrislianisnie et le panllieismc. Le 
revcur allemand a dil: « Lorsquc je louche une main humaine, jc 
louche au ciel. II n'yaipi'un temple dans 1'univers, c'est le corps de 
l'homme; s'inclincr devant I'honmie, c'esl rendre hommage a cetlc re- 
velalion de la chair. » Enierson lu'site evidemmenl enlre le panllieismc 
et un purilanisuie mystique. Pour lout dire, il nous semble que, s'il \ a 
panllieismc die/; Emerson, c'esl le panllieismc de Malohranchc. <;he/. 
l'oratorien connne die/, le ministre unilaire, le panllieismc penetre 



54 



plutot pill' Ics clans <lu ctcur i|iii' par la Ingiqiie. Emerson voil, routine 
Malchrauchc, Unites choses rn Dion; e'est I'M tin qu il connail Ics iclers. 
n L aine supreme, dil Emerson, est la terrc commune tic Ionics nos prii- 
sces.» — « Dieu, ilit Malchrauchc, est lc lieu tics esprits coiiinie I'espacc 
est lo lieu <lu corps. » II ii \ a pas jnsi|u'ii ees mystcriciix trcssaillcmcns 
par lesqucls Dieu, scion Emerson, nousaverlil tie sa presence, qui lie 
rappellenl le systcmi- ties causes occasionunllcs. 

Ccpcildant Ic pantlicisine. noil plus celui tie .Malchr.mrlie, inais celui 
tie Spinoza, s'introduit par tin endroit dans eelte doctrine. Lnrsque 
Emerson tlit : «Tout nous montre tpie lame n'est pas une faeulte. mais 
se sert ties facultes coiiune tic mains et tie pieds; quelle n'est pas I in- 
telligence ct la volonte, mais la mailresse tic 1' intelligence cl de la vo- 
lonte," il nc s'apcrcoit pasqu'il ne determine point la faeulte qui con- 
stitue le inoi, et t|ue par la il arrive ii aneantir 1'idcntitc tic 1 hulividu 
auqucl il a tant accordc. Lorsqu'on medite stir soi-meme, on voil agir 
lesdiverses facultes; mais quelle est la faeulte lliaitrcsse tie eclles-la? 
On ne l'apereoit pas claircment. II faut ccpcmlantqu'il \ ait une faeulte 
maitresse des autrcs, une aine en un mot ties facultes inlcllcclucllcs. 
Pour parlcrla languc pliilosopliitpic, quelle est la faeulte qui eonslituc 
le moi? Est-ee la volonte'? est-ce l'lntelligence? Dans Emerson, la fa- 
eulte causatricc est en dehors de l'lioinmc, nos facultes ne soul que ties 
mains et des j>icds. Ailleurs, dans le cliapitre stir Yintelligcitre. il (lit: 
<i L'lioinmc est aussi bien dans ses intellections que dansscs volitions. » 
Spino/a sait bien tout ccla, ear il rcmarqiie quil \ a des pensees el ties 
actes que Ton pout tantot rattaclier a la volonte, tantdl a ('intelligence, 
sans pouvoir determiner precisement la faeulte a latpielle ils se rap- 
portent, Des-lors le resultat est tres simple. S'il n'y a pas une faeulte 
qui constitue essentiellemenl le moi, l'homine n'a pas d'idculitc veri- 
table; si la cause de toutes nos actions, la faeulte generatriee tie tonics 
nos pensees est en dehors de nous, notre existence tout entiere n'est 
qu'une serie de phenomencset de fails dont nous avons bien conscience, 

mais sur lestpiels nous n'avons auciui pouvoir. I.'liomme n'est pas autre 
chose tpie le theatre oil paileiil ccs inspirations, oil agisscnt ccs peri- 
jielics, oil passent ccs personnages ephemercs. L'aulcur csl ailleurs, 
incoiinu ct iiijsterieux, l'aulcur anoiiyme qui a invente la piece etdis- 
triliue Ics roles. Si I lioniine na pas une veritable ideutite, son elre va 
Holler, sa vie sera une continuelle Iransforinalion. L'lionuue qui nesc 
connail pas lui-inemo, tpii ne sail il'oii lui v ienncnl ses pensees, est alors 
euglouli dans un elre universel el aveuglequi nesc connail pasdavan- 
tagt: el reuferme en lui tonics les existences particulieres. 

On pent s'elonner qu'Enierson nail pas songe a elablir I'identito de 
rimlividu. Erst que I'cxtensiou el la negation d'uu prineipe aboutisscnt 
qiiclqiicfnisaumcmc resultat. L'iiidmdu.dans Emerson, attire l'univcrs 
ii lui coiiune dans d'autres systcmes il est absorbe par lunivcrs. Qu'on 
suive nn instant les consequences tonics nalurellcs et inevitables tie la 
philosophic d'Emcrson, el on verra coinnieut il pent elre conduit a un 
panllieisine Ins rigoineux. La morale d Emerson nc s'appuic pas sur 
la raison, mais sur un sentiment instinclif. Eelte couliance en soi mime 
a I oiilili tie soi. (Couliance ct ouhli soul deux tennes qui se rejoignent. 
Ei'luiipii, sans souci ties opinions d'aulnii, se ronlie a liii-nieinc, arrive 
alms a se eonsidorer eoniine la seule realile cxistante; il se generalise 
pour ainsi tlire et louche a I'inliiu. Ce fait tie croire en soi el seulcmcnt 
en soi entraine a regartlcr connne ties incnsoiiges tons les obstaelcsqui 
sclcvent tlevant nous; lout cc qui nous enloure n'aura clone pas de 
realile, car une chose n'est rccllc pour nous qu'autant quelle nous 
force a la reconnaitre sinon noire supcricurc, tin moins noire egalc. II 
arrivcra des-lors un moment on l'iiitlividu qui tail de son ctcur on de 
sa peusec sou soul univers peril ra la conscience de la realile de la vie 
dans les choses enviroiinantes. lie nieme que dans la solitude le ctcur 
epaiiche sa lendresse sur tons Ics ohjels en general, que les tlcsirs de 
1 esprit appellent des etres lointains ct sans pliysiononiie arrelee, que 
les nieililationstle la peusec s'clcndcul sans homes precises ct sans su- 
jels ilelinis, de ineuie l'indiviilu isole au milieu de la l'oiile voil les 
homines et les choses passer autour de lui connne une legion de fan- 
tomes. Se repliant sur lui-mciuc, voyanl ses pensees d'autrelois et ses 
jugcinens daujourd hui, il nc se rccounait plus lui-nicme. Ses opinions 
passees en faisaient un elre particulicr que ses opinions d'aujourd'hui 
out tlelruit. Sa vie entiere, par la theorie tie la non-persistante, est une 
serie tie transformations ct de metamorphoses. L'instinct, vague mys- 



tcricuse, nous entraine tlans son roulis impctueux, incessant, et e'est 
alors qu'etourtlis el fatigues par eelte tempete toujours rcnaissante, 
nous perdons conscience de nous-meines; e'est alors que noire etre 
s'cngloutit dans cet immense ocean de lelre universel en qui tout dort 
et reve, d'oii par Uots et par momens sorlent la vie et la peusec. 

Les consequences mctaphvsiqucsrt morales tie la philosophic d'Emcr- 
son soul la suppression de I'espace el tin lemps. Au temps se rapporle 
1 histoire, a I cspacc se rapporle la nature. L'imlividu, qui, scion Ic beau 
nitil tie liclile. lire a lui Icti'milc, va coneentrer en lui-meiue 1 liuina- 
nile el la nature, ('/est en lui qu'cllcs vont Irouver leur realile; sans 
lui. la nature et I litunanile nc scraienl qu'une suite d'images el une sti- 
rie tie fails sneccssifs. I. Insloirc el la nalure vont tlevcnir tuhjeclires. 

Lame supreme est, avons-nous vu, la Icrre commune tics pensees dc 
tons les lioiiinies. II n \ a done qu'llll incme esprit pour Ions les intli- 
Viilus qui ciimposenl I luiuianile. Je sui< parlie inlcgranle dc eel esprit, 
done je puis com prendre tool re qui a etc fait dans le montle. I. hisloire 
conserve le souvenir des actes el des tcuvresde eel esprit. Je pins Irou- 
ver I. ■« I. us dc I'luslnire, puistpie le mcnic esprit qui presida aux scenes 
du pa-,' preside a mes actes ti'aujourtl hui. Tons ccs fails repondenl it 
quelipic chose qui est en moi. Toute rcformc n'a-t-ellc pas de d'abonl 
une opinion particuliere? « La creation tie mille forets est dans un 
gland, el I'Egyple. la Crece, Koine. la C.aule, la (irande-Hrelagnc, 
I Ainerique. jjiseiit envcloppees tlans I'esprit tin premier honnne. >■ La 
conclusion de lout ccla. c est la possibililc il une philosophic tic Ibis- 
loire. L'indmdu csl I abrcge de I Inunanite. En s'etudiant lui-incmc, il 
peul ilecoiivrir les lois morales qui regisscnl I'huilianilc. (Ju'esl-ce tpie 
I histoin '.' La biographic de tpielqucs indiviilus. Done Ic sphinx pent 
rescind re sa proprc enigme, 

Hans eel le Iht'orie. rimlividu csl, coininc le tlit Emerson. I'entierecn- 
cyclopeilic des fails. A incsure quil hi Ics annales ties lemps passes, il 
lescnfeiineenhn en se tlisant: Ccti est ma proprirtc; c est ainsi que j'ai 
agi, que j'ai pense. que j'ai reve. que j'ai scnli. En mciuc lemps quil 
coneenlre en son aine tons les fails de 1'histoire, il est dour' du pouvoir 
dc general j< ( . |- |i ( . s pcnsc'es particulieres el ses actes prives. I'ne croyance, 
une verile. une inslilulion, nccs tlans son eervrau, de\ icntlronl la pro- 
priete de I hunianile. Par la Emerson emit elablir un couranl cnlre 
lindivitlu et lhumanilc; il selrompe: sa theorie, poiisseo a ses dcr- 
nieres consetpiences, arrive a tlelruire 1'histoire et aver elle I'expo- 
riencc qu'ellc nous presente, la sagessc tpiclle nous enscigne. II n'y a 
plus dc realile, il 'experience et tie sagessc tpie tlans I'esprit tie l'iiitlividu. 
"La nuil est maiutcnant la oil lame ctait autrefois, » tlit— 1 1 . Et toute 
I histoire tomtie ainsi clans le neant. 

Nous souscrivons a ccllt^ pensee il'Emerson, cpi'il pent y avoir une 
philosophic de 1'histoire, pnrcc epic tons Ics faiLs repondent a une pen- 
8ec on a une faeulte ipii est en nous. Nous croyons qu'en s'inlcrrogeant 
lindivitlu pent decouvrir la raison des fails; nous croyons encore cpi'il 
pcut dtuuicr une vie nouvcllc a ccs fails dont toule I'existcnce aujour- 
« hui consislc dans un liiger souvenir; mais tlelruire 1'histoire, cll'accr 
<le nos cceurs le culte du gloricux passe de Ihumanite, nous n'y cou- 

Si'iilirons jamais. Emerson est d'ailleurs inconsetpienl; il serail facile 
de lui pmuver qu'en anuiliilanl 1'histoire. il vaconlre sa proprc Iheorie 
scion latpielle I'hisloirc doit presitlcr a noire developpemcnl inlellec- 
tuel. On \w saurail refuser neannioins a ccs vues snr I' hisloire une re- 
maripialile hai'diesse. une singiiliert! profomleur. I'our cxplitpier lis 
rapporls qui exisleut cnlre Ics pcritules de I'liisloire el Ics pcriodes tie 
la vie iiltliviiluclle, Emerson a rceoiirs aux developpenicns les plus 
ingenifllX, les plus Sllblils. II pose Ires nelteinciil le prineipe duue 
philosophic tic I'liisloire. il ne s'egare tpie lorsqu'il brise Ionic Iradi- 
tiou. el encore a-l-il une excuse : e'est pour aballre la lyrannie des tails, 
pour e> iter la routine, pour douner a I'liommc tie son sicele une haute 
idee de lui-meme, pour reduire lnus Ics fails hisloriipies en fails mo- 
I'ailX, quil aiieaulil le passe: mais ici I liumanite uic scmble devoir re- 
el, unci' ses droits eoiilre lindividu. 

I'ar eelte (hcoric de I' histoire, nous avons suppl'inie le temps: nuns 
allons voir Emerson siippriiner respace. Hu csl-ce ipie la nalure"? 1 no 
niullituile d'images el d'apparences. Ees apparenecs du monde physique 
ivpoinleiil aux apparenecs du niomle moral. La nalure eonune I'liis- 
loire evisle pour I education de I' hoi nine. Les upparenccs de la iialure 
sunt swiiboliqucs. mais ccs symboles out un rapport itvee noire elre. 



I. intlivitlti iliul s'nppliqucr a rccherchcr le sens do ces s\ mimics a laide 
ill! la lacullo qu'Einerson appclle |iriiilciicc. La prudence est la vt'riu 
iles sens, la science ties apparenees. « Kile chcrche a la fois la saute du 
corps en se conformant aux conditions physiques, et la santo ile I'esprit 
en sc conlorniant aux lois inlcllcctuelles. » Noinmons-In done par son 
vrai nom; la prudence telle qu'Einerson la deceit, e'est la science ile la 
vie, celle qui tail Ic sage. 

L'entiere possession dc sot-memo nil milieu de celte suite d'images 
ctdo symboles qui tourliillonnent autour de nous constitue la prudence. 
La nature nous entoure d'illusions, mais l'liommc prudent sail les cvi- 
ter. Kort de sa contiance en lui-mcmc, il determine le caractere de la 
nature par son caractere. Kiclite disait : b Le moi croc le montlc; » 
Emerson ilit : « Le mondc est lei que l'liomme vcut qu'il soil. » Le vrai 
sage, Ihomme prudent dedaignc l'apparence et va droit an reel. Celte 
rcalilc, erst la loi dont eliaque image de la nature est le symbole, Les 
symboles out trois degres : 1 nlilile, la lieaute, la verite. II y u egale- 
ment trois degres dans la prudence : la prudence qui s'attaclie an sym- 
bole pour son utilile, celle qui s'attaclie a la bcautti du symbole, elenlin 
celle qui s'attaclie a la lieaute de la chose rccllc representee par le 
symbole. Emerson divise les boinmes on trois categories, scion quils 
cberehent dans les symboles 1'iitilite, la lieaute et la verite. La vraie 
prudence est celle qui demande aux symboles la verite quils reufer- 
ment et la loi qui leur est commune. 

lei vien nent tout naturellemcnt sc placer les idees d'Emcrson sur I'art. 
Ccque le sage fail |«ur la verite, l'artistc Ic fait pour la bcauto. II lixo 
les ap|iarences dc la nature qui lui semblenl les plus belles. Dans un 
paysagc, Ic |icinlrc doit dedaigner les details et pcindre 1'idee que lui 
suggiirc le paysagc. Dans un |K>rlrait, e'est le caractere et non les (rails 
qu'il doit pcindre, L'artistc estcelui qui sail le inieux goncralisor uno 
chose particulierc, lixer |iour jamais une chose momenlaneo, deeou- 
vrir au milieu d'npparcnces cphomeres le trait predominant, le carac- 
tere esscnlicl, la rcalitc ctcrncllc. 

II est superllu de s'nrreter long-temps sur ces idees : cliercbons a |cs 
expliquer.Toulcs les choses de ce uionde, en etl'et, cellesdc la nature et 
a'llcs de notrc esprit, nos pensees, nos senliinens, nos perceptions, nc 
sonlqucdes apparenees; cllcs passent, repasscnl et scvunouisscnl. Tout 
dans le inonde oxterieur ct dans notre cuiir est sujcl a des inclanior- 
phoscs infinies; mais le sage recommit que ces choses sunt les spectres 
des real ites : il arrete sur elles un regard live, demele les apparenees 
trompeuscs des symboles veritables, constate le phcnomciic utile, sourit 
au fantiiine de la bcauto ct se sert de ces apparenees brillanlescoiuinc 
d'aulant de degres |>our utleindre la verite. Lorsqu il a recounu dans la 
nature les apparenees divines, il leur don no un corps s'il est artiste, et 
les llxe pour jamais. S'il est sage, il se sert de ces symboles pour guider 
sa vie. La vertil et le genie dependent dc celte recherche. 

Les idees |>oliliquesd Emerson sont pen nombrcuses. In seul prin- 
cipe les cxplique toutcs. Le philosophe amiiricain nc recommit pas de 
borncs a rinlluence personnelle. L'etat n'exisle que pour leducalion 
du ciloyen. Les institutions, qui ne sont que des cssais, l'etat, qui nest 
pas stable, mais tout au contruire /Juiilr de sa nature, n'ont pas le droit 
dc domincr 1 indiviilu. Lois, slaluls, institutions, existent simplement 
pour nous dire : Voila cc que vous pensie/. bier, que pensez-vous au- 
jourd hui'? L'etat doit suivrc les progres du citoyen ct non les com- 
mander. 

, Maintenant, ipicllc est la sanction dc la philosophic d'Emcrson? Nous 
connaissons deja la sanction rcmuncralricc, qui est la revelation iiuli\i- 
ducllc. La clause penalcs'appellecrim/ic/M'u//u/i. Lame de l'uidi\idii, qui 
concentre en lui la nature et I'huniaiiite, doit etre 1'im.ige de I'nrdro 
parl'ait, de I'unite. Sou devoir principal c>t done d'y fairc rogner I har- 
nioine des laeulles, la symphonic des pensees. II doit ctablir dans son 
esprit un com plot cquilibrc, une s\ metric reguliere. Si sa vie u est pas 
reglee |iar cct cquilibro, s il la laissc pencher plus dim cole que dun 
autre, il en est puni par la compen»aliuH. Si nous devoloppons une fa- 
culty au detriiuenl d'une autre, nous voyons les choses par fractions ct 
non plus en tolalite. Si nous gratilions les sens au id Irlmcnl >l u rarae- 
lere, nous voyous hien la tote de la sirene, mais non pas |e corps du 
dracon. Cettc loi de la compensalion esl visible dans la nature ct dans 
I'esprit. Nous voyons et nous distinguons parfaitcnient le chalinicnl au 
moment ou nous commettons la fault", car le chalinicnl et la laule sor- 
tcnt dc la memo lige. Les homines vous puniront, et vous-ineiiie vous 



55 



vous punirez. N'est-cc pas Burke qui dit : « In hoinuie n cut jamais 
une pointe d'orgueil qui nc liit injurieusc pour lui-incuio. » Ainsi vous 
soutfrirez de vos propres imperfections; mais si voustendcz de plus en 
plus a lequilibre dc vos facultes, en resistant aux ambitious et aux v ices 
qui voudraient faire pencher la balance, la loi de la compensalion vous 
en recompense™ immediatcmcut. Nousgagnons la force de la tenlation 
a laquelle nous resistons, coiuuie lhabitant des iles Sandwich gagne, 
selon sa croyance, la force de 1'emiciui qu'il luc. Ainsi, la sanction de 
cettc philosopllie est tout interieure. C'csl lame qui recompense, e'est 
l'amc qui punit I'individu, 

Voila les traits principalis de la philosophic d'Emcrson. II a fallu, 
pour en donncr une idee, grouper en corps de doctrines des principes 
qu'Enierson avail laisscs epars, systeuiatiser en quclque sorlc des |>en- 
sees crrantes. Nous avons du ecarter, parmi ces pensees, celles qui nc 
s'oll'raicnt qua l'etat de conjectures ou d'aphorismes isob's, la theoric 
de la perfectibilite par exemple. Celte theorie n'esl pas autre chose que 
la theorie de Vico telle que I'a modiliee M. Michclct en disant : « Vico 
vit bien que l'liumanite allait par ccrcles, mais il ne vit pas que les ccr- 
cles allaient toujours s'elargissant. » Les sujets les plus divers, nous 
I'avons dit, atlirent Ic capricicux essayist. Ainsi, dans le chapilre intitule 
Manners (Manieres), il nous donne lout un code charmaiit, ingenicux, 
un memoire sur les lionnes manieres et la politessc. [tans I'cssai sur 
l'amitie, Emerson indiquc ct precise avec une inerveilleuse delicalesse 
et une penetranle eloquence tous les degres dc ce sentiment, depuis la 
sy in pat hie que nous cprouvons pour les homines qui nous sont inconnus 
jusqu'a la sympathic |iour l'liumanite. I'nc veine democratiquc y cir- 
culc cachee, ct, sous Ic sentiment de l'amitie, tressaillc sans se enon- 
trer le sentiment de la fraternitc. Parmi cettc serie d'essais oil le mo- 
ralistc, l'observateur ingenicux sc montrc plus que le philosophe, nous 
citcrons surtout l'essai sur l'amour. 11 y a dans ces pages charmantes 
plus de fraicheur que de passion, plus dc tendresse que de llainuic. 
Emerson indiquc toutcs les gradations du sentiment de l'uinour coinnic 
il a indiquc celles de l'amitie. II prend l'amourcux a I'ecolej il observe 
les progres d'une intimitc enfantinc cntre Edgard, Jonas et Almira. 
Bientot l'enfant devient le jeune homme; Emerson le suit dans toutes 
ses domes folies d amour, et, pour les peindre, il trouve lescoulcursdu 
Cumme il vous plana de Shakespeare. L'amour n'est plus une passion 
bnil, ii de et terrible; e'est un arc-cn-cicl qui se levc sur les oragesdc la 
vie. L'objcl ainie ne Irone pas conime une belle statue, il habile les 
ftigious lecriijucs des uuuges eelaires pai- le solcil couclmul; puis pcu a 
peu les reveries s'effacent. le vague et impcrsonnel amour s'cvnnouit 
le sentiment s'elevc a des hauteurs plalonicicniies, et lauiant dexenu 
1'epoux compare la fenime ainit'c au type de perfection qu'il a rove, 
Alois cetle comparaison dun type ideal a un elrede chair amene la de- 
couvcrle de nouvclles imperfections et de defauls inconnus. Lepouv 
s'attaclie alors a la feinnie, el il n'y a plus que deux circs lumiains en 
face 1'un do I'aulrc: e'est la tin dc I amour, La pointiirc d'Emcrson 
dcvieul tristo. Nous eiilrons avec lui dans la demenre des deux epoux, 
et nous nous asseyons pros du Iriste foyer purilain. I.e> monotones 
douceurs de ['habitude out remplace ['inspiration et la reverie: les deux 
ainans s'elaient pris la main oil regardant le ciel, et pen a pen lours 
regards sc sout baisses vers la terrc; mais, si l'amour s'esl cnlui. le 
devoir reslc : la ri'gle sans latlrait. Qiiatld on a lu cetle conclusion 
severe, oil revient avec plus d einpresscnient a la premiere parlie de 
l'essai: on vent retire surtout cette page charmanlc tpi inspire ,i Kmer- 
son la premiere periode de l'amour, 

« Aui tin lioinmc irmiMierajainai> tes visiles ile oc pouvoirqui, ilans sun wiir 
ct smi ccrvcau, crea taut ile i hoses nouvclles, qui hit en lui I'aiirun' id' l.i nin- 
siquc, id- lu poesk et ilcVnrl, miii rendail la nature lirillantc il'iuii' lumi, iv eni- 
pourprei 1 , it renlplissait la unit et le matin il'encliaiiKMiiens varies; IV|hn|iio iu'i 
I'uniquc son d'une voi\ pnuvail faiiv dattro le nrur el ou la rirroii*lniii'i< In plus 

trivinlo, associee ii uue rcrlaine persunni', clail ilepusiV il.m> I'amdri' ile la - 

moire; ou nous rtions tout n'il lorsquVlli' olail proentecl tout sounuir l..i«.pi rllo 
ctait parlie; Ic temps oil Ic jeune limninc ilovient un ganliiMi ile fin. o, » , i |e 
surveillanl d'un gant, il'im vi>ile, il'mi rudan, iles rones il'un i'lpiipage, oh ,| 
n'y aauciiq lieu trop solitaire et Irup siliiieicuv pour lui qui, dans v> iiohmIVs 
puiiseos, trouve une plus riilie i'ipiiipa;;iiio el uue plus ilnutv loitiersalion quo 
ne pounaienl les lui fournir ses vieux amis, ineinc les ineilleiirs et les plus purs; 

carles traits, les uiouvcnuMis, les paroles ile I'odjct liien-ainie ncsonl pas, i une 

les auties images, ilessinos ilans I'eau, mais, coiuuie le ilit Plutaripie, p. nils 



56 



dans lc feu, ct devicnnciit I'etudo do miiliiit. 

« Ail in i<l i ft au\ hi-urcs du «.<>ir di! la vie, nr.ii* palpitons i>nwn; an souwiiir 
dc cos jours oil Id honhfur n'otail pas asset lo bonlicur, ft dfvail fftv rclevf par 

lc glut ,|o | a eraintc et du chagrin (car il diVoiivrit le srrrel de I". ur. n I i 

qui a dit : Tous los autrcs |ilaisirs in- sont pas dignes ilf si-s pcino>): mi la 
journee n'etait pas assez luti^uc et nil Los units sYcmilaient en penetrans souve- 
nirs; nil la tcto brulait sur I'orciller dc I'action geiiorouso ipiVllo ninlitail; mi 
lc clair dc lunc clait unc lievre cliarinaiitc; nil les etoiles flaicnt des l.ltivs, 
les flours des cbiflrcs; uu I'air nail imprfgiie dc .hauls, nil toutes li-s allaircs 
humainca paraissuiont uno impertinence, ft los liommcs fl los rfiimus emml oi 
el la, dc simples pcinturos. La passion retail lc moiide pour If jfimr lionime; flic 
donnc a toulc chose la vie ct unc signification. La nature dfvienl si-n*iM.-: ilia, 
que oiscau qui chante dans les ramoaiix dc l'arl>re parlf a son oi-iir ft a son 

•me; ses notfs sont presque arliciilocs. Les images pr.-nncnt unc phvsioi lie 

quaod U les rcgarde; les arbrcs do la forct, lc gazon ondoyant, les flours qui 
s'ouvrent, ont pris une intelligence; il rcdoutc presque dc leur conficr lc secret 
qu'ils scmblcnt lui demander. La nature s'adoucitct devient sympathiquc. Dans 
la vcrte solitude, le joune nomine trouve une demcure plus clierie qu'au milieu 
des liommcs. 

« Contemplcz lc beau fou au milieu des bois! il se dilate, il est deux fois un 
hommc. Ilscpromenu les bras ctendus; il fait des soliloques; il aceoste le gazon ct 
les arbrcs; il sent dans ses veines le sang dc la violettc, du lis ct do l'lierbe des 
prairies; il babille avec le ruisseau qui mouille ses pieds. » 

Quand on a suivi Emerson a travcrs ces mille digressions auxquclles 
unc pensee unique sert de lien, on se demande quel role pourrait jouer 
cctte philosophic dans le inouvement actucl des idees curopeennes. 
11 scinble qu'clle otl'rc des argumens prccieux contrc certains sys- 
tcmes democratiques qui se sont produits dans ces dernieres annees. 
Ces systemes tendent singulierement a nier l'individu on du inoinsa 
I'absorber au sein des masses et a L'y laisscr oublie. Ses droits, on les 
lui arrache; son caraetere, on sendile le rcdoutcr, ct son genie, on pa- 
rait 1' envier. Apres In destruction des aristocraties politiquesqui s'inli- 
tulaicnt telles par droit divinetoriginelointaine, il semblc qu'on vcuillc 
detruire les aristocraties du caraetere et du genie, qui, Men plus que 
les premieres, liennuiit leur puissance devieu ct out une origine in- 
connue ct lliysterieuse, On prend soin, dans ces sorles de theories, de 
rendrc non pas les homines egaux par 1'egalile des droits, muis dc 
rend re 1 existence de chacun egalc a celle de tous. Toutes ces doctrines 
font it la question de droit une si large part, que la question de devoir \ 
disparait presque cnlicrcincnt. Le devoir est pourtant la seule chose 
qui distingue l'individu et le separe des masses; les droits sont coin- 
m uns a tous, mais le devoir varie presque avec chacun selon sa posi- 
tion. Sans le devoir, plus dc luttes, d'efforts, plus de tous ces clans qui 
marqucnt l'individu dun sig'ne glorieux; plus de vertus, on Ten dis- 
pense dans la plupart de nos theories. Le devoir une fois efface, toutes 
ces clioscs qui font le caraetere ct sont l'ceuvre de la volonte individuelle 
disparaissent. A tous on fait la vie egalc, e'est-a-dire qu'on organise la 



212.26 A Mr Morell who has written a H 
An Historical and Critical View of the Spe 



societe de telle manierc que l'individualite dc chacun s'efl'ace ct qu'il 
ne reste plus que des groupes dc capacite, des associations, etdans des 
systemes plus reeens des masses qui imposent a l'individu leurs senti- 
mens el labsorhent violemment au sein d'une fratcrnite peu lolerante. 
Veut-il avoir sa liberie et penser a sa maniere sur les choses (|ui inte- 
ressent sa conscience; veul-il travailler selon ses inclinations natu- 
relleset sans rcconnaitre a la societe le droit de lui imposer son genre 
de travail; revendique-l-il lui-meme la recompense de son travail, 
la distinction ct surtout la gloirc : il est taxii d'indiiidualisme. Nous ne 
▼oulons pas prendre les choses a un point de vue politique ct dire 
qu'une societe qui arri\erait a ineconnaitre le geuie et le caraetere, 
apanages sublimes de lindividu , serait beaucoup plus plate ct plus cn- 
nuyeuse qu'une autre; mais nous dirous qu'au |>oiut de vne moral une 
societe qui detruirait le genie et le caraetere serail une socielc intole- 
rantc, impie ct iconoclaste, car elle detruirait la plus belle auvre dart 
qui existe, le caraetere individuel, lame humaine, telle que chacun de 
nous pent la faconncr en suivant son devoir. Voila ce que sail Emerson 
ct pourquoi il reclame en favour de l'individu. Ce qu'il cxige de lui, 
cost lc caraetere ct lc genie; ce qu'il exige dc la socielc, e'est qu'ellc 
niarclie non dans unc voie uniforme, mais pardeschcniins nombrcux; 
qu'clle in? ferine pas loules les issues alin que chacun soil retenu dans 
la ineiiie voie; qu'ellc laisse au conlraire chaquc individu se f layer lui- 
incine sa roulc. 

Coillllie protestation en favour de l'individu, il serait done ii desirer 
que la philosophic d'Knierson se propageat en Ei.ro.ie; mais, indepen- 
dauinieiit dc cetle valcur d'opporlunitc, les k'ssais du penseur anieri- 
cain ont unc portie plus haute. « Ecris pour un public elcrnel, » dit 
Emerson au poele et au pliilosophe. « Vis dans le present commc s'il 
clait leleriiile, » dit-il a I'hotiiuie sage. Uelruirc les vicissitudes de la 
duree ct loutes les varieles de 1'cspate, fermer l'orcil|e aux opinions 
de la societe, cviter ses louauges ct ses reproches, ces voix de sirene et 
ces railleries <lc Thersile, cost passer au milieu des liommes, au milieu 
de leurs murniurcs nienacans ct llalteurs, commc les premiers chrii- 
liens passaient au milieu do la nature sans s'arreter a ses concerts et a 
ses leunes. Ainsi lexistencc, — ec compose de fails passagers, d'actes 
epic le souvenir nous montre commc des spectres, ii peine se sont-ils 
cloigncs de nous, — tie so laissant distrain: ui pur les liommcs ni par 
la nature, s'clevc ii la hauteur de labsolu; elle ressemble ii unc vcrite 
qui, nee du temps, dccouvcrtc et lixce dans unc minute fugitive, de- 
vient (Jcsonniiis etcrnelle pour tousles homines. Vivre au milieu de la 
nature sans se laisscr cutraincr par elle comiiic les auciens, vivre au 
milieu dc la societe sans se scparer d'elie cniiime Montaigne, telle doit 
etre aiijourd'hui, ce nous soluble, ['ambition du sage. Emerson a conuu 
cettc ambition , et il levcille en nous par ses ecrits. L'n tel role noblc- 
meiit rempli sullit a sa gloirc. La posterile n'oiiblicra pas qu'il a dounc 
a notre sicclc ce que Montaigne avail donne au sien, uu nouvel ideal do 
la sagessc. 

EMILE MONTEUIT. 

istory of Philosophy] See John Daniel Morell, 
culative Philosophy of Europe in the Nine - 



teenth Century . (2nd ed.. 2 vols.) London. 1847. Also N.Y. and Pittsburgh, 1847; N.Y., 
1848. Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, in Recollections of Seventy Years . II, 382-383, says 
that Mary Moody Emerson had lent him a philosophical book by Morell. She had also lent 
it to Thoreau, insisting that he read it and give her his opinion. Morell was also the 
author of On the Philosophical Tendencies of the Age . London, 1848, and The Philosophy 
of Religion . London, 1849; Philadelphia, 1849. 

215.32 will vanish like the baseless fabric of a vision] See Shakespeare's The 
Tempest . IV. i. 151. 

216.6 We know not what we ask.] See Matthew 20:22; Mark 10:38. 

219.24 Man must earn his bread by the sweat of his brow] See Genesis 3:19 — "In the 
sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it 
wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." See 224. 6« 



220.24 it is identical with the bread of life] 
Cf. 384.20. 



For this imagery see John 6:35-58. 



57 

221.14 That we have but little faith is not sad, but that we have 
but little faithfulness.] Cf. 1 Corinthians 4:2 — "Moreover it is required 
in stewards that a man be found faithful." For other imagery, see Matthew 
6:30, 8:26, 14:31, 16:8; Mark 4:40, Luke 12:28. 

221.19 that was his broad and scarlet sin] Cf. Isaiah 1:18 — "Come 
now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as 
scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, 
they shall be as wool." 

221.25 For such the decalogue was made, and other far more .. .terrible 
codes.] See Exodus 20:1-17. 

221.39 it is not my business to be "seeking the spirit"] Cf. Matt. 
6:33; Luke 12:31; and Colossians 3:1. 

222.2 Goethe ... said that he never had a chagrin but he made a poem 
out of it.] Thoreau might have recalled a passage from Emerson's lecture 
on Goethe which ultimately became a part of Representative Men . See 
Works , IV, p. 263: "In conversation, in calamity, he [Goethe J finds new 
materials; as our German poet said, 'Some god gave me the power to paint 
what I suffer. 1 He draws his rents from rage and pain." Cf. 478.3 and 
490.5. 

224.6 The fact is man need not live by the sweat of his brow — unless 
he sweats easier than I do ] See note on 219.24. Compare the paragraph 
near the end of "Economy" in Walden : "In short, I am convinced, both by 
faith and experience, that to maintain one's self on this earth is not a 
hardship but a pastime, if we will live simply and wisely; as the pursuits 
of the simpler nations are still the sports of the more artificial. It 
is not necessary that a man should earn his living by ,the sweat of his 
brow, unless he sweats easier than I do." 

227.23 not so good a book as the Boston Almanack] See the Boston 
Almanac [for] 1836 — 1873 , (38 vols.) Boston, [v.y.] Copies are in the 
Boston Athenaeum. 

227.24 that little book about the same size which Mr Spaulding has 
just put out called his Practical Thoughts] Author and title not identi- 
fied. 

239.21 advantages of organizing a Club or College] For background, 
see my "Emerson, Thoreau, and the Town and Country Club," Emerson Society 
Quarterly , no. 8 (ill Quarter 1957), pp. 2-17. 

245.11 we went through the Penny Magazine] Apparently Emerson sub- 
scribed to the Penny Magazine for his children. It was issued by the So- 
ciety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, fourteen volumes being pub- 
lished in London between March, 1831, and December, 1845. 

246.19 Bolster Island, and Pillow Hill and even the Lowlands of Never- 
get-up] Perhaps an allusion to a household game played in the Emerson 
home, redolent of the topography of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress . See 
notes on 260.38, 299 f 10, and 384.29. 

247.8 be not anxious to avoid poverty] The Sermon on the Mount lies 
at the heart of many of Thoreau *s most memorable utterances. See Matthew 
6:25-34 and Luke 12:22-31. 



58 

247.13 In the midst of this labyrinth let us live a thread of life.] 
An allusion to the story of Theseus and the Minotaur in the maze in 
Crete, and to Ariadne's thread. See the life of Theseus in Plutarch's 
Lives . 

247.17 The laws of earth are for the feet, or inferior man; the laws 
of heaven are for the head, or superior man.... Happy the man who ob- 
serves the heavenly and the terrestrial law in just proportion] Compare 
Thoreau's college theme on "The Superior and the Common Man" in F. B. 
Sanborn, The Life of Henry David Thoreau (1917), pp. 137-140. The super- 
ior man as described therein is capable of doubting the existence of mat- 
ter while acknowledging "two distinct existences, Nature and Spirit." 
The superior man, resembling the man Paley describes in his Natural The - 
ology , chap. 23, is averse to "the flatness of being content with common 
reasons." This theme, which shows indebtedness to Emerson's Nature , was 
handed in to Channing on May 5, 1837. The language of Thoreau's letter, 
however, suggests the possible influence of Confucius. The phrase, 
"L'homme superieur" appears throughout "Le Lun-Yu, ou les Entretiens Phi- 
losophiques" in Confucius et Mencius. Les Quatre Livres de Philosophie 
Morale et Politique de la Chine , tr. Jean Pierre Guillaume Pauthier, 
Paris, 1858, pp. 105-221. Earlier editions appeared in Paris, 1841, and 
in Paris, 1852. 

251. 7ff. "Free in this world, as the birds in the air, disengaged 
from every kind of chains, those who have practiced the yoga gather in 
Brahma the certain fruit of their works." "The yogin, absorbed in con- 
templation, contributes in his degree to creation: he breathes a divine 
perfume, he hears wonderful things. Divine forms traverse him without 
tearing him, and united to the nature which is proper to him, he goes, he 
acts, as animating original matter."] These passages, which also appear 
in Thoreau's Journal (II, 191), were drawn from that part of the Mahabhar - 
ata known as Harivansa; ou, Histoire de la Famille de Hari . ouvrage formant 
un Appendice du Mahabharata . tr. Alexandre Langlois, (2 vols.; Paris, 
1834-1835 — a work which Thoreau had borrowed from Harvard on Sept. 11, 
1849. (See Emerson the Essayist . II, 195.) At about this time, from 
Lecture 21 of volume one, he translated The Transmigration of the Seven 
Brahman s . which was edited by Arthur Christy (N.Y., 1932) . See the Hari - 
vansa . II, 3 23: "Libres dans ce monde, comme les oiseaux dans l'air, de- 
gag£s de toute espece de chaines, ceux qui ont pratique" 1 ' yoga recueillent 
en Brahma le fruit certain de leurs oeuvres." See ibid . . II, 327: "Ainsi 
1 ' yogin . absorb^ dans la contemplation, contribue pour sa part a. la crea- 
tion: il respire un parfum tout divin, il entend des choses toutes mer- 
veilleuses. Des formes divines le traversent sans le d£chirer, et, uni a. 
la nature qui lui est propre, il va, il agit comme animant la matiere ori- 
ginelle ( pradhana ) ." Cf. Journal . II, 191 (May 6, 1851). 

252.16 It [the American goshawk] was first described by Wilson] See 
Alexander Wilson, American Ornithology ; or the Natural History of the 
Birds of the United States , (9 vols .) Philadelphia , 1808-1814. See also 
Alexander Wilson and Charles Lucian Bonaparte, American Ornithology , ed. 
Robert Jameson, (4 vols.) Edinburgh, 1831. 

252.17 Audubon has identified it [the American goshawk] with the Eu- 
ropean goshawk, thereby committing a. . .blunder . ] See John James Audubon, 
Birds of America ; from Original Drawings , (4 vols.) London, 1827-1838; 

( 7 vols . ) Phila . , 1840-1844. See his Ornithological Biography ; or, An 
Account of the Habits of Birds of the United States of America , Ts vo 1 s . ) 
Edinburgh, 1831-1849 [ i.e ., 1859]; (5 vols.) Philadelphia, 1831-1839. 
See his A Synopsis of the Birds of North America , Edinburgh, 1839. 



59 

257.24 let the Muse lead the Muse, — let the understanding lead the 
understanding. . .not .. .falling into sloughs and over precipices] Cf. 
Luke 6:39 and Bunyan • s Pilgrim's Progress , especially the early pages on 
the "Slough of Despond." 

257.39 It is much ado about nothing] Cf. the title of Shakespeare's 
play. 

259.28 Does it not compel a kind of sphere music to attend] The clas- 
sic reference is Sir Thomas Browne's Religio Medici (1642), Part II, sec- 
tion 9: "There is music wherever there is harmony, order, or proportion; 
and thus far we may maintain the music of the Spheres; for those well- 
ordered motions and regular paces, though they give no sound to the ear, 
yet to the understanding they strike a note most full of harmony." See 
the note on 74.12. 

260.36 Drink deep or taste not of the Pierian spring.] See 401.3. 
Compare Alexander Pope, Essay on Criticism . Part II, lines 15-18: 

A little learning is a dangerous thing; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring: 
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
And drinking largely sobers us again. 

260.3 8 When they tasted of the water of the river over which they 
were to go .. .bitterish ... sweeter when it was down.] Thoreau apparently 
had the various River-of -Death scenes from Bunyan ' s Pilgrim's Progress 
in his mind. For example, at the end of Part II, Mr. Stand-fast remarks 
as he is about to plunge in: "This River has been a Terror to many, yea 
the thoughts of it also have often frighted me.... The Waters indeed are 
to the Palate bitter, and to the Stomach cold, yet the thoughts of what I 
am going to... lie as a glowing Coal at my Heart." See note on 299.10 and 
384.29. Thoreau owned the edition published by Tiebout in New York, 1811, 

265.2 It is wisest to speak when you are spoken to.] The proverb is 
old. For example, Thomas Fuller quotes it in Gnomologia (1732), no. 4244: 
"Speak, when you are spoke to; come, when you are called." 

266.18 Let not your right hand know what your left hand does in that 
line of business.] See Matt. 6:3 — "But when thou doest alms, let not thy 
left hand know what thy right hand doeth." 

277.7 swap any of your "wood-notes wild" for dollars?] Cf. Milton's 
L 1 Allegro , lines 133-134: 

Or sweetest Shakespear, fancy's child, 
Warble his native wood-notes wild. 

For Thoreau 's study of this poem at Harvard, see The Transcendentalists 
and Minerva . I, 188-190. 

285.15 A temple... was anciently "an open place without a roof"] A 
good discussion appears in the Encyclopaedia Americana . XII (Philadel- 
phia, 1832), pp. 184-185. See Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of 
the English Language . (2 vols.) New Haven, 1841, II, 761: "...Original- 
ly, temples were open places, as the Stonehenge in England. In Rome, 
some of the temples were open, and called sacella ; others were roofed, 
and called aedes . . . . " 

286.17 back & forth upon a raft to some huge Homeric or Shakspearean 
Indiaman that lies upon the reef, but buila a bark out of that wreck] A 



60 

rather obvious allusion to Defoe's Robinson Crusoe . 

286.23 you dici not write it with ink, and it is not so good... in the 
eye of the law] Probably an allusion to an obscure legal requirement that 
wills, deeds, or contracts should be drawn, signed, or witnessed in ink. 

290.23 secular, — which the dictionary defines as "relating to affairs 
of the present world, not holy"] See Noah Webster, An American Dictionary 
of the English Language . (2 vols.) New Haven, 1841, II, 556: "Pertaining 
to this present world, or to things not spiritual or holy; relating to 
things not immediately or primarily respecting the soul, but the body; 
worldly. ..." 

290.29 "If they ask for bread, will you give them a stone?"] See 
Matthew 7:9; Mark 7:27; and Luke 11:11. 

299.10 Some piece of mica... as on the Delectable Mts ... .reflects the 
heavens to us.] Allusion to Part I of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress . See 
notes on 260.38 and 384.29. Bunyan appears on Thoreau's list of legenda 
for 1838. See The Transcendentalists and Minerva . II, 360, 362. 

300.12 Suppose a man were to sell the hue... of his thought... to gain 
the whole world & lose his own soul i ] See Matthew 16:16 and Luke 9:25. 

300.16 If you will look at another star I will try to supply my side 
of the triangle] This conceit brings to mind John Donne's "twin compass- 
es" in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning." Cf. 385.7. 

303 o 4 't aint I, — 't aint I, — as the dog says with a tin-kettle tied 
to his tail.] There is possibly a proverb here. Cf. Thomas Fuller's 
Gnomologia (1732), No. 2794: "If you want a Pretence to whip a Dog, it 
is enough to say, he eat up the Frying-Pan." Cf. the references to cats: 
"bell the cat," etc. 

304.4 "Unless above himself he can 

Erect himself, how poor a thing is man!"] From a stanza of 
Samuel Daniel's "To the Lady Margaret, Countess of Cumberland," made pop- 
ular by its having been quoted in Coleridge's The Friend . For its wide 
use in Emerson's period, see Emerson the Essayist . I, 95, fn. 89; 127; 

13 8 

Knowing the heart of man is set to be 

The centre of this world, about the which 

These revolutions of disturbances 

Still roll; where all the aspects of misery 

Predominate; whose strong effects are such, 

As he must bear, being powerless to redress: 

And that unless above himself he can 

Erect himself, how poor a thing is man! 

Cf. Wordsworth's use of the quotation in The Excursion . IV, lines 330-331. 

304.9 Are we chiefly under obligations to the devil, like Tom Walker?] 
Tom appears in the story of "The Devil and Tom Walker" in Washington Ir- 
ving's Tales of a Traveller , by Geoffrey Crayon , gent , [pseud.], (2 vols.) 
Philadelphia, 1824. The story begins: "A few miles from Boston, in Massa- 
chusetts, there is a deep inlet winding several miles into the interior 
of the country from Charles Bay, and terminating in a thickly-wooded swamp, 
or morass." Irving claims that he heard the tale narrated by a Cape Cod 
whaler. Tom Walker entered into a compact with "Old Scratch" somewhat as 
Jabez Stone does in Stephen Vincent Ben^t's "The Devil and Daniel Web- 



61 

ster." In the end, the Black Man takes him away on a horse, thereby 
creating "that popular saying prevalent throughout New England, of 'The 
Devil and Tom Walker. 1 " For Thoreau's reading of Irving's works during 
undergraduate days at Harvard, see Emerson the Essayist , II, 192 and 203; 
The Transcendentalists and Minerva . I, 140-142. 

304.20 I .. .exaggerate whenever I have an opportunity, — pile Pelion 
upon Ossa, to reach heaven so.] Cf. the note on 9.9. See Homer's Odyssey . 
Book XI, line 315, for the allusion to the Titans who piled one mountain 
upon another in order to scale Mt. Olympus: "They were fain to pile Ossa 
on Olympus, and pelion, with its waving forests, on Ossa, so that heaven 
might be scaled." 

311.3 True, a man cannot lift himself by his own waistbands] A var- 
iant of the proverb, "One cannot lift himself by his own bootstraps." 

311.26 With him, too, it is a Song of the Shirt, "Work, — work, — 
work I " ] Thomas Hood's "The Song of the Shirt" was first published 
anonymously in the Christmas, 1843, issue of Punch. Thoreau was apparent- 
ly impressed by its repeated admonitions in stanzas 1 and 2: 

With fingers weary and worn, "Work! work! work! 

With eyelids heavy and red, While the cock is crowing aloof! 
A woman sat in unwomanly rags, And work — work — work, 

Plying her needle and thread — Till the stars shine through the 
Stitch! stitch! stitch! roof! 

In poverty, hunger, and dirt, It's 0! to be a slave 

And still with a voice of dolorous Along with the barbarous Turk, 

pitch Where woman has never a soul to 
She sang the "Song of the Shirt!" save, 

If this is Christian work! 

311.35 Few... can work on their navels, — only some Brahmins] Thoreau 
urges Blake to work at some task and not imitate the Brahmins in their 
acts of contemplation. For Yogi practices, see William Ward, A View of 
the History . Literature , and Mythology , of the Hindoos . (2nd ed., 2 vols.) 
Serampore, 1818, I, part II, chap. V, esp. p. 386: "The fixing of the 
mind, so that it may not wander beyond the nose, nor descend inwardly be- 
yond the level of the navel, is called dharunu, in which the yogee puri- 
fies his mind by benevolence. . .subdues all his members, and all the pov/er 
of the elements over him." 

312.21 to say nothing of the flocks and herds of Admetus afterward.] 
See the note on 47.4. 

312.26 You must not only aim aright 

But draw the bow with all your might.] This couplet is as- 
signed to Thoreau by Professor Carl Bode in the Collected Poems . The 
imagery, of course, was popular with Emerson. See my "The Significance 
of Emerson's Second Merlin Song," Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 2 (I 
Quarter 1956), pp. 2-7; "A Further Note on Emerson's 'Second Merlin 
Song'," Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 6 (I Quarter 1957), pp. 10-11, 

312.34 Pray read the life of Haydon the painter... a small revela- 
tion] See the Life of Benjamin Robert Haydon . Historical Painter , from 
his Autobiography and Journals , ed. and compiled by Tom Taylor, T3 vols.) 
London, 1853 ; (2 vols.) N ,Y. , 1853. Thoreau also recommended this work 
to Benjamin B. Wiley under April 26, 1857. See 478.4. 

313.2 letter of a Turkish cadi at the end of Layard ' s "Ancient Baby- 



62 

Ion" . . .oriental genius speaking] See Sir Austin Henry Layard, Discoveries 
among the Ruins of Ninevah and Babylon . (Abridged ed.) N.Y., 1853, pp. 
541-542: 

I cannot better conclude than by- 
showing the spirit in which Eastern philosophy and Mus- 
sulman resignation contemplate the evidences of ancient 
greatness and civilization, suddenly rising up in the midst 
of modern ignorance and decay. A letter in my posses- 
sion contained so true and characteristic a picture of the 
feelings that such an event excites in the mind of a good 
Mohammedan, that I here give a literal translation of its 
contents. It was written to a friend of mine by a Turkish 
Cadi, in reply to some inquiries as to the commerce, 
population, and remains of antiquity of an ancient city, 
in which dwelt the head of the law. These are its 
words : — 



M H 


i — i 


0) H • 


O «tf 


G »H 


<D r-i 


cv 


U cti 




0) c 


m 


<H U 


X 


a 3 


H 


u o 




l-i 


*•, 


«0 H 


- C r-H 


3 -H 


nj •> 


<D -0 <7> 


U f~, 


O <tf •« 


X >,H 


H <t) > 


-1 


<D •« 


<D o in 


01 -P 


to 



" My Illustrious Friend, and Joy of my Liver ! 

u The thing you ask of me is both difficult and useless. Although 
1 have passed all my days in this place, I have neither counted the 
houses nor have I inquired into the number of the inhabitants; and as 
to what one person loads on his mules and the other stows away in the 
bottom of his ship, that is no business of mine. Hut, above all, as to 
the previous history of this city, dod onl\ knows the amount of dirt 
and confusion that tin- infidels may have eaten before the coming of 
the sword of Islam. It were unprofitable for in t < » inquire into it. 

'•Oh, my soul! oh, my lamb! vcek not after the things which 
concern thee not. Thou earnest unto us, and we welcomed thee: go 
in peace. 

"Of a truth, thou hast spoken many words; and there is no harm 
done, for the speaker is one and the listener i> another. After the 
fashion of thy people thou hast wandered from one place to another 
until thou art happy ami content in none. "We (praise be to God) were 
born here, and never de-ire to quit it. Is it possible then that the idea 
of a general intercourse between mankind should make any impression 
on our understandings? God forbid! 

" Listen, oh my son! There is no wisdom equal unto the belief in 
God! He created the world, and shall we liken ourselves unto him in 
seeking to penetrate into the mysteries of his creation? Shall we say, 
behold this star spinneth round that star, and this other --tar with a tail 
goeth and coineth in so many years! Let it go! lie from whose hand 
it came will guide and direct it. 

"Hut thou wilt say unto me, Stand aside, oh man. for I am more 
learned than thou art, and have seen more things. If thou thinkest 
that thou art in this respect better than I am, thou art welcome. I 
praise God that I seek not that which I require not. Thou art learned 
in the things I care not for: and as for that which thou hast seen I 
defile it. "Will much knowledge create thee a double belly, or wilt thou 
seek Paradise with thine eyes? 

"Oh, my friend ! If thou wilt be happy, say. There is no God but 
God! Do no evil, and thus wilt thou fear neither man nor death; for 
surely thine hour will come ! 

"The meek in spirit (El Fakir), 

"IMAUM ALI ZADE." 



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63 

319,12 poison us like that shirt which Hercules put on.] The story 
of Hercules, Nessus, and Dejanira, daughter of (5fcneus, appears in Ovid's 
Me tamo r pho ses , sections 8 and 9, and was summarized in Thoreau' s copy of 
John Lempriere's A Classical Dictionary , under "Dejanira." In the pres- 
ent letter, Thoreau notes the parallel between Nessus the Centaur and Sa- 
tan in the Garden of Eden. Both were seducers of women, whose husbands 
consequently suffered calamities. Clothing featured in both stories — the 
shirt dipped in Nessus' blood and the aprons of fig leaves, 

319.24 (business, like misery, makes strange bedfellows)] See Shake- 
speare's The Tempest . II.ii.42: "Misery acquaints a man with strange bed- 
fellows. N ~ 

319.26 I think of Riley's Narrative & his sufferings.] See James 
Riley, An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce . 
Wrecked on the Western Coast of Africa , in the month of August . 1815 . 
With an Account of the Sufferings of her Surviving Officers and Crew , who 
were enslaved by the wandering Arabs on the great African desart , or Za - 
hahrah, ed. Anthony Bleecker, New-York, 1817. 

319.26 You who soared like a merlin with your mate through the realms 
of ether — in the presence of the unlike drop at once to earth a mere amor- 
phous squab — divested of your air inflated pinions.] The merlin mentioned 
here is either the small European falcon ( Falco aesalon ) or the American 
pigeon hawk ( Falco columbarius ) . 

324.16 "Walden" . . .1 shall announce it at once, whether Ticknor does 
or not.] For Greeley's kind offices, see Henry Seidel Canby, Thoreau , 
Boston, [1939], p. 289. For the announcement in the New-York Tribune of 
August 7, 1859 — continued for the next few days*— see the following fac- 
similes. 





V OL XIV N° 4,150. 



NEW-YORK, MONDAY, AUGUST 7, 1854. 



NEW-YORK TRIBUNE, 

TBI NEW. YORK IMIL.V TRIBINB 

>• miUHCD KIERY MORNIN . .«.. EVRNINO, .m»dih 

czcr.mii, I 

BT ORF.ELEY a SicCLRATH. 

•* vm tbiiubb bi-ildimg*. coast. «r »in»v ixd invci-m, 

ArrOftlTB TRF • ITV M*LL, 

aarf ta d-n..M to Cti, Sui*eiil rr. .1 l-| rent, per w.«t. MuK 

Ooplr., Two i rota Bail Suhacnbrr., .3 per a&Dtlfil 10 hltu«A 
9m (U ttOBth. »3 &* For tar*. tu< -ah.. 61 90 

TI1B MET*. YORK WI.EKLT TRIBPNi, 
i'HT LAROE f A r E R FOR tHE COUNTRY. 

■ p«blWb*<J fyfrj Sltflwi MotsnG. u lbs low prto. of Si p«r 
■may aa , la aafBCB. Ttjttc cnici lu «1 Fi». turn" '»' •* Tea 

•Dpi*, (tr ♦'.3, and tbr paper lu DO rM« cotno-rd WTODO th. Clin. 
■a wbte b It i» j «id AaTrr-.WruroU toe Uu. theet wll b. obar|«l 
Fim CENTS PER LINK (or racb to.nloa. 

TUB KUIl.MbKhLV TRIBUNE 

■ pmblutvH ...rj Tvrso.r mi h»iD»» Mouiuic. Prk. 13 per 
mti Ttto c.plc lui + '■ r ... isr til 25. AdT.rttasm.au, k* 
H» • Bbm. rta mci lasertloa. 




PRICE TWO CENTS. 



THE NEW^YORK TBJBCNB, 
FOR E0RQPEAN circulation, 

fc1f«»Rab«d as ibe .aputv. ufurli Mill Slraio.r tor Li.erpcut, u 
f)* y*, uaui, F*>tafe mc'oofd Slsgl. Copioa. Six Ceoia. 

T11B NEW. YORK TR1BCNB, 

■TmCAL1FORN1a.OP.EOON .aoTHK SANDWICH ISLANDS 

■ .obJubtd «Q tb. d.p-.nvr. ul neb Mail Steamar for Aaplswall at 
01 SO par anuD. 8ta*le CoplM. 8li Cot. 



64 




LIFE IN THE WOOD 
On VWdnraday, Aug. 9. 
TICK. NOR &. FIELDS 

wi'l publish 

WALDKN: Or Litr. is the Wood;; 

By Henry D Thnrca'i. 

" When i wrote the loilowinf pogea. "r rather tlic buik of them, I 

lived aloti« in she wi;ode. » mile from any neighbor, ia a homo . 

which I lu'lt uiyan!! .n the .here ol Waldeu 1'ood, m Concord, 

Munkchutettr. end rartied my living by the labor of my baydf only.'' 

COSiTfMv 

Economy; i The IVnda, 

\\ here I Lived 

Lived ter; 
Reading; 
Sooi it; 
Solil ude ; 
\ Uitora; 

Tin Hcan Fielo, 
1 he Village, 



uj what 



Baker Kariu; 
Higher Law*; 
Brule Neighbor*; 
Hnuae-Warmiag; 
Knriner Iuhabi:aLte; 
Winter Viaitora; 
The i'oud m W.u;. r; 
Sj-ring; 
Conclusion. 

Thia strikingly original aud interesting book will bo published iti 1 
▼ol. Itimo.. in cloth, at $1. 



The Writings of 

HORACE GREELEY, HORACE MANN. THE- 
ODOI'.E. PARKER HENRY WARD BEECHER, ED- 
WIN h. CIIAPIN, HENRY C. WRIOIIT, H. T. TR\LL, Dm. 
SHEW. GALL and SPURZHEIM, GEORGE and ANDREW 
COMBE, Jud^e HURLBUT, iMra. KIRKLAND, Mra. B.EID aad 
Mrs. E. OAKS SHITll.the I*OWLERS, and other writera on Ed- 
ucation. Ttnip! iun< e, Morals, Theology, Physiology, Phrenol.-gy, 
Hydropathy. P?ycl;o!ogy, Magnetiam, Phonography, and the Natural 
Sciences g» nernl!y , may be bad of 

FOWLERS AND WELLS. No. 308 Broadway, N. T. 

It H E Y O V T 11 OF .J EFFEBSO N . 
i'ubh.bed lh> Day THE YOUTH OK JEFFERSON— A 
chronicle ol (o!.ige Scrapea at WUliamabnrgh, V'a., A. D. 1764. 
l?mo. Cloth, 75 cent*. 

On SATURDAY. An-. 12. 
FIFTY YEARS IN BOTH HEMISPHERES; Or, Remik 
iscf.mcks ok ihe L:fc or a Former Merch »*t. By Vinc*n t 
Nolte, late of New Orieona. 1 vol., 12mo. Cloth, *1 2i 
J. S. REDFIELD, 

No 110 and 112 Naasau-at. 



326.11 my intention to publish.., An Encyclopaedia of American Liter - 
ature ] On the basis of what Thoreau supplied to Charles Scribner, the 
following sketch was prepared. See Evert Augustus Duyckinck, Cyclopaedia 
of American Literature . (2 vols.) New York, 1856, II, 653-656:" 



HENRY DAVID THOBEATT. 
Two of the most noticeable btn>ks in American 
literature on the score of u certain quaint study 
of natural history ami scenery, are Mr. Thoreau a 

volumes on the Concord and Merrimack rivers, 
and Life in the Woods. The author is a humorist 
in the old Entrli-h sense of the word, a man of 
humors, of Concord, Mass., where, in the neigh- 
borhood of Emerson and Hawthorne, and in tho 
enjoyment of their society.he leads, if we may t.V.e 
his hooks its the interpreter of his career, a medi- 
tative philosophic life. 



s^zZ^^-?**? 




^^m&^L-m^. 



We find his name on the Harvard list of gra- 
duates of 1837. In 184!», having previously been 
a contrihutor to the Dial, and occupied himself 
in school-keeping and trade in an eXjicrimclitiil 
way, he published A Wt«k on the Concord and 
Merrimack Hirer*. It is a book of mingled es- 
say and description, occasionally rash and con- 
ceited, in a curtain transcendental affectation of ex- 
pression on religious subjects; but in many other 
passages remarkable for its nicety of observation, 
and acute literary and moral perceptions. It is 
divided into seven chapters, of the days of the 
week. A journey is accomplished in the month of 
August, 1839, descending the Concord river, from 
the town of that name, to the Merrimac ; then as- 
cending the latter river to its source : thence 
backward to the starting point. This voyage is 
performed by the author in company with his 
brother, in a boat of their own construction, 
which is variously rowed, pulled, dragged, or 
propelled by the wind along the flats or through 
the canal ; the travellers resting at night under a 
tent which they carry with them. The record is 
of the small boating adventures, and largely of the 

reflections, real or supposed, suggested by the 
moods or incidents of the way. There ore a 
variety of illustrations of physical geography, the 
history of the interesting settlements along the 
way ; in the botanical excursions, philosophical 
speculations and literary studies. 



The author, it will be seen from the date of his 
publication, preserved the Iloratian maxim, of 
brooding over his reflections, if not keeping his 
copy, the approved period of gestation of nine 
years. 

His next book was published with equal delibe- 
ration. It is the story of a humor of the author, 
which occupied him a term of two years and two 
months, commencing in March, 1845. Waldcn, 
or Life in the Wood*, was published in Boston in 
1854. The oddity of its record attracted univer- 
sal attention. A gentleman and scholar retires 
one morning from the world, strips himself of 
all eu|>erfluities, and with a borrowed axe and 
minimum of pecuniary capital, settles himself as 
a squatter in the wood, on the edge of a New 
England pond near Concord. He did not own 
the land, but was permitted to enjoy it. He fell- 
ed a few pines, hewed timbers, and for boards 
bought out the shanty of James Collins, an Irish 
laborer on the adjacent Fitchburg railroad, for 
the sum of four dollars twenty-five cents. He 
was assisted in the raising by Emerson, George 
XT. Curtis, and other celebrities of Concord, 
whose presence gave the rafters an artistic flavor. 
Starting early in the spring, he secured long be- 
fore winter by the labor of his hands •• a tight 
shingled and plastered house, ten feet wide by fif- 
teen long, and eight feet posts, with a garret and 
a closet, a largo window on each side, two trap- 
doors, one door at the end, and a brick fire-place 
opposite." The exact cost of the house is given : — 




Tborean's House. 



Board* IS 08X, mostly shanty boards, 

Hefuse shingles for roof and 

sides 4 no 

Laths 1 85 

Two secondhand windows 

with glass 2 48 

One thousand old brick, . . <i 00 

Two casks of lime, . . . . 2 40 That was hleh. 

Hair 1)1 Mure than 1 needed. 

Mantle-tree Iron, 15 

Nails 8 90 

Hinges and screws, .... 14 

Latch, 10 

Chalk, 01 

Transportation, 1 40 i 



I carried a good part on 
my back. 



In all, W 12 X 

These are all the materials excepting the timber, 
stones, and sand, which I claimed by squatter's right. 
I have nlso a small wood-shed adjoining, made 
chiefly of the stuff which was left after building the 
house. 

The rest of the account from Mr. Thorcnu's 
ledger is curious, unci will show " upon whut 
Meats tli is same Ciesar fed," that he came to in- 
terest the public so greatly in his housekeeping : — 

By surveying, curpentry, ami dny-labor of various 
other kinds in the village in the nnan while, for I 
have as many trades as fingers, 1 had earned $13 34. 
The expense of food for eight months, namely, from 
July 4th to March 1st. the time when these estimates 
were mnde, though 1 lived there more than two 
years, — not counting potatoes, a little green corn, 
and some peas, which I had raised, nor considering 
the value of what was on hand at the last date, was 



Rice, . 
MolnswS, 
i'.yo meal, . . 
Indian meal, . 
Pork, . . . 

Flour, . . . 

Sugar, . . . 
Lard, . . . 
Apples. . . 
Dried apple, . 
Sweet |iotutnes, 
One pumpkin, 
One watermelon 
Salt, .... 



$1 781 

1 73 Cheapest form of the saccharin* 
1 041 

99J Cheaper than rye. 
212 
*S 

so' 

65 
25 
22 
10 
OC 
2 



(Cost more than Indian meal, 
( both money and trouble. 



~3 

-- 3 



Yes, I did eat $8 74. nil told ; but I should not 
thus unblushingly publish my guilt, if 1 did not 
know that most of my readers were equally guilty 
with myself, and that their deeds would look no bet- 
ter in print. The next year 1 sometimes caught a 
mess offish for my dinner, and once I went so lur as 
to slaughter a woodi-huck which ravaged my beai:- 
field, — effect his transmigration, as a Tartar would 
Nxy, — unci devour him, iiartlv for experiment's sake; 
but though it afforded inc a momentary enjoyment, 
notwithstanding a musky flavor, I saw that the long- 
est use would not make that a good practice, how- 
ever it might seem to have your woodcliucks ready 
dressed by the village butcher. 

Clothing and some incidental expenses within the 
same dates, though little can be inferred from this 
item, amounted to 

t- 4n| 

Oil and some household utensils, ... 2 00 

So that all the pecuniary outgoes, excepting for 
washing and mending, winch for the most part wero 
done out of the house, and their bills have not yet 
been received, — and these are all ami more than all 
the ways by which money necessarily goes out in 
this part of the world, — were 



IL.use |2S 1U 

Farm one year 14 721 

Food eight mouth' s 74 

Clothing, Ac i iulit months, .... b 40J 

Oil, &*., eight months, 2 00 

In all *til Wl 



65 



I address myself now to those of my readers who 
have a living to get. And to meet this 1'havc for 
farm produce sold 

$23 44 
Earned by day-labor, 13 34 

In all »36 78 

which subtracted from the sum of the outgoes leaves 
a balance of $25 21 J on the one side,— this bemg 

very nearly the means with which I started, and the 
measure of expenses to be incurred, — and on the 
other, beside the leisure and independence and 
health thus secured, a comfortable house for me as 
long as I chose to occupy it 

lie had nothing further to do after his "family 
baking," which, the family consisting of a unit, 
could not have been large or have come round 
very often, than to read, think, and observe. Ho- 
mer appears to have been his favorite book. The 
thinking was unlimited, and the observation that 
of a man with an instinctive tact for the wonders 
of natural history. He sees and describes insects, 
birds, such "small deer" as approached him, with 
a felicity which would have gained him the heart 
of Izaak Walton and Alexander Wilson. A topo- 
graphical and hydrographical survey of Walden 
Pond, is as faithful, exact, and labored, as if it had 
employed a government or admiralty commis- 
sion. 

As in the author's previous work, the imme- 
diate incident is frequently only the introduction 
to higher themes. The realities around him are 
occasionally veiled by a hazy atmosphere of trans- 
cendental speculation, through which tho essayist 
sometimes stumbles into abysmal depths of the 
bathetic. We have more pleasure, however, in 
dwelling upon the shrewd humors of this modern 
contemplative Jacques of the forest, and his fresh, 
nice observation of books and men, which has 
occasionally something of a poetic vein. lie who 
would acquire a new sensation of the world about 
him, would do well to retiro from cities to the 
banks of Walden |>ond ; and he who would open 
his eyes to the opportunities of country life, in its 
associations of fields and men, may loiter with 
profit along the author's journey on the Merri- 
mack, where natural history, local antiquities, re- 
cords, and tradition, aro exhausted in vitalizing 
the scene. 



A CIUBACreR — FEOM irALI>F«-. 

Who should come to my lodge this morning but a 
true Homeric or Paphlikgouiau man, — he hud so 
suitable and poetic a name that I am sorry I cannot 
print it here, — a Canadian, a wood-chopper nndjMist 
maker, who can hole fifty po<U in a day, who made 
his lust supper on u woodehuck which his dog caught. 
He, too, has heard of Homer, and, " if it were not 
for books," would "not know what to do rainy 
days," though perhaps he has not read one wholly 
through for tunny rainy seasons, Some priest who 
could pronounce the Greek itself, taught him to rend 
his verse in the Testament hi his native parish far 
away ; and now 1 must translate to him, while he 
holds the book, Achilles' reproof to I'atroclus, for 
his sad countenance. — " Why are you in tears, I'a- 
troclus, like a young girl ? " 

Or have yon alone heard some news from Phtlila? 
They say that MetMDliu* lives yet, ion of Actor, 
And Pefeus lives, son of /Earns among the Myrmidon*. 
Klther of whom having died, we should greatly gi leVo. 

He says, " That's good." He has a great bundle of 
white-oak bark under his arm forn sick man, gather- 
ed this Sunday morning. " I suppose there's no 



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A BATVLI OF ANTO — TBO> WALDBK. 

One day when I went out to my wood-pile, or ra- 
ther my pile of stumps, I observed two large nuts, 
the one red, the other much larger, nearly half nn 
inch long, and black, fiercely contending with one 
another. Having once got hold they never let go, 
but struggled and wrestled and rolled on the chips 
incessantly. Looking farther, I was surprised to find 
that the chip* were covered with such combatants, 
that it was not a duellum, bat a bellum, a war be- 
tween two races of ants, the red always pitted against 
the black, and frequently two red ones to one black. 
The legions of these Myrmidons covered all the hill* 
mid vales in my wood-yard, and the ground was al- 
ready strewn with the dead and dying, both red and 
black. It was the only buttle wnk-li 1 have ever 
witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the 
battle was raging ; internecine wnr ; the red repub- 
licans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on 
the other. On every side they were engaged in 
deadly combat, yet without any noise I could hear, 
and human sohfiers never fought so resolutely. I 
watched a couple that were fust locked in ench 
other's embraces, in a little sunny valley amid the 
chips, now at noon-day prepared to fight till the 
sun went down, or life went out The smaller red 
champion had fastened himself like a vice to his ad- 
versary's front, and through all the tumblings on 
tluit field never for an instant ceased to gnaw at one 
of his feelers nenr the root, having already caused 
the other to go bv the board ; while the stronger 
black one dashed him from side to side, and, as I saw 
on looking nearer, hud already divested him of seve- 
ral of his members. They fought with more perti- 
nncity than bull-dogs. Neither manifested the least 
di*|MMition to retreat It was evident that their 
bit tie-cry was— Conquer or die. In the mean while 
there came along a single red ant on the hill-side of 
this valley, evidently full of excitement, who either 
had despatched his foe, or had not yet taken part in 
the bait !e ; probably the latter, for he hod lost noue 
of his brnos; whose mother bad charged him to re- 
turn with his shield or upon it Or perchance he 
was some Achilles, who had nourished his wrath 
apart, and had now come to avenge or rescue his 
Patrocluo, He saw this unequal combat from afar 
— for the blacks were nearly twice the site of the 
red, — he drew near with rapid paee till he stood on 
Lis guard within half an inch of the combatants; 
then, watching his opportunity, he sprang upon the 
black warrior, and commenced his operations near 
the root of his right fore-leg, leaving the foe to select 
among his own members ; and so there were three 
united for life, as if a new kind of attraction had 
been invented which put all other locks and cements 
to shame. I should not have wondered by this time 
to find that they had their respective musical bands 
stationed on some eminent chip, and playing their 
national airs the while, to excite the slow and cheer 
the dying combatants. I was myself excited some- 
what even as if they had been men. The more you 
think of it, the less the difference. And certainly 
there is not the fight recorded in Concord history, 
at least, if in the history of America, that will bear 
a moment's comparison with this, whether for the 
numbers engaged in it, or for the patriotism and 
heroism displayed. For numbers and for carnage it 
was an Aosterlitz or Dresden. Concord Fight I Two 
killed on the patriots' side, and Luther Blanchard 
wounded I Why here every ant was a Buttrick, — 
" Fire I for God's sake fire ! — and thousands shared 
the fate of Davis and Hosmer. There was not one 
hireling there. I have no doubt that it was a prin- 
ciple they fought for, as much as our ancestors, and 
not to avoid a three-penny tax on their tea ; and the 
results of this battle will be as important and memo- 
rable to those whom it concerns as those of the battle 
of Bunker Hill, nt least 

I took up the chip on which the three I have par- 
ticularly (described were struggling, carried it into 
mv house, and placed it under a tumbler on my 



66 



window-sill, in order to see the issue. Holding a 
microscope to the first-mentioned red ant, I saw that, 
though he was assiduously gnawing at the near fore- 
leg of his enemy, having severed his remaining feel- 
er, his own breast was all torn away, exposing what 
vitals he had there to the jaws of the black warrior, 
whose breast-plate was apparently too thick for him 
to pierce ; and the dark carbuncles of the sufferer's 
eyes shone with ferocity, such as war only could ex- 
cite. They struggled half an hour longer under the 
tumbler, and when I looked again the black soldier 
had severed the heads of his foes from their bodies, 
and the still living heads were hanging on either 
side of him like ghastly trophies nt his saddle-bow, 
■till apparently as firmly fastened as ever, and he 
was endeavoring with feeble struggles, being with- 
out feelers and with only the remnant of a leg, and 
I know not how many other wounds, to divest him- 
self of them; which at length, after half nn hour 
more, he accomplished. I raised the glass, and he 
went off over the window-sill in that crippled state. 
Whether he finally survived that combat, and spent 
the remainder of bis days in some Hotel des Inva- 
lides, I do not know; but I thought that his indus- 
try would not be worth much thereafter. I never 
learned which party was victorious, nor the cause 
of the war ; but I felt for the rest of that day as if I 
had had my feelings excited and harrowed by wit- 
nessing the struggle, the ferocity and carnage, of a 
human battle before my door. 

Kirby and Spence tell us that the battles of ants 
have long been celebrated and the date of them re- 
corded, though they say that Huber is the only mo- 
dern author who appears to have witnessed them. 
" JSneas Sylvius," say they, " after giving a very 

circumstantial account of one contested with great 
obstinacy by a great and small species on the trunk 
of a pear tree," adds that " ' This action was fought 



t If. 



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330.5 I have been too much with the world, 
as the poet might say.] An allusion to Words- 
worth^ sonnet, "The World is Too Much With Us." 

330.14 It is sowing the wind, but not reap- 
ing even the whirlwind] See Hosea 8:7— "For 
they have sown the wind, and they shall reap the 
whirlwind." 

330.19 It would be more respectable if men 
...were Giant Despairs.] Another allusion to 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Cf. 331.27. 

331.4 A man about his business would be the 
cynosure of all eyes»] Cf. Milton* s L f Allegro , 
line 80: "The cynosure of neighbouring eyes." 
See note on 277.7. 

331.8 As Bonaparte sent out his horsemen in 
the Red Sea.. .to find shallow water] On Napol- 
eon's exploration of the sands of the Red Sea 
during low water, where Pharaoh had perished in 
the pursuit of the fleeing Hebrews, see, for ex- 
ample. The Hiatorv of Napoleon Buonafearte. (2 
vols.) London (Family Library), 1829, I, 143-144. 



67 

331.19 Have you fought the good fight?] See 1 Timothy 6:12 — "Fight 
the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life." Cf. 2 Timothy 4:7. 
See also 372.17. Thoreau might also have been acquainted with a recent 
and popular Christian hymn composed by John Samuel Monsell and beginning: 
"Fight the Good Fight With all thy Might," eventually published in Hymns 
of Love and Praise (1863). 

331.27 Did you plant any Giant Regrets last spring, such as I saw ad- 
vertised?] Cf. 330.19. If these were flowers — and not a pun on Giant 
Despair — I have not found them listed in such books as Mrs. Catharine Har- 
beson (Waterman) Esling, Flora's Lexicon: An Interpretation of the Language 
and Sentiment of Flowers: with an outline of botany, and a poetical intro - 
duction . Phila., 1839; or Henrietta Dumont, The Language of Flowers , Phila., 
1852; or Mrs. Sarah Josepha (Buell) Hale, Flora's Interpreter: or , The 
American Book of Flowers and Sentiments . (9th ed.) Boston, 1840; or books 
of similar titles on the shelf in Harvard's collection: 25228. 

333.23 Cowper's Task, my greatest favorite] See Book IV ("The Winter 
Evening"), lines 694-697: 

...the country wins me still. 
I never fram'd a wish, or form'd a plan, 
That f latter' d me with hopes of earthly bliss, 
But there I laid the scene. 

341.22 Homer, of course, you include in your list of lovers of Nature] 
See 9.24. 

341.23 this is "my thunder" lately — W m Gilpin's long series of books 
on the Picturesque] See Emerson the Essayist . II, 196 and 202, for the 
volumes Thoreau borrowed from Harvard during 1852 and 1853, noting especi- 
ally the order in which he read them. See also Correspondence . p. 389, 
and my forthcoming article, "Thoreau in Search of the Picturesque." 

343.23 so the shanty is somewhat shorn of its beams] An allusion to 

Paradise Lost . I, 594ff.: . , .. . , 

1 * ' As when the Sun new ris'n 

Looks through the Horizontal misty Air 

Shorn of his Beams.... 

350.20 the author of a political work on New Zealand called "Ultima 
Thule" ] See Thomas Cholmondeley, Ultima Thule ; or Thoughts Suggested by 
a Residence in New Zealand . London" 1854. (Copy in the British Museum.) 

354.31 Be of good courage! That is the main thing.] The Old Testa- 
ment is filled with this monition: See Numbers 13:20; Deut. 31:6-7; Josh- 
ua 1:6-18; Joshua 10:25; 2 Samuel 10:12; 1 Chronicles 19:13 and 22:13; 
also 28:20; Ezra 10:4; Psalm 27:14; Psalm 31:24; Isaiah 41:6. 

355.23 a column or two about the Eastern War I ] A reference to the 
Crimean War of 1854-1856. On March 12, 1854, the Western Powers had al- 
lied themselves with Turkey against Russia and Nicholas I. War had been 
declared on March 28. The Siege of Sebastopol began in October, 1854. 
Its fortifier had been the Russian prince, Aleksandr Sergeevich Menshikov 
or Mentchikoff . Boston newspapers were full of battle reports. 

355.37 we have got to render an account for the deeds done in the body] 
See 2 Cor. 5:10 — "For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; 
that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that 
he hath done, whether it be good or bad." Cf. Matthew 12:36. 



68 
356,18 You cannot serve God and Mammon.] See the note on 170.1. 

358.17 notice of Walden in the last Anti-Slavery Standard] See the National 
Anti-Slavery Standard . Dec. 16, 1854, page 3. 



jltto publications. 



I.IiEN I'll l.lfK IN HIE Woolr* H, 
l~ii..RkAi Author ol t WrvU i-n the «. 

M<TIIU..U'L KlllT* " 



III-.-I It 

Bi-urd »ui 



TiiKsi: books spring from a depth of tliougtit 
n'liich nil! not suffer them to i>e put by, and are 
written in a spirit in striking contrast with tbat 
which is uppermost in our time und country. Out 
of the heart of practical, hard-working, progres 
give New Englund come these Oriental utterances. 
The life exhibited in them teaches us, much more 
impressively than any number of sermons could, 
that this Western activity of which we are so 
proud, these material improvements, this commer- 
cial enterprise, this rapid accumulation of wealth, 
even our external, associated philanthropic action, 
arc very easily overrated. The true glory of the 
human soul is not to be reached by the moat rapid 
travelling in car or steaml»oat. by the instant 
transmission of intelligence however far, by the 
most speedy accumulation of a fortune, and how- 
ever efficient measures we may adopt for the re- 
form of the intemperate, the ^ mancipation of the 
enslaved, Ac. it will avail little unless we are 
ourselves essentially noble enough to inspire those 
whom we would so benefit with nobleness. Exter- 
nal bondage is trifling compared with the bondage 
of an ignoble soul. Such things are often said, 
doubtless, in pulpits and elsewhere, but the men 
who say them are too apt to live just with the 
crowd, and so their woris come more and more to 
ring with a hollow no«nd, 

It is refreshing to And in these books the senti- 
ments of one man whose aim manifestly is to Uvt, 
and not to waste his time upon the externals of 
living. Educated at Cambridge, in the way called 
liberal, he seems determiued to make a liberal life 
of it, and not to become the slave of any calling, 
for the sake of earning a reputable livelihood or 
of being regarded as a useful member of society. 
lie evidently considers it his first business to be- 
come more and more a living, advancing soul, 
knowing that thus alone (though he desires to 
think as little as possible about that) can he be, 
in any proper sense, useful to others. Mr. Tho- 
reau's view of life has been called selfish. His 
own words, under the head of " Philanthropy " 
in Walden, are the amplest defence against this 
charge, to those who can appreciate them. Iu a 
deeper sense than we commonly think, charity 
begins at home. The man who, with any fidelity, 
obeys his own genius, serves men infinitely more 
by so doing, becoming an encouragement, a 
strengthened a fountain of inspiration to them, 
than if he were to turn aside from his path and 
exhaust his energies in striving to meet their 
superficial needs. As a thing by the way, aside 
from our proper work, we may seek to remove 
external obstacles from the path of our neigh- 



bours, but no man can help them much who makes 
that his main business, instead of seeking ever- 
more, with nil his energies, tc* resell the loftiest 
point which bjs imagination seta before him, that 
adding to the stuck of true uobleucss iu the world. 

But Mipjiose all men should pursue Mr. Tho- 
reau's course, it is asked triumphantly, as though, 
then, we should be sure to no back to barbarism. 
Let it be considered, iu the first place, that no roau 
could pursue hi* course \\U> was a nitre super- 
ficial imitator, any more iliuu it would be u real 
imitation of Christ if ull men were to make it their 
main business to go uliouf preaching the Gospel 
to each other. I it progress lowniM baibnrlsiu 
to simplify one's outward life for tie suke of 
coming closer I" Nature mid lu the realm ol idea*! 
Is it civilization and refinement to Ik- occupied 
evermore with uddiug to our material conveni- 
ences, comforts and luxuries, to make ourselves 
not so much living members as dead tools of so- 
ciety, iu some bunk, shop, office, pulpit or kitchen ! 
If men were to follow in Mr. Tborean's steps, by 
being more obedient to their loftiest instincts, 
there would, indeed, l<c a falling off in the splen- 
dour of our Iknuscs, iu (he richness of our furni- 
ture and dress, in' the luxury of our tables, but 
how poor arc' these things in comparison with the 
new grandeur and l>eauty which would appear in 
the souls of men. What fresh and inspiring con- 
versation should we have, instead of the weari- 
some gossip which now -meets ua at every turn. 
Men toil on, wearing out body or soul, or both, 
that they may accumulate a needless amount of 
the externals of living ; that they may win the 
regard of those no wiser than themselves; their 
natures l>ecome warped and hardened to their 
pursuits ; they get fainter nnd fainter glimpses 
of the glory of the world, and, by and by, comes 
into their richly-adorned parlours some wise and 
beautiful soul, like the writer of these books, who, 
speaking from the fullness of his inward life, 
makes their luxuries appear vulgar, showing tbat, 
in a direct way. he has obtained the essence of 
that which his entertainers have Ix-en vainly seek- 
ing for lit such a terrible expense. 

It seems remarkable that these books have 
received no more adequate notice in our Literary 
Journals. But the class of scholars are often as 
blind as others to any new elevation of soul. In 
Putnam's Magazine, Mr. Thoreau is spoken of as 
an oddity, as the Yankee Diogenes, as though the 
really ridiculous oddity were not in us of the 
" starched shirt-collar " rather than in this de- 
votee of Nature and Thought. Some have praised 
the originality and profound sympathy with which 
be views natural objects. We might as well stop 
with praising Jesus for the happy use he has made 
oT the lilies of the field. The fact of surpassing 
interest for us is the simple grandeur of Mr. Tbo- 
rean's position — a position open to us all, and of 



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69 

361.5 "perils by land and by flood"] Apparently a quotation from one 
of Thoreau's letters that do not survive. The allusion is probably Bib- 
lical. See St. Paul's account of his dangers in 2 Corinthians 11:26. 

363.11 Johnson in his Tour to the Hebrides says they have a custom] 
See Samuel Johnson's A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland in The 
Works . (12 vols.) London, 1816, VIII, 289-290: "Among other guests, which 
the hospitality of Dunvegan brought to the table, a visit was paid by the 
laird and lady of a small island south of Sky , of which the proper name is 
Muack, which signifies swine. It is commonly called Muck, which the pro- 
prietor not liking, has endeavoured, without effect, to change to Monk . 

It is usual to call gentlemen in Scotland by the name of their possessions, 
as Raasay , Bernera , Loch Bu y, a practice necessary in countries inhabited 
by clans, where all that live in the same territory have one name, and 
must be discriminated by some addition. This gentleman, whose name, I 
think, is Maclean , should be regularly called Muck ; but the appellation, 
which he thinks too coarse for his island, he would like still less for 
himself, and he is therefore addressed by the title of Isle of Muck ." 

365.6 "coughing drowns the Parsons saw."] See Love's Labours Lost . 
V.ii.932. 

369.6 I trust that as this time you stayed away, you may live to come 
another day.] The proverb has taken many forms. Erasmus in his Adagia 
(no. 372) attributed it to Demosthenes: "That same man that runneth a- 
way / May fight again an other day." By 1656, the lines were ascribed to 
Sir John Suckling: "He that fights and runs away / May live to fight an- 
other day." See also James Ray, A Complete History of the Rebellion 

(1749), p. 48: u ., . „. , . , 

s ' * r H e that fights and runs away 

May turn and fight another day 

But he that is in battle slain 

Will never rise to fight again. 

See Burton Stevenson, The Home Book of Quotations . (3rd ed.) N.Y., 1937, 
pp. 456-457. 

369.10 No, I have a real genius for staying at home.] See note on 
124.7. 

369.12 Bewick's tailpieces in the "Birds"] On Jan. 16, 1855, Thor- 
eau borrowed from the Harvard College Library Thomas Bewick, History of 
British Birds . (2 vols.) Newcastle, 1804, returning it on February 27. 
See Emerson the Essayist . II, 197 and 199; and Correspondence . p. 373. 

371.3 the saying that it is always darkest just before day.] This 
proverb goes back to Euripides' Iphigeneia in Tauris . See Thomas Fuller, 
A Pisgah-Sight of Palestine (1650), Book II, ch. 11: "It is always dark- 
est just before the day dawneth." In Thoreau's lifetime, the form usual- 
ly was: "It is always darkest just before dawn." See Burton Stevenson, 
The Home Book of Proverbs . Maxims and Familiar Phrases . N.Y., 1948, pp. 
489-490. 

371.14 Wilkinson's vigorous & telling assault on Allopathy, though he 
substitutes. . .no stronger thigh for that.] See James John Garth Wilkin- 
son, Unlicensed Medicine: with a Plan of Extending Homoeopathy . London, 
1855. (Reprinted from the British Journal of Homoeopathy , no. 54). 

371.18 Every man to his trade.] This proverb is ancient, appearing 
in Aristophanes, Horace and others. Cf. Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV . 



70 

II.ii.85: "Every man to his business." See especially Thomas Fuller, 
Gnomologia: Adagies and Proverbs (1732), no. 1435, and James Kelly, Scot - 
tish Proverbs (1721), p. 97 : "Every man to his trade, quoth the boy to 
the Bishop." "A Bishop asked a cabin boy if he could say his prayers; he 
asked the Bishop if he could say his compass, the Bishop said No; Why, 
then, says the boy, Every man to his trade." 

372.17 yours ever in the good fight, — whether before Sebastopol or un- 
der the wreken] Cf. 331.19. See Stevenson, The Home Book of Proverbs , 
p. 635, who quotes "To all friends round the Wrekin" from George Farquhar, 
The Recruiting Officer (1706) and gives this gloss: "A mode of drinking 
to all friends, wheresoever they may be, taking the Wrekin as a center... 
a mountain in the neighborhood of Shrewsbury." 

374.4 the Comp'd'm of the U. S. census] See Walter Harding, Thoreau's 
Library , Charlottesville, 1957, p. 92: United States Census Office: Com - 
pendium of the United States Census of 1850 . Washington, 1854. 

374.7 your pertinent Address before the Merc. Lit. Association] See 
Charles Sumner, The Position and Duties of the Merchant : illustrated by 
the Life of Granville Sharp : An Address before the Mercantile Library 
Association of Boston . Nov. 15 , 1854 , Boston, 1855 . (Copy in the Boston 
Athenaeum) . It also appears in Sumner's Recent Speeches and Addresses 
[1851-1855] , Boston, 1856, pp. 412-449. No anti-slavery note is sounded 
in this address. Granville Sharp, the English merchant, became England's 
earliest abolitionist, assisting slaves during trials in English courts. 
On his marble bust one may read: "Granville Sharp, to whom England owes 
the glorious verdict of her highest court of law, that the slave who sets 
his foot on British ground, becomes that instant free." 

376.10 I will not take the name of any disease in vain.] An obvious 
appropriation of the words of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments. See 
Exodus 20:7. 

384.20 as of the bread of life compared with which that is bran] Cf. 
220-24, 

384.29 to the delectable primitive mounts within you, which you have 
dreamed of... but never climbed.] See the reference to Bunyan in the note 
on 299.10. 

385.5 The name of that ambitious worldly king is crumbling away.] 
For the background of Shelley's "Ozymandias, " see James A. Notopoulos, 
"Shelley's 'Ozymandias' Once Again," MLR , XLVIII (1953), pp. 442-443. 
Thoreau may have known the original description in Diodorus Siculus or 
seen reference to it in the Quarterly Review , XVI (1817), p. 10. 

385.7 Be sure you are star-y-pointing still.] Cf. note on 300.16. 
See Milton "On Shakespear" (1630), line 4: "Under a star-ypointing pyra- 

mid? " Qm^ 

388.10 the painter who gave me Websters Head] This might have been 
Christopher Pearse Cranch, who was a frequent contributor to The Dial . 

390.5 Description of Middleborough in the Hist. Coll. vol 3d 1810 — 
signed Nehemiah Bennet] See Nehemiah Bennet, "Description of the Town 
of Middleborough, in the County of Plymouth, With Remarks," Collections 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society for the Year 1794 . Boston, 1810, 
pp. 1-3. Bennet 's report was submitted to Dr. Jeremy Belknap and dated 
"Middleborough, June 14th, 1793." 



71 

393.28 I believe that God does delight in the strength of a man's 
legs.] See Psalm 147:10 — "He delighteth not in the strength of the 
horse: he taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man." Cf. Myles Cover- 
dale's version of this passage in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church 
of England (or the Episcopal Church): "He hath no pleasure in the 
strength of an horse; neither delighteth he in any man's legs." 

394.23 in Sterne's Koran... "Spare diet and clear skies are Apollo 
and the Muses." See "The Koran: or, The Life, Character and Sentiments 
of Tria Juncta in Uno, M. N. A. or Master of No Arts," The Works of 
Laurence Sterne .. .with a Life of the Author . Written by himself ! (6 vols.) 

New York, 1813-1814, VI, 237-407 a work not by Sterne but by Richard 

Griffith, who vowed that he could write something which might pass as a 
posthumous production of Sterne's. The quotation appears in VI, page 
352 ( The Koran . Part II, item 108): "Lucretius styles the intellect, 
spiritus unguenti suavis ; and some other poet — for my memory is bad — calls 
it flos Bacchi . I say, that spare diet, and clear skies are Apollo and 
the Muses." 

39 8.21 who cares for numbers in a just cause] Almost all the Tran- 
scendentalists speculated in such terms: Minority vs. Majority; Just 
Cause vs. Unjust Cause. A considerable list of such utterances can be 
found in Emerson's works. Wendell Phillips in his "Speech on John Brown," 
delivered at Harper's Ferry, Nov. 1, 1859, remarked: "One, of God's side, 
is a majority." 

398.22 England expects every man to do his duty.] Lord Nelson's sig- 
nal to the fleet at the battle of Trafalgar on Oct. 21, 1805. See Robert 
Southey, The Life of Nelson . London (John Murray), 1831, ch. IX, page 332. 

398.23 Be sure you are right and then go ahead.] Cf. David Crockett's 
motto: "Be sure you are right, then go ahead." See Burton Stevenson, 
The Home Book of Quotations . (3rd ed.) N.Y., 1937, p. 1725. 

398.24 If here is not the wealth of the Indies] Emerson was fond of 
the Spanish proverb quoted in Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson , under 
April 17, 1778. Johnson: "As the Spanish proverb says, 'He, who would 
bring home the wealth of the Indies, must carry the wealth of the Indies 
with him. ' So it is in travelling; a man must carry knowledge with him, 
if he would bring home knowledge." Compare Thoreau's observations on this 
theme in the final chapter of Walden . See also Paradise Lost . Book II, 
line 2: "The wealth of Ormus and of Ind." 

399.14 B. (of the mountain) was here when your note and the list of 
books arrived] Apparently H. G. 0. Blake, who hiked with Thoreau up the 
Assabet on November 9. (See Journal . VIII, p. 16.) See also The Corre - 
spondence . page 402 top. 

399.20 the trumpet and the drum will sound to you as they do in 
dreams] This imagery suggests Thoreau's fondness for Felicia Hemans ' 
"The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers" — especially the third stanza: 

Not as the conqueror comes, 

They, the true-hearted came, 
Not with the roll of the stirring drums, 

And the trumpet that sings of fame. 

See Walden . ch. VII, 119: "But sometimes it was a really noble and in- 
spiring strain that reached these woods, and the trumpet that sings of 
fame, and I felt as if I could spit a Mexican with a good relish...." 



72 

See also ch. II, Ul5, and my "Four Uncollected Thoreau Poems, with Notes 
on the Canon," Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 5 (IV Quarter 1956), pp. 
13-16. 

400.25 voyages... to be made on that river, for it is the water of 
life.] For "water of life" and "living water" see the Bible passim . Cf. 
especially John 4:10-14. 

401.3 I could drink deeply enough of it] See note on 260.36. 

402.22 I hope your horse will live as long as one... died in the south 
of France at the age of 40.] Not located. 

409.3 shooting like "mercurial trout" in every direction] Cf. Walden, 
chapter X ("Baker Farm") where Thoreau also quotes from William Ellery 
Channing's poem: 

Thy entry is a pleasant field, 
Which some mossy fruit trees yield 
Partly to a ruddy brook, 
By gliding musquash undertook, 
And mercurial trout, 
Darting about. 

409.8 she wears at least the gentle name of Spring as Bryant says] 
See William Cullen Bryant's "March," stanza 3: 

For thou, to northern lands, again 

The glad and glorious sun dost bring, 

And thou hast joined the gentle train 
And wear'st the gentle name of Spring. 

409.10 Then let "Hope rule triumphant in the breast"] A possible 
confusion of Pope's Essay on Man . Epistle I, lines 95-96: "Hope springs 
eternal in the human breast: / Man never is, but always to be, blest." 
Cf. Burns' The Cotter's Saturday Night , stanza 16: "Hope springs exult- 
ing on triumphant wing." 

409.15 Can we not meet occasionally ere the evil days....] See the 
context of the allusion in Ecclesiastes cited in the note on 58.16. 

413.13 "Fed the same flock, by fountain, shade, & rill"] Milton's 
Lycidas . lines 24-27 and 37. 

414.26 My dear Gabriel] See Daniel 8:16 and 9:21; Luke 1:19 and 1:26. 

414.27 Who... hath in these latter days appeared unto the least of all 
Daniels] Deliberate imitation of 1 Corinthians 15:8-9 and Ephesians 3:8. 

415.5 their assasinator Poe, lies in the Potter's Field at Baltimore] 
For Poe's assassinating others' poems, see his "Our Amateur Poets: No. 
III. William Ellery Channing" in Graham's Magazine . August, 1843 — re- 
printed in The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe . ed. James A. Harrison, 
(17 vols.) N.Y., [1902], XI, 174-190. 

415.6 as somebody in the Home Journal of this week, says] Probably 
the Boston Home Journal , also known as the Suffolk County Journal , which 
flourished between 1846 and 1903. 

416.29 "Haunted forever by the eternal mind"] See Wordsworth's "Ode 
on Intimations of Immortality," lines 110-113: 



73 

Thou best philosopher, who yet dost keep 

Thy heritage, thou Eye among the blind, 

That, deaf and silent, read'st the eternal deep, 

Haunted for ever by the eternal mind.... 

416.30 Wordsworth. . .philosopher and priest of Nature.] Probably an 
echo of Bacon's Novum Qrganum ; "Homo enim, naturae minister et inter- 
pres...." For its currency in this period, see Emerson the Essayist . I, 
333; II, 78. 

424.22 Will you go to glory with me? is the burden of the song.] 
This may be a theme rather than the actual refrain of a hymn familiar 
to Thoreau 's family. 

428.7 where wit and gaiety never come "that comes to all."] Echo 
of Milton's Paradise Lost . Book I, lines 65-67, descriptive of Hell: 

Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace 
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes 
That comes to all.... 

428.10 "Its very nakedness has power / To aid the hour," says old 
Sir Walter. I have not found this quotation in the poems of either Sir 
Walter Raleigh or Sir Walter Scott. 

428.12 the "old Bobbin Woman was steady to her Bible"] Not identi- 
fied. 

444.1 I should not care if I sprouted into a living tree, put forth 
leaves & flowers, & have fruit.] A good example of the organic metaphor 
in Thoreau. See the note on 45.21. 

444.3 I am grateful for what I am & have. My thanksgiving is per- 
petual.] "Perpetual" and "perpetually" are favorite words of Walt Whit- 
man. Might the expression here be an echo? 

444.8 My breath is sweet to me.] Another possible influence of Walt 
Whitman. See "sweet" and "sweeter" in Edwin Harold Eby ' s A Concordance 
of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass and Selected _ Prose Writings . Seattle, 
1949-1954. 

444.24 Are they not patient waiters — They who wait for us?] I con- 
sider this a genuine echo of Whitman's "Sun Down Poem" or "Crossing 
Brooklyn Ferry" — mentioned in 444.31. 

446.15 Depend on it, now is the accepted time] See 2 Corinthians 
6 : 2— " . . .behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of sal- 
vation." 

446.24 the sum & substance of [Confucius'] teaching is... Do as you 
would be done by.] Cf. the statement of the "Golden Rule" in Matthew 
7:12 and Luke 6:31. 

446 . 26 "Conduct yourself suitably toward the persons of your family, 
then you will be able to instruct and to direct a nation of men."] 
Thoreau used one of three editions of Confuciu s et Menc.i.u^ Les Quatre 
Livres de Philosophie Morale et Poli t ique de la Chine , traduits du chin- 
ois par G [ i.e . . Jean Pierre Guillaume] Pauthier, Paris, 1841j Paris, 
1852; Paris, 1858. The four books were: "Ta Hio, La Grande Etudej" 



74 

"Tchoung-Young, ou L' Invariability dans le Milieu;" "Le Lun-Yu, ou Les 
Entretiens Philosophiqu.es ;" and "Meng-Tseu." All his quotations in the 
Correspondence seem to be taken from the third. I have not, however, lo- 
cated the first, unless it be a rather free translation of passages like 
the following. See the edition of Paris, 1858, p. 113: "II n'y a que 
la pie'te' filiale et la concorde entre les freres de diffeVents ages qui 
doivent etre principalement cultiv£es par ceux qui occupent des fonctions 
publiques; ceux qui pratiquent ces vertus remplissent par cela meme des 
fonctions publiques d'ordre et d 'administration." 

446.29 "To nourish ones self with a little rice, to drink water, to 
have only his bended arm to support his head, is a state which has also 
its satisfaction. To be rich and honored by iniquitous means, is for me 
as the floating cloud which passes." See Confucius et Mencius . Les 
Quatre Ljvres . Paris, 1858, p. 137: "Le Philosophe dit: Se nourrir d'un 
peu de riz, boire de l'eau, n'avoir que son bras courbe" pour appuyer sa 
tete, est un 4tat qui a aussi sa satisfaction, fitre riche et honore" par 
des moyens iniques, c'est pour moi comme le nuage flottant qui passe." 

447.1 "As soon as a child is born he must respect its faculties; the 
knowledge which will come to it by & by does not resemble at all its 
present state. If it arrives at the age of 40 or 50 years, without hav- 
ing learned anything, it is no more worthy of any respect."] See Con - 
fucius et Mencius . Les Quatre Livres (Paris, 1858), p. 148: "Des l'instant 
qu'un enfant est ne", il faut respecter ses faculte's; la science qui lui 
viendra par la suite ne ressomble en rien a son e"tat present. S'il arrive 
a l'&ge de quarante ou de cinquante ans sans avoir rien appris, il n'est 
plus digne d'aucun respect." 

449.24 old English prophecy now in circulation, "that the hardest day 
would come when we should have to fight against men having snow on their 
helmets."] No located. 

450.14 a good breed cannot be got out of lean kine.] Turkish women 
are likened to the "kine of Bashan" in Amos 4:1. Cf. Pharaoh's dream in 
Genesis 41:1-4. 

450.35 gait of a high-mettled horse. "Incessu patuit."] See Virgil, 
Aeneid . Book I, line 405: " Et vera incessu patuit Pea ." ("She stood re- 
vealed a goddess truly in her gait.") 

451.4 I see that Nature is always flowing. She will not let you fix 
her , and she refuses to be caught....] This line reflects the philosophy 
of Heraclitus, whom Thoreau studied in Joseph Marie de GeVando, Hjstoire 
Compare'e des Systemes de Philosophie . See The Transcendental is ts and 
Minerva . I, 248-264. See also Emerson's Nature (Boston. 1856). pp. 14 
and 65.6; 93.21; 93.23, especially the Orphic Poet's lines: "Nature is 
not fixed but fluid.... to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile...." 

451.12 Lord Byron said that the finest man and the best boxer... was 
the offspring of positive deformity] Not located. 

452,17 the ode, " Vides ut alta . etc . . . . . Soracte " ] See the note on 
35.8ff. for Thoreau 's early use of Horace's Ninth Ode in Book One. 

453.39 Magnas inter opes inops I ] See Horace's Odes . Book III, Ode 
16, line 28: "Poor in the midst of great wealth." 

454.31 Froude's History] See James Anthony Froude, History of England 
from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth . (12 vols.) London, 
1856-1870. 



75 

454.32 a report on India by Lord Dalhousiej A reference, doubtless, 
to the last state papers he submitted. Dalhousie retired as Governor- 
General on Feb. 29, 1856. On his way to England he prepared a Farewell 
Minute , which surveyed his administration for the Government. Dated Feb. 
28, 1856, it was submitted May 30, 1856. Papers Relating to Oude , another 
state document, prepared in the preceding year, is supposed to have been 
published in 1856. Neither is listed under author in the British Museum 
catalogue. For the life of James Andrew Brown Ramsay, first Marquis of 
Dalhousie, see Lionel James Trotter, Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie . 
London, 1899. 

454.34 Grey's Polynesian legend is getting old] Sir George Grey, 
Polynesian Mythology , and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand 
Race as Furnished by their Priests and Chiefs . London, 1855. 

454.35 we have Sandwich [ sic ] on KarsJ See Humphry Sandwith, A Narra - 
tive of the Siege of Kars , London, 1856. 

454.36 Russell's admirable account of the Crimean campaign] See Sir 
William Howard Russell, The War: from the Landing at Gallipoli to the 
Death of Lord Raglan. . .from the death of Lord Raglan to the Evacuation of 
the Crimea . (2 vols.) London, 1855-1856. 

454.38 I had forgot Maurice's and Kingsley's last] Probably John 
Frederick Denison Maurice and Charles Kingsley. Maurice's "last" was 
probably Mediaeval Philosophy : or . Treatise of Moral and Metaphysical 
Philosophy [5th century through the 14th], London, 1857 . That year he 
also began publishing his Sermons . Kingsley's Two Years Ago. A Novel 
(3 vols., Cambridge, 1857) followed Westward Ho ! (1855) and HypatiaT " 
(1853). 

454.38 Mansfield's Paraguay. (Read that.)] See Charles Blachford 
Mansfield, Paraguay . Brazil , and the Plate . Letters written in 1852-1853 . 
With a Sketch of the Author's Life by Charles Kingsley . Cambridge, 1856. 

455.2 Alexander Smith's last I have not seen] Probably Alexander 
Smith, the poet, whose Sonnets on the War , co-authored by Sydney Dobell, 
appeared in London in 1855. 

455.3 they talk of a Catholic priest .. .Stoddart, — that he has written 
well.] Not mentioned in any of the national catalogues. 

455.5 Burton's African and Arabian travels] Probably Richard Francis 
Burton, Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah . (3 
vols.) London, 1855-1856. 

455.5 Arthur Stanley's Palestine] Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Sinai and 
Palestine , in Connection with their History , London, 1856. (Three editions 
were published during this year.) 

455.6 Cotton's Public Works of India] See Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, 
Public Works in India : their Importance : with Suggestions for their exten - 
sion and improvement . London, 1854. 

455.11 Chronicles of the Emperor Baber] Baber or Babur or Babar, i.e . , 
Tiger , the Mongol nickname of Zahir ud-Din Muhammad (1483-1530), founder 
of the Mogul dynasty of India, was emperor from 1526 to 1830. Wrote 
his Memoirs , of which there are many editions and which may be the "chroni- 
cles" mentioned by Cholmondeley . 



76 

455.17 a catalogue .. .of your local histories] A rough draft of 
Thoreau's reply to Cholmondeley appears among loose sheets in the Cana - 
dian Notebook (M.A. 595) in the Pierpont Morgan Library. Cholmondeley • s 
letter probably arrived in Concord between March 10 and 14, 1857. Thor- 
eau visited Cambridge (See Journal , IX, p. 295) on March 16 and probably 
prepared his rough draft and final letter that very evening while the re- 
sults of his visit to the College Library were fresh in his mind: 

I did my best to fin[d] the catalogue of local histories 
which you spoke of — but in vain — Its title is "A Literature 
of American Local History. A Bibliographical Essay by Hermann 
E Ludewig." Published by Craighead New York 1846 — 1 The 
Author died in N. Y. Dec 1856 & • oompotont auth o rity in a Mr 
Drake an antiquary author of *fcke" a Hist of Boston^ &c tells 
me that it was never published — ^aftd"~ The Librarian ^ -e-f"_-fch«— 
at Harvard Library - University says that is far from complete , 
A supplement was published in "the Literary World" N Y Feb. 19 th 
1848^— '•also separately. You can no doubt find^A-fc"" the whole 
in the British Museum — 

n 

Look also at 0. Rich's "Bibliotheca Americana nova"' pub- 
lished in London — & perhaps of scarse [?] & 



1 Hermann Ernst Ludewig, The Literature of American Local History : a Bib- 
liographical Essay. N.Y. (Printed for the author by R. Craighead), 1846. 
See Walter Harding, Thoreau's Library , Charlottesville, 1957, p. 68. 

2 Samuel Gardner Drake, author of many books on the Indians. 

3 The History and Antiquities of Boston. . .from its settlement in 1630 to 
the year 1770..., Boston, 1856. Cover title: "History of Boston, Mass." 

4 John Langdon Sibley, who had recently succeeded Thoreau's loyal friend, 
Thaddeus William Harris, Librarian from 1831 until 1856. See J. S. Wade, 
"The Friendship of Two Old-Time Naturalists," Scientific Monthly . XXIII, 
pp. 152-160 (August, 1926). 

5 "The Literature of the Local History of New York," The Literary World. 
Ill, no. 55 (Feb. 19, 1848), pp. 46-50. 

6 I have not been able to locate a separate or offprint, 

7 See Obadiah Rich, Bjbliotheca Americana Nova . A Catalogue of Books re- 
lating to America, in various languages, including voyp.ges , to the Pacific 
and around the world , and collections of voyages and travels printed since 
the year 1700 . Compiled principally from the works themselves. (2 vols.) 
London, 1846. Vol. I was originally published as an independent work in 1835. 

457.1 "To be rich & honored by iniquitous means...." See note on 
446.29. 

457. S last No of the Westminster magazine .. .article on Buddhism] See 
"Buddhism: Mythical and Historical," Westminster Review . LXVI, no. 130 
(n.s. X, no. 2) (Oct. 1, 1856), pp. 296-331. 

458.32 in Montaigne somewhere the story of Alexander the Great... 
urged to punish a slanderer] I have not located such a story in Mon- 
taigne. Bacon's Apothegms , no. 103, tells of Philip of Macedon's tolerant 
dealings with a slanderer. Plutarch has a story about Pericles' gentle- 
ness toward a slanderer. There are, doubtless, others. 

459.37 The N. Y. Tribune... of more than transient interest.... Their 
notice of "Walden" introduced it to me.] See Greeley's letter in Cor - 
respondence , p. 324. I reproduce the New-York Daily Tribune . Sat., July 
29, 1854, page 3: 



77 



NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1854. 






A MASSAC III 'SKITS IIKRM1T. 
Ticknor & Fields have in press & work by Henry 
D. Thoreai entitled -Life in the Woods," de- 
scribing the experience of the author during a solitary 
residence of two years in a hut on the shore of Waldcn 
Tond in Concord, Massachusetts. The volume prom- 
ises to be one of curious interest, and by the courtesy 
of the publishers we are permitted to take some ex- 
tracts in advance of the regular issue. 

THE HERMIT BUILDS UIS HUT. 
Near the end of March, 1643, 1 borrowed au ax and 
went down to the woods by W allien Pond, nearest to where 
1 intended to build my house, and began to cut down suiue 
tail arrowy white pines, still in their youth, for timber. It 
if> difficult to begin without borrowing, but perhaps it is 
tho most generous course thus to permit your fellow-men 
to have an interest in your enterprise. The owner of the 
ax, as he released his hold on it, said that it was tho apple 
of his eye; but I returned it sharper than I received it. It 
was a pleasant hillside where I worked, covered with pine 
woods, through which I looked out on tho pond, and a 
small open held in the woods where pines and hickories 
were springing up. The ice in the pond was not yet dis- 
solved, though there were some open spaces, and it was all 
dark colored on U saturated with water. There were some 
slight flurries of anew during the days that I worked there ; 
but tor the most part when I came out on to the railroad, 
on my W«J home, its yellow sand-heap ttretohed away 

8 learning in the hazy atmosphere, and the rails shone in 
ie spring awn, and I heard the lark and pewee and other 
birds already come to eommenoe another year with us. 
They wen pleasant spring days, in which the winter of 
man's discontent wee thawing as well as the earth, and tho 
life that bad lain torpid began to stretch itself. One day, 
when my ax had come off and I had cut a green hickory 
for a wedge, driving it with a stone, and had plaoed the 
whole to soak in a pond-hole in order to swell tho wood, I 
saw u btriped snake run into tho water and ho lay on the 
bc'trm jippnrfi.Hy wit! nut inrnnvon'C 'e n« 'onf as I 
staid there, or more than a quarter of an hour; perhaps 
because he had not yet fairly come out of the torpid stato. 
It appeared to me that for a like reason men remain in 
their pit sent low and primitive condition; but it" they 
should feel ihc influence of the spring of springs nrousiag 
them, they v.-^uld of necessity rise to a higher and more 
ethereal life. I bad pre > iouidy seen thes'iikes in froMy 
moi'itinvs in my path with portions of their bnlics still 
numb mid inflexible, wuiliiigVor the sun *•• thaw then 
On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the 
early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a 
Mi ay goose groping about over tho pond and cackling a* 
if lost, or like the spirit of the fog. 

So 1 wud on for some 'lity*, cutting and hawing timber. 
end also studs and raftirs. ail with my nirrov ax, not 
having many i-ouiinumcaMe or scholar-like thought!-, 
singing to myself — 

Men any they know incny things; 

Hut lo: i Ik > l.uvi taken winpk— 

Tin. uiU and science*, 

And u ihuutaud appliances; 

The wind that Mows 
- la all tbat anybody kuowa. 



I hewed the main timbers six inches square, most of tho 
studs on two sides only, nud the rafters and floor timbers 
ou one side, leaving tho reni of tho bark on, so that they 
were just as straight and much stronger than sawed ence. 
Each stick was carefully morticed or tenoned by its stump, 
for 1 had borrowed other tools by this time. My days in 
the woods were not very long ones; yet I usually carried 
my dinner of bread and butter, and read the newspaper in 
which it was wrapped, at noon, sitting amid the green 
pine bought* which 1 had cut oil, and to my bread was im- 
ported some of their fragrance, for my hands were covered 
with a thick coat of pitch. Itefore I had dono 1 was more 
the friend than the toe of the pine tree, though I had cut 
down some of them, having become better acquainted 
with it. SomctimcB'a rambler in the woods was attracted 
by the sound of my ax, and we chatted pleasantly over 
the chip* which 1 had made. 

By the middle of April, for I made no linsto in my work, 
but rather made Die mj>8t of it, my house was 1'iumcd and 
ready for the raising. I had already bought the shanty of 
.lames Collins, an Irishman who worked ou the Fitchburg 
linilrond, for boards. James Collius's shanty was consid- 
ered an uncommonly find one. When I called to see It he 
was not ht home. I walked about the outside, at lirst un- 
observed from within, the window was so deep and high, 
il was of m.nll dimensions, with a peaked cottage roof, 
and not much else to bo seen, the dirt being raised five 
feet atl round aw if it were a compost heap. The roof was 
the soundest pait, though a good deal warped and made* 
brittle by the sun. Door sill there was nouc, but a per- 
ennial passage for the h«ns under the. door-board. Hn. 
C. came to the door and asked me to view it from the 
inside. The hens were driven in by my approach. It was 
dark, and had a dirt floor for the most part, dank, clammy, 
inn I itguit-h, only here a board and there a booed which 
would not bear removal. iSho lighted a lamp to show me 
the inch e of (he roof and tho walls, and also that the 
hoard floor extended under tho bed, warning me nottkto 
step into the cellar, a sort of dust hole two feet deep. In 
her own words, they were "good boards overhead, good 
boards all around, and a good window," — of two whole 
squares originally, only the cat had passed out that way 
lately. There was a etove, a bed, and a place to sit, an 
iufant in (he house where it was born, a silk parasol, gilt- 
framed looking-glass, and a patent new coffee-mill nulled 
to au oak sapling, all told, The bargain was soon con- 
cluded, for J. '.mcs had in tho meanwhile returned. I to 
pay four dollars and twenty-five cents to-night, he to 
vacate at five to-morrow morning, selling to nobody else 
mcnmthile: I to take possession at six. It were well ho 
said, to be tin-re early, and anticipate certain indistinct 
but wholly ucjust claiui6 on the score of ground rent and 
fu«l. This be itBsiirtd me wa* the only encumbrance. At 
six I passed him and his familv or. the road. One Jorge 
bvndle held their all, — bed, coffee-mill, looking-glass, hens 
— all but the cat, she took to the woods and nccanio u 
wild cat. and, as I learned afterward, trot', in a trap sot for 
wood-t -bucks, and so became a dead cat at last. 

I took down this dwelling the same morning, drawing 
the nails, and removed it to the pond side by small cart- 
loads, spreading the boards on the grass there to bleach 
and warp back again in the sun. One early thrush 
gave me a note or two as 1 drove along the woodland 
path. I was informed trcacherou-ly by a young Patrick 
that neighbor Seeley, an Irishman, in the intervals of 
the carting, transferred the still tolerable, straight and 
drivable nails, staples and spikes to his pocket, and then 
stood when 1 came back to pass the time of day, and look 
freshly up, unconcerned, with spring thoughts, at the de- 
vastation; there being a dearth of work, as he said. Ho 
was there to represent epectatordom, and help make this 
seemingly insignificant event one with the reniovtd of the 
eodsofTrov. , ., ,..,,,. A -. • 

1 dug my cellar in the 6ioe of a lull sloping to the south, 
where a woodehuck had formerly dug his burrow, down 



through mmach nnd blu< I ; i Try roots, und the lowest st tin 
of vegetation, bjx feet square by seven deep, to n line 6nnd 
where potatoes would not freeze in any winter. The B i 
wereh-ii shelving, and no: stoned; but the sun having 
never shone en them, the sand still keep* its place. It was 
but two bourn work. I took particular pleasure in this 
breaking of ground, for in almost ul! latitudes men dig into 
the carlo for nn e<pinble temperature. Under the most 
splendid house in the city is still to be found the cellar 
where they store their roots as of old, and long after the 
superstmcturo has disappeare.d posterity remark its deut 
in the earth. 'J lie house is stili but a sort of porch ut the 
entrenee of a burrow. 

At lcrgth, in the beginning of May, with the help of 
pome of my ae«piuiidanees, rather to miprovo so good an 
occasion tor ncighborlincts '.ban from arty necessity, 1 sot 
up the frame of my house. No man was ever inore hon- 
on >1 in ll.o character of bis raisers than I. They arc dos- 
tir.cd, 1 tiust, to ussiet ut the raising of loftier structures 
oct- <lny. I hegan to o-'vupy my bouse on tho 4th of .July, 
as toon (ib it was boarded and rooted, for tne boards were 
can fully feather-edged and lapped, so that it was perfectly 
impervious to rain; but before boarding 1 laid the founda- 
tion of a chimney at one end, bringiug two cartloads of 
stoi.es up tl c hill from the pond i.i my arms. 1 built the 
chimney after my hoeing in the fall, before afire became 
necessary for warmth, d< nig uiy cooking in the meanwhile 
out at doors on the ground, early in the morning: which 
ino<j|»$ Miill think is in tome respects more convenient and 
agreeable than the usual one. When it stormed before 
my bread whs baked, 1 fixed a few boards over the Tire, 
and sat under them to watch my loaf, and passed some 
pleusunt hours in that way. In those days, when my hands 
were much employed, I read but little, but the least scraps 
of paper which lay on the ground, my holder, or table- 
cloth, afforded me as much enterluiuineut. in fuct an- 
swered the Bamc purpose as the Iliad. 

THE HERMIT PLANTS BEAN:*. 

Before 1 finished my house, wishing to earn $10 or SIS 
by some honest and agreeable method, m order to meet my 
unusual expenses, I planted about two acres and a half of 
lifcht anc; sandy soil near it chiefly with beans, but also a 
small part with potatoes, corn, peas and turnips. The 
whole lot contains eleven acres, mostly growing up to pines 
and hickories, and was sold the preceding season for eight 
dollurs and eight cents an acre. One farmer said that it 
was "good for nothing but to raise cheeping squirrels on. 
I put no manure whatev er on this land, not oeiug the own- 
er; but merely a squatter, and not expecting to cultivate so 
much again, and 1 did not quite hoe it all at once. I got 
out several cords of Stumps in plowing, which supplied me 
with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin 
mold, easily distinguishable through the surmntr by the 
greater luxuriance of the beans there. The dead and for 
the most part unmerchantable wood behind my house, and 
the driftwood from the pond, have supplied the remainder 
of my fuel. I was obliged to hire a team and a man for 
the plowing, though 1 held the plow myself. My farm 
eutgoes for the first reason were, for implements, seed, 
work, &c , §14. 72|. The seed-corn was given me. This 
never costs anything to sp«ak of, unless you plant more 
than enough. I got tw el v e l.ushels of beans, and eighteen 
bushels oi potatoes, besides sonic pens and sweet, corn. 
lhe yellow corn and turnips were too late to come to any- 
thing. 

My wh-Oe worn* from tit* form wan 9)23 44 

Heilucting the outgtne , 14 72^ 

There ere left $8 7U t 

it sides produce consumed and on hand at the time this es- 
timate was made of the value of #4 50 — the amount on 
hand much more than balancing a little grass which I did 
not roue. All things considered, that is, considering the 
imiortance of h loan's s..nl and of to-day, notwithstanding 
the short time occupied by my experiment, nay, partly 
even because of its transient character, I believe that that 
was doing better than any farmer in Concord did that year. 
The next year I did better still, for I spaded up all the 
land which I required, about a third of an acre, and 1 
learned from the experience of both years, not bcin? in 



78 



the least awed by many celebrated works ou husbandry, 
Arthur x'oung among the rest, that if occ would live sim- 
ply and eat only the crop which he raised, and raise no 
n.orCthau he ate, and not exchange it tor an insufficient 
quantity of more luxurious and expensive things, he would 
need to cultivate only a few rode of ground, and that it. 
wcuk be cheaj cr to spade up that than to use oxen to 
plow it, and to select a fresh spot from time to time than 
to manure the old, and he could do all lus necessary farm 
work as it were with his left hand at odd hours in the sum- 
mer; and thus he would not be tied to an ox, or horse, or 
cow. or pig, as at present. I desire to speak impartially 
on tiiis point, and as one not interested in the success or 
failure of the present economical and social arrangements. 
1 was more independent than any farmer in Concord, for I 
w j:h not anchored to a house or iarin, hut c?uld follow the 
bent of my genius, which is a very crooked one, every mo- 
ment. Beside being bettor otf than they alreadv, if my 
house had been burned or my crops had failed, 1 should 
have baen nearly as well off as before. 

THE HERMIT COMMENCES HOUSEKEEPING. 
My furniture, part of which I made myself, and the rest 
cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account, 
consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking- 
glass three inches in diameter, a psir of tongs and andirons, 
a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash bowl, 
two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a 
jug for oil, ajug for molasses, and a japanned lamp. None 
is so poor that he need sit on a pumpkin. That is shiftless- 
jiess. There is plenty of such chairs as I like best in the 
village garrets to be had for taking them away. Furni- 
ture! ,TLank God, 1 can sit and I can stand without the aid 
of a furniture warehouse. What man but a philosopher 
would not be ashamed to see his furniture packed in a cart 
and going up* country exposed to the light of heaven and 
the eyes of, men, a beggarly account of empty boxes 7 That 
is Spalding's furniture. I could never tell trom inspecting 
such a load whether it belonged to a so-called rich man or 
a poor one; the- owner always seemed poverty-stricken. 
.Indeed, the more you have of such things the poorer you 
are. Each load looks as if it. contained the contents of a 
doz.cn shanties; and If one shanty is poor, this is a dozen 
times as poor. Prey, for what do we move ever but to get 
rid of our furniture, our exuviat ; at Inst '.n go from this 
world to ti'o'her newly furnished, and leave '^i* to be 
burned? It is the same as if all those trapswew buckled 
ton mans belt, and he could not move over # the rougn 
country where our lines arc cast without dragging them 
drugging bis trnp. He was unlucky fox that left bus 
tail in the trap. The muskrutVill gn«w Ins tin;.! l<u; 
,.rV to nc free. No wonder man !.•:■ lost h<u elastic:! . 
i:..w often hois at a deads.-t ' "Sir, it I im.y he HO me-l, 
what do you menu by a dead eet .' ' it you are a seer, 
whenever you meet a man yoii will M-e uii ili-it ho own,, 
ov, £.nd much that be pretends to disown, behind hiin, 
even to hie kitchen furniture and all the trumpery -which 
he eaves and will not burn, and he will appear to bo har- 
ntesed to it and making what headway he can. I 
think that the man is ut. a <lciu\ aiTwho lias got tbrougii a 
li.ot herb? or gateway where his sledge lo-idol furniture 

.,u,'i.; follow him. I eaum.t but feel i passion when 

hear some -trig, compact lookiug man, seemingly free, all 
girded and ready, speak of his "furniture," as whether ;(. 
is insured or not. "But what shall I di with my furni- 
ture?" My gay butterfly h- entongled in a spider's web 
then. Even those who seem for a long while not to have 
any, if you inquire more narrowly yon will find nave 
some stored in pomebody's barn. 1 look upon England 
to-tiay as an old gentleman who is traveling with « jrrea: 
deal of baggage, trumpery which ha- accumulated from 
long housekeeping, which he has not the courage to 
hem; great trunk, little trunk, bandbox and bundle. 
'throw away the nret three at least. It would surpass 
the powers of a well man nowadays to tbke up bis bed 
and walk, and I should certainly advise a sick one to 
lay down his bed and run. When I have met an im- 
migrant tottering under a bundle which contained his all 
— looking like an enormous wen which had grown out of 
the nape of his neck — 1 have pitied him, not because thai 



was his all, but because lie had nil that to carry, it' 1 
luivti got to drag my trap, I will take care that it be <+ 
light one end do not nip me in a vital part. But per- 
chance it would be wieest never to put oue's p»w 
into iC 

1 would observe, by the way, that it costs me nothing 
Tor curtain*, for I have no gazers to shut out but the sua 
and moon. and I am willing that they should look in. The 
moon will not sour milk nor taint meat of mine, nor will 
the sun injure my furniture or fade my carpet, and if he is 
noiireume-s too warm a friend, I find it still better economy 
to ic treat behind come curtain which nature has provided 
then to odd a single item to the details of housekeeping. 
A lady once offered mo a mat, but as I had no room to 
sj are within the house, nor time to spare within or with- 
out to shake it, I declined it, preferring to wipe my feet 
( n the rod before my door. It is best to avoid the begin- 
ning* of evil. 

TIIE HERMIT'S FIRST SUMMER. 

I did not read books the first summer; I hoed beans. 
Nay, I often did better than this. There were times when 
I could not afford to sacrifice the bloom of the present 
mtiDicui to an) work, whether of the head or hands. I 
love a broad margin to my life. Sometimes iu a summer 
morning, having taken my accustomed bath, I sat in my 
tunny doorway from sunrise till noon, rapt in a revery, 
amid the pines and hickories und sumachs, in undisturbed 
solitude and stillness, while the birds sang arouud or flit- 
ted noiseless through the bouse, until by the sun falling in 
nt my west window, or the noise of some traveler's wagon 
on the distant highway, 1 was reminded of the lapse of 
time. I grew in those seasons like corn in the night, and 
they were far fetter than any work of the haudu would 
have been. They were not time subtracted from my life, but 
so much over and above my nsual allowance. I realized what 
the Orientals mean by contemplation and the forsaking of 
works. For the most part, I minded not how the hours 
went. The day advanced as if to light some work of 
mire; it was morning, and lo, now it is evening, and 
nothing memoiable is accomplished. Instead of singing 
like the birds, I silently smiled at my incessant good for- 
tune. As the sparrow had its trill, sitting on the hickory 
before my door, so had 1 my chuckle or suppressed warblo 
which he might hear out of my nest. My days were not 
days of the week, hearing the stamp of any heathen dei- 
ty, nor were they minced into hours and fretted by the 
ticking of a clock ; fori lived liko the Puri Indians, of 
whom it is said that/ " for yesterday, to-day, and to-mor- 
row they have only one word, and they express the variety 
of meaning by pointing backward for yesterday, forward 
for to-morrow, and overhead for the passing day." This 
was sheer idleness to my fellow-townsmen, no doubl; but 
if the birds and flowers had tried me by their standard, I 
should not have been found wanting. A man must find 
his o«cEsione in hWself, it is true. The natural day is 
very cslm, and will bardly reprove his indolence. 

1 had this advantage, at least, in my mode of life, over 
those who were obliged to look abroad for amusement, to 
society and the theater, that my life itself was become my 
amusement and never ceused to be novel. It was a drama 
of many scenes and wiihuut nn end. If we were always 
indeed getting cur living, nnt; rcguiaung our lives accord- 
ing to the last andbest mode we had learned, we should 
never be troubled with «unui. Follow your genius closely 
enough, and it will not ftiil to show you a fresh prospect 
every hour. II ouscwork was a pleasant pastime. When 
my noor was dirty, I rose early, and, setting all my furni- 
ture out of doors on the grass, bed and bedstead making 
but one budget, dut-hed water on the floor, and sprinkled 
white sand from the pond on it, and then with a broom 
scrubbtd it clean and white; and by the time the villagers 
had broken their fast the morning sun had dried my house 
sufficiently to allow- me to move in again, and my medi- 
tations were almost uninterrupted. It was pleasant to see 
my whole household effects, out on the grass, making a 
little pile like a gipsy's pack, uud my three-legged table, 
from which I did not remove the books and pen and ink, 
standing amid the pines and hickories. They seemed glad 
to get out themselves, and as if unwilling to be brought in. 
twos sometimes tempted to stretch an awniner over them 



'9 and take my neat there. It was worth the srlnle to see the 
Mm thine on these things, and hear the free wind blow on 
them; so much more interesting most familiar objects look 
out ot (loors than in the house. A bird blt>< on the next 
bough, life-evcrluEting grows under the table, and black- 
berry vines run round itslegs; pine cone*, chestnut burs, 
and strawberry leaves are strewn about. It looked as if 
this was the way these forms came to be transferred to 
our furniture, to tables, chuirs, and bedsteads— because 
they once stood in their midst. * 

My bouse was on the side of a hill, immediately on the 
edjie of the larger wood, in the midst of a young forest of 
pitch pines and hickories, and half-a-dozen rods from the 
pond, to which a narrow footpath led down the bill. In 
my front yard grew the strawberry, blackberry, and life- 
cvcrlasting, iohmwort end golden-rod, shrub-oaks and 
sand-cherry, blueberry end ground-nut. Near the end of 
Mav, the sand-cherry, (ccrasuspumtlaj adorned the sides 
of the path with Us delicate flowers arrtfuged in umbels 
cylindrical^ about its short stems, which last, in the fall, 
weighed down with good sized end handsome cherries fell 
over in wreaths like rays on every side. I tasted tli em 
out of compliment to nature, though they were scarcely 
palatable. The sumae-h (rhu* glabra) grew luxuriantly 
about the house, pushing up through the embankment 
• which I had made, and growing five or six foet the first 
season. Its broad pinnate tropical leaf was pleasant though 
strange to look on. The large buds, suddenly pushing out 
late in the spring from dry sticks which hud seemed to be 
dead, developed themselves as by magic into graceful 
green and tender boughs, an inch in diameter; and some- 
times, as I sat at my window, so heedlessly did they grow 
and tax their weak joints, I heard a fresh and tender 
bough suddenly fall like a fan to the ground, when there 
was not a breath of air stirring, broken off by its own 
weight. In August, the large masses of berries, which, 
wben in flower, had attracted many wild bees, gradually 
assumed their bright velvety crimson hue, and by their 
weight again bent down and broke the tender limbs. 

THE HERMIT FINDS A FRIEND. 

Who should come to my lodge this morning but & tru.g 
Homeric or Paphlagonian man — he bad so suitable and 
poetic a name that I am sorry I cannot print it here— a 
Canadian, a wood-chopper and post-maker, who can hole 
fifty posts in a day, who made his last supper on a wood- 
chuck which his dog caught_He, too, has heard of 
Homer, and, " if it were not form>oW'' would " not know 
what to do rainy days," though perhaps he has not read 
one wholly through for many raiuy seasons. Some priest 
who could pronounce the Greek itself taught him to read 
his verse in the testament in his native parish far away; 
and now I must translate to him, while he holds the book, 
Achilles' reproof to Patroclus for his sad countenance — 
" Why are you in tears, Patroclus, like a young girl 1" 

" Ot have yon alone beard some news from Phtliia ? 
Ihey say that Meuoetiua lives yet, eon of Act.tr, 
And Pefeus lives, son of ASkrus, among the Myrmidons, 
Either of whom having died, vre should jrresiiy grieve." 

He rays, "That's •good." He has a great bundle of 
white- oak bark under his arm for a sick man, gathered 
this Sunday morning. "I suppose there's no harm in 
going after such a thing to-day," says h*>. To him Homer 
was a great writer, though what his writing was about he 
did not know. A more simple and natural man it would 
be hard to find. Vice and disease, which cast Such a som- 
ber moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any 
exigence for him. He was about twenty-eight years old, 
and had left Canada and his father's house a dozen years 
before to work in the States, and earn money to buy a 
faim with at lost, perhaps in his native country. He was 
cast in the coarsest mold; a stout but sluggish body, yet 

fracefully carried, with a thick sunburnt neck, dark bushy 
ojr, and dull sleepy blue eyes, which were occasionally 
lit up with expression. He wore a flat gray cloth cap, a 
dingy wool-colored greatcoat, and cowhide boots. Tie 
was a greet consumer of meat, usually carrying his dinner 
to bis wotk a couple of -miles past my house — for he 
chopped all summer — in a tin-pail ; cold meats, often cold 
woodebneks, ami coffee in a stone bottlo which dangled 



by a string from his belt; and sometimes he ottered me a 
drink. lie came along early, crossing my bean-Held, 
though without anxiety or haste to get to bis work, sueh as 
Yankees exhibit. He was n't a-going to hart himself. He 
did n't care if he only earned his board. Frequently he 
would leave his dinner in the bashes, when his dog had 
caught a woodebnek by the way, and go back a mile and 
a half to dress it and leave it in the cellar of the house 
where he boarded, after deliberating first for half an hour 
whether he conVd not sink it in the pond safely till uight- 
faU— krving to dwell toag upon those thames. Ha would 
say, as he went by in the morning, "How thick the 
pigeons are 1 If working every day were net my trade, I 
r««Jd ••tall the Saaat 1 liiouW wank by banting— pigeons, 
woodctaoka, -rabbit*, partridge*— by geeh ! I oouJd get all 
1 should went for a week in one day. . . 

■ewasa ? kl«ai <h<^pw, trtd InSnl^d hi Mme Soar - 
lakes aadon»w«a*mk^ at* He**lfcl»«eeie«*«d 

w^&gfcf^^ 

tba atuanje; and ia««aa*4f leavtega w#^ tree to support 

or i 
lent: 

He interested me because he was so quiet and solitary 
and ro happy wHbal; a well of good humor and content- 
ment which overflowed at his eyes. His mirth was with- 
out alloy. Sometimes I saw him at hie work in the woods, 
felling trees, and he^T^t m< , with , ■ , laugh of inex 



■ corded wood, he wo«J4 pare it away to a aleoder stake 
splinter which you couM break on with your band at 




bull and 



__i)tip ttic truna 01 a pine 
Hifd, i tiling «-ll'the innn buik mil it up »■>*«> » 
ihiw it while he laughed and tallied. Such an exuberance 
cf animal M'irils bud be that be sometimes tumbled dowri 
r.i.d i«dled on the ground with laughter at .uiv thing which 
u itde him think and tickled him. Looking round upon 
the trees be would exclaim,— 'Hy George! 1 can enjo.» 
my»elf well enough here chopping ; I waut no better sr>ort. 
Sometimes, when at leisure, he ainuse<l himself all d*y in 
the woods with a pocket pistol, firing salutes to himsclt at 
regular intervals as h»- walked. In »!»♦> wintor h* h«d « 
ftic Ly wLich at noon he w aimed bis coiice in a kottle; 
nnd as he sat on a log to eat his dinner the chh'ndees 
would sometimes come round and alight on his arm a;id 
pick at the potato in bis fingers; aud he said that lit* 
''liked to have tbe little J'cUcrs about him." 

In him the animal man chiefly was developed. In 
physical endurance aud contentment he was cousin to tbn 
pine and the rock. 1 asked bim oucc if he was not some- 
times tired at night, after working all day; and he an- 
swered , with sincere nnd serious look, " Gorrapit, I never 
was tired in my life." But the intellectual and what is 
called spiritual man in him were slumbering ui in an 
infant. He had been instructed only in that innocent and 
ineffectual way in which tbe Catholic priests teach the 
aborigines, by which the pupil is never educated to the 
degree of conseiouimess, but only to tho degree of trust 
and reverence, and a child is not made a man, but kept a 
child. When Nature made bim, she gave him a strong 
body and contentment for bis portion, and propped him 
on every side with reverence and reliance, that he might 
live out his threescore years and ten a child. He was so 
genuine and unsophisticated that no introduction would 
scivo to Introduce bim, more than if you introduced a 
woodchuck, to your neighbor. He had got to find him out 
as you did. He would not play any part. Men paid hi. u 
wages for work, and so helped to feed and cloth him; but 
he never exchanged opinions with them. He was so 
simply and naturally humble — if he can be called humble 
who never aspires — that humility was no distinct quality 
in bim, nor could he conceive of it. Wiser men were 
denn-goos to him. If you told him that such a one was 
coming, he did as if be thought that anything so grand 
would expect nothing of himself, but take all the respon- 
sibility on ibelf, and let him be forgotten still. He never 
heard the sound of praise. Ho particularly reverenced 
the writer and the preacher. Their performances were 



SO miracles. When 1 told him that I wrote considerably, he 
thought for a long time that it was merely the handwriting 
which \ meant, for be could write a remarkably good hand 
himself. I sometimes found the name ot his native parish 
handsomely written in the snow by the highway, with the 
proper French accent, and knew that he had p«*»nod. I 
asked him if he ever wished to write his thoughts. He 
said that he had read and written letters for those- who 
could not, but he had never tried to write thoughts, — no, he 
could not, he could net tell what to put first, it would kill 
bim, end then there was spelling to be attended to at 
tho same time ! 

I heard that a distinguished wise man and reformer 
of ked bim if he did pot want the world to be changed; 
but be answered with a chuckle of surprise in his Cana- 
dian accent, not' knowing that tbe question had ever 
been entertained before, " No, I like it well onough." It 
would have suggested many thii gs to a philosopher to 
have dealings with him. To a stranger ho appeared to 
know nothing of things in general; yet € sometimes saw 
in him a man whom I had not seen before, aud I did not 
khow whether he was as wise as Shakspere or as simply 
ignorant as a child, whether to suspect him of a fine poetic 
conscious ncss or of stupidity. A townsman told me that 
when he met him sauntering through the village in his 
Email close-fitting cap, and whistling to himself, he re- 
minded bim of a prince in disguise. 

His only books were an almanac and an arithmetic, in 
which last he was co'nsiderabiy expert. The former was a 
sort of cyclopedia to him, which be supposed to contain 
on abstract of human knowledge, as indeed it does to a 
considerable extent. I loved to sound him on tbe various 
reforms of the day, and he never failed to look at them in 
the most simple and practical light. He had never heard 
of such things before. Could he do without factories ? I 
asked. He had worn the homemade Vermont gray, he 
said, anft that was good. Could be dispense with tea and 
coffee ? Did this country afford any beverage besides 
water ! He bad soaked hemlock leaves in water and 
drank it, and thought that was better than water in warm 
weather. When I nsked him if he could do without 
money, he showed the con\ enience of money in such a 
way as to suggest and coincide with the most philosophical 
accounts of the origin of this institution, and the very de- 
rivation of the word pecuma. If an ox were nis property, 
and he wished to get needles and thread at the store, he 
thought it would be inconvenient and impossible soon to 
go on mortgaging some portion of the creature each tiina 
to that amount. He could defend many institutions bet- 
ter than any philosopher, because, in describing them as 
they concerned him, he gave the true reason for their prev- 
alence, and speculation had not suggested to him any 
other. At another time, heuriug Plato's definition of a 
man, — a biped without feathers, — and that one exhibited 
a cock plucked and called it Plato's man, be thought if 
an important difference that the knees bent the wrong way. 
He would sometimes exclaim, "How I love to talk ! by 
George, I could talk all day !" I asked him once, when I 
bad not eeen him for many months, if ke had got a new 
idea this summer. "GoodLord," said be, "a man that, 
has to work as I do, if he docs not forget the ideas he has 
had, be will do well. May be tbe man you hoe with is 
inclined to race; then, by gorry, your mind must be there; 
you think of weeds'.'' Hs would sometimes ask me first 
on f uch occasions, if I had made any improvement. One 
winter day I asked him if he was always satisfied with 
himself, wishing to suggest a substitute within him for 
the priest without, and some higher motive for living. 
"Satisfied!" said he; "Bomemen are satisfied with o»e 
thing, and some with another. One man, perhaps, if he 
has got enough, will be satisfied to sit all day with his 
back to the fite and his belly to the table, bv George!" 
Yet I never, by any maneuvring, could get him to take 
tbe spiritual view of things; tho highest that he appeared 
to conceive of was a simple expediency, such as you 
might expect an animal to appreciate; ana this, practical- 
ly, is true of most men. If I suggestad any improvement 
in bis mode of life, he merely answered, without express- 
ing any regret, that it was too late. Yet he thoroughly 
believed in honesty and the like virtues. 



81 



There was a certain positive originality, however slight, 
to be detected in biui, and I occasionally observed that be 
was think iug for himself and expressing bis own opinion, 
a phenomenon so rare that 1 would any day walk ten 
miles to observe it, and it amounted to the reorigiuatiou 
of many of the institutions of society ._ Though he hesi- 
tated, and perhaps failed to express himself distinctly, he 
always had a presentable thought behind. Yet bis think- 
ing was eo primitive and immersed in his animal life, that, 
though more promising than a merely learned man's, it 
rarely ripened to onytning which can be reported. Ho 
suggested that there might bo men of genius in the lowest 
grades of life, however permanently humble and illiterate, 
who take their own view ulways, or do not pretend to see 
at all ; who are as bottomless even as Walden Pond was 
thought to be, though they may be dark and muddy. 
THE HERMIT HAS VISITORS, MANY OF THEM BORES. 
Many a traveler came out of his way to see me and the 
infide et my house, and, as an excuse for calling, asked for 
a glass of water. 1 told them that I drank at the pond, 
and pointed (hither, offering to lend them a dipper. Far 
off as I lived, I was not exempted from the annual visita- 
tion wbich occurs, metbinks, about the first of April, 
wfcep everybody is en. the move; and I hivd my share of 
jrood luck, though there were Some curious specimens 
among my visitors. Half-witted men from the alms-house 
and elsewhere came to see me; but I endeavored to make 
them exercise all the wit they bad, and make their con- 
fessions to me; in such cases making wit the theme of our 
conversation ; and so was compensated. Indeed, I found 
some of them to be wiser than the so-called overseers of 
the poor and selectmen of the town, and thought it was 
time tbat the tables were turned. With respect to wit. I 
learned that there was not much difference between the 
half and the whole. One day, in particular, an inoffen- 
sive, simple-minded pauper, whom with others I had often 
seen used as fencing-etui), standing or sitting on a bushol 
ib the fields to keep cattle and himself from straying, 
visited me, and expressed a wish to live as I did. He 
told me, with the utmost simplicity and truth, quite supe- 
rior, or rather inferior, to anything that is called humility, 
that he was "deficient in intellect. " These were his 
words. The Lord had made him so, yet he supposed tho 
Lord eared as much for bim as for another. '• I have al- 
ways been so," said be, "from my childhood; I never 
bad much mind ; I was not like other children; I am weak 
in the head. It was the Loid's will, I suppose/' And 
there he was to prove the truth of his words. He was a 
metaphysical pnzzle to me. I have rarely met a fellow- 
man on such promising ground — it was so simple and sin- 
cere, and so true all that he said. And, true enough, in 
proportion as ha appeared to humble himself was he ex- 
ult* d. I did sot know at first but it was the result «f q 
wise policy. It seemed that from such a basis of truth 
and frankness as the poor weak-headed pauper had laid, 
our intercourte might go forward to something better than 
the intercourse of sage*. 

I had some guests from those not reckoned commonly 
among the town's poor, but who should be; who are 
among the world's poor, at any rate; guests who appeal. 
not to your hospitality, but to your kosptlaiality ; who 
earnestly wish to be helped, and preface their appeal with 
the information thai they are resolved, for one thing, never 
to help themselves. I require of a visitor that he be not 
actually starving, though he may have the very best ap- 
petite m the worlrL however he got it. Objects of charity 
are not groats. Men who did not know when their visit 
had terminated, t houg h I went about my business again, 
anew et tee them from greater and greater remoteness. 
Men of almost even degree of wit called on aw in the 
n^™gfeason. Some- who had more wits then they 
knew what to do with ; runaway slaves* with plantation 
manners, who listened from time to time, like the fox in 
the fable, as if they heard the hounds e-bny mg on their 
track, and looked at me beseechingly, as much as to say, 
"OChrittfctti, win yon Malms back * 



One real runaway slave, among the rest, whom I helped 
to forward toward the north star. Meat of one Idea, fate 

thousand ideas', am) onsVmrt hends'lihe those' hen- which 
are mane to tah* charge *fa bnndred chlehene,all Uptar- 
suit of one bag, a senreV them lost in every morning's 

pede that made yon crawl aft over. One man proposed a 

nook in which visitors shonld write their names, as at the 
White* Mountains; hot, alas I I have too good a memory 
to make that necessary. 

I could not but notice seme of the peculiarities of my 
viritcre. O'xls and boys and yo^ng ^voraen generally 



3 



teemed glad to be in the woods. They lookedta the pond 
and at the flow* re, and improved their time, ICen «f beat- 
nets, even farmers, thought only of solitude and employ* 
mtnt, and of the great distance at which I dwelt from 



something or other; and though they said they loved a 
ramble in the woods occasionally, it was obvious that they 
did not. kestlcss committed men, whose time was all 
taken up In getting a living or keeping it; ministers who 
•poke ct God as if they enjoyed a monopoly of the sub- 

itct, wbo could not bear all kinds of opinions; doctors, 
awyers, uneasy housekeepers who pried into niy cupboard 

and bed when I was out,— hew ca.uu; Mrs. to know 

that my sheets were not as clean as hers? — young men 
who had ceased to be young, and had concluded that it 
was safest to follow the beaten track of the professions,-* 
all these generally said that it was not possible Jo do so- 
much good ia my position. Ay! there was the «4b. The 
old and infirm and the timid, of whatever age or sex, 
Ibooght most of sickness, and sudden accident and death; 
to them life seemed full of danger,— what danger in there 
if you don t think of any '—end they thongbt that a cre- 
dent man would carefully select thesAfeot position, where 
Dr. B. might be on band at a moment's waroingL To them 
tLe village was literally a eom-munUy,& league for mutual 
defense, and yon would suppose they woeH *ot go 
a-buckleberryiitg without a medloine chest. The amouut 
of it is, if a man is alive, there is always ^*V***»** o* 
may die, though the danger must b«. allowed to be tees in 
proportion os ho is dead-and-alive to begin -with. A man 
«ts as many risks as be runs. Finally, tbere were the 
self-styled reformers, the greatest bores ot all, wnotnoagli* 
that I was forever singing,— 

This is the hoiiee that I bnilt; 

Tbt« it the rcan that Ures in tne house tbat I built; 

but they, did not know that the third line was,— 

Then* are the folk* that worry the man 

U'het uvet in the bouse that I bail: 
I did not feu the hen-harriers, for I kept no ehiekeus ; but 
I feared tie men-han iers rather. _.j -tr > 

I had more cheering visitors then the last. Children' 
come a berry ing, railroad men taking a Sunday mornuug. 
walk in clean shirts, fishermen and hunters, poo tf and .phi' 
losopbers, in short, all honest pilgrims, who came one to 
the woods for freedom's sake, 1 and really left the village 
behind, I was reedy to greet with, — "Welcome, Engtish- 
men! welcome, Englishmen!" for I had had 001 
tion with that ruee. 



82 

461.27 a skimming from your "pan of unwrinkled cream."] The words in 
quotation marks are possibly Blake's, quoted from his preceding letter. 

467.28 what Swedenborg would call "our interiors"] These are the af- 
fections, the "thoughts of the heart," man's governing principles or 
promptings of will. See Emanuel Swedenborg 's Arcana Coelestia and his 
Heaven and Hell . For his wide use of the word, see The Swedenborg Con - 
cordance , comp. John Faulkner Potts, (6 vols.) London, 1888-1902, III, 
733-747. 

467.29 The prophets prophesy as... among the ancient Hebrews ... smooth 
prophets bear away the bells.] See 1 Kings 22, in which only Micaiah 
dares prophesy truly against Ahab ; the other prophets say (22:12): "Go 
up to Ramoth-gilead, and prosper." 

470.12 memoires pour servier ] Thoreau undoubtedly wrote "memoires pour 
servir," quoting the first three words of several significant French his- 
tories; e.g .. Memoires pour Servir a l'histoire des Hommes Illustres . [by 
J. P. Niceron]" (43 vols.) Paris, 1729-1741; Memoires pour Servir a~l'his - 
toire literaire des dix-sept Provinces des Pays-Bas . [by J. N. Paquot], 

(3 vols.) Lou vain, 1765-1770; Memoires secrets pour servir a l'histoire 
de la republique des Lettres en France , 1762-1788 J ( 33 vols . ) London, 
1784-1788. 

470.13 have you read Church's History of Philip's War] Thoreau recom- 
mended that Ricketson read: Thomas Church, The Entertaining History of 
King Philip's War... As also of Expeditions more lately made against the 
Common Enemy and Indian Rebels in the Eastern Parts of New England ; with 
some account of the divine Providence towards Col. Ben.jamin Church . A 
second edition was published at Newport, R. I., in 1772; others, at Bos- 
ton, 1827; at Exeter, N.H., in 1829; and a revised edition appeared at 
Hartford in 1845. 

475.4 "we are members one of another"] See Ephesians 4:25 — "Where- 
fore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbor: for we 
are members one of another." 

478.3 read Goethe's Autobiography, by all means] Thoreau refers to it 
also in his Works (Walden ed.), I, 348. Three translations were available 
at this time: Memoirs of Goethe: Written by Himself . (2 vols.) London, 
1824 (which Emerson had borrowed in the early 1830 *s from the Boston Athe- 
naeum); also (2 vols.) N.Y., 1824; The Auto -biography of Goethe. Truth and 
Poetry: from my Life , ed . Parke Godwin, (4 vols, in 2) N.Y., 1846-1847; 
The Auto-biography of Goethe , tr. John Oxenford, (2 vols.) London (Bohn), 
1848-1849. See note on 222.2. 

478.4 also Gibbon's] Thoreau 's first known acquaintance with Edward 
Gibbon's works came in his senior year at Harvard, where (January through 
April, 1837) he read several volumes of the History of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire . (See The Transcendentalists and Minerva . I, 86- 
87 . ) In an 1838 list of legenda, he recorded Gibbon's name once more, per- 
haps having in mind the Autobiography or Memoirs. (See The Transcenden - 
talists and Minerva , II, 362-363.) In December, 1840, he completed the 
Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon , Esquire. With Memoirs of his Life 
and Writings , composed by himself. This might have been one of the three- 
volume editions illustrated by John Baker Holroyd, First Earl of Sheffield, 



83 

one of which appeared in Dublin in 1796. ( The Transcendentalists and 
Minerva , II, 368-370.) 

478.4 Haydon the Painter's [autobiography] See note on 312.34. 

478.5 our Franklin's [autobiography J of course] See Walter Harding, 
Thorsau's Library , p. 52. Thoreau owned The Life of Dr. Benjamin Frank - 
lin , possibly the one printed in Salem in 1796. 

478.5 perhaps also Alfieris [autobiography] Vittorio Alfieri's Vita , 
scritta da esso , which appeared in Firenze in 1822, was translated into 
English as Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Victor Alfieri , (2 vols.) 
London, 1810. Thoreau probably had in mind: The Autobiography of Vit - 
torio Alfieri , the Tragic Poet , tr. with an original essay on the genius 
and times of Alfieri, by C. Edwards Lester, N.Y., 1845. (The second edi- 
tion appeared in the same year.) 

478.5 Benvenuto Cellini's [autobiography] See Thoreau 's Journal . II, 
494-495, for evidence that he was reading this work in September, 1851. 

478.6 DeQuincey's Confessions of an Opium Eater] Thomas De Quincey's 
Confessions of an English Opium-eater appeared in book form in England in 
1822. American reprintings followed almost immediately, one of them at 
Philadelphia in 1823. It was supplemented, during the decade of Thoreau 's 
letter, by the Note-book of an English Opium-eater (Boston, 1855). Henry's 
principal reaction appears in "Higher Laws" in Walden : "I am glad to have 
drunk water so long, for the same reason that I prefer the natural sky to 
an opium-eater's heaven. I would fain keep sober always." 

478.8 You must read Coleridge again ... skipping all his theology .. .if 
you value precise definitions] This, of course, was Emerson's point of 
view, formulated between 1829 and 1836. See "Coleridge and the 'First 
Philosophy'" in Emerson the Essayist . I, 162-199, and Emerson's "Modern 
Aspects of Letters" (January 14, 1836) in The Early Lectures . I, 377-380. 

478.10 read DeQuincey's reminiscences of Coleridge & Wordsworth] 
Though serialized in 1834 and later, they did not appear in book form 
until Literary Reminiscences; from the Autobiography of an English Opium - 
Eater . (2 vols.) Boston, 1851; and in his Autobiographic Sketches , ( 2 
vols.) Boston, 1853; London, 1853. They were widely reviewed. 

478.24 polygamy with its troubles is the fate of almost all men... two 
wives — their genius (a celestial muse) and ... some fair daughter of the 
earth] See a similar observation in chapter II of Walden ; "...but before 
the owner gave me a deed of it, his wife — every man has such a wife — 
changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me ten dollars to 
release him." 

480.8 acknowledge the receit of "Tom Bowling" — & the May-flower] For 
a reproduction of the words and music of the old ballad, see the Thoreau 
Society Bulletin . No. 51 (Spring, 1955), p. 2. The music was apparently 
composed by Thomas John Dibdin (1771-1841), who is said to have written 
2000 songs and 200 operas and plays. The May-flower was the Trailing Ar- 
butus. See next note. 

480.10 his body only is epigaea repens (creeping over the earth)] 
The Epigaea repens or Trailing Arbutus is the state flower of Massachu- 
setts, sometimes called May-flower or Ground Laurel. Just as Adonis was 



84 

metamorphosed into an anemone of bloody hue, the noble Tom Bowling at his 
death became the white Trailing Arbutus. The Epigaea repens coming in the 
same mail as the ballad probably suggested to Thoreau's imagination Epi- 
geus, the Grecian prince, who accompanied Achilles to the Trojan War and 
who, after many deeds of bravery, was killed by Hector. See the Iliad . 
Book XVI, 570. 

480.21 Olmstead was the only entire stranger] Possibly Frederick Law 
Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States , with Remarks on their 
Economy . London, 1856; N.Y., 1856; A Journey through Texas ; or . A Saddle - 
trip on the Southwestern Frontier . N.Y. and London, 1857; or even Walks 
and Talks of an American Farmer in England . N.Y., 1852. Cholmondeley ' s 
condemnation of the author's wordiness was justified. The first two 
titles and a third ( A Journey in the Back Country . London & N.Y., I860) 
were condensed and reissued as The Cotton Kingdom . (2 vols.) N.Y., 1861. 
For Olmsted's significance as a landscape architect and conservationist, 
see James D. Hart, The Oxford Companion to American Literature . 

481.4 the book of Enoch] See The Book of Enoch the Prophet ; an Apoc - 
ryphal Production , supposed for ages to have been lost , but discovered at 
the close of the last century in Abyssinia ; now first translated from an 
Ethiopic MS. in the Bodleian Library , by Richard Laurence . A third edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged, appeared at Oxford in 1838. 

481.5 inedited Poems of Daniel] Possibly a reference to The Apocry - 
pha of the Book of Daniel ; containing the Story of Susannah ; the Prayer 
of Azariah . with the Hymn of the Three Children ; and the History of Bel 
the Dragon , tr. from the Vulgate Latin; with notes; and a short treatise 
on the matter contained in these pieces. By Luke Howard, London, 1829. 

481.14 His is a tongue "not understanded" of the English people.] 
The allusion is to Article XXIV ("Of Speaking in the Congregation"), one 
of the Thirty-nine Articles or "Articles of Religion", appended to the 
Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England and to those of its daugh- 
ter churches, including the Episcopal Church in the United States: "It 
is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the custom of the 
Primitive Church, to have public Prayer in the Church, or to minister the 
Sacraments, in a tongue not understanded of the people" — an important 
slogan in England at the time of the Reformation. In other words, Whit- 
man does not speak to Englishmen in a tongue they can understand. 

482.11 Talking of Jerusalem. .. "every good man had a mansion of his 
own there...."] Charles Haddon Spurgeon (1834-1892) here drew upon the 
imagery of John 14:2-4. 

482.12 a crown that would fit no other head] See 1 Cor. 9:25; 

2 Timothy 4:8; James 1:12; 1 Peter 5:4; Revelation 2:10; 3:11; 4:4; and 
4:10. 

482.18 The bells... are ringing somewhere for the queens birthday 
they tell me.] Queen Victoria was born on May 24, 1819. Probably be- 
cause, in 1857, the anniversary fell upon a Sunday, the city shifted the 
observance to Tuesday. The British Museum has checked for me the appro- 
priate issues of Boyle's Court Guide , the Annual Register , and the appro- 
priate issues of the London Times , without locating a specific reference 
to the bell-ringing in London on May 26. 

483.5 By measurement she [the Great Eastern] is larger than the Ark.] 
Planned in 1852, completed in 1857, and launched in 1859, the Great East - 



85 

ern was then the largest ship in the world. In 1860, she reached New York 
in eleven days, and, beginning in 1869, laid telegraph cables under the 
Atlantic. She was demolished in 1888. The comparison with the Ark of 
Noah (Genesis 6-7) is only figurative. 

488.5 Kirby and Spence (the fullest [on Glow-worms J ) J According to 
Harding, Thoreau's Library , p. 64, Thoreau owned William Kirby and William 
Spence, An Introduction to Entomology . London, 1856. 

488.6 Knapp ("Journal of a Naturalist")] Thoreau owned John Leonard 
Knapp, Journal of a Naturalist . Philadelphia, 1831. (After his death, 
Sophia Thoreau gave it to the Concord Free Public Library.) 

488.6 "The Library of Entertaining Knowledge" (Rennie)J Thoreau 
owned several volumes on insects by James Rennie — all published in the 
series issued by the Library of Entertaining Knowledge: Insect Architec - 
ture (London, 1830); Insect Miscellanies (2 vols., London^ 1831) ; and In- 
sect Transformations (London, 1830) . 

488.7 a French work] Thoreau had in his library a one-volume French 
work with the title Cours d'Hjstoire Naturelle . This might have been 
volume one of Etienne Mulsant's Cours elementaire d'histoire naturelle . 
contenant les applications de cette science aux diverses connaisances 
utiles . (3 vols.) Paris, 1856-1860. Walter Harding ( Thoreau's Library , 

pp. 57-58) suggests that Thoreau might have owned J. B. Hennebert and G. G. 
de Beaurieu, Cours d'histoire naturelle . ou tableau de la nature consideree 
dans 1 'homme . les quadrupeds, les oiseaux . les poissons , Paris, 1770. 

488.14 Perhaps the worms exhibited by Durkee (whose statement. ., in the 
"Traveller" of August 12, 1857, I send you)] g 

BOSTON DAILY J KaVKLLKK, WEDNESDAY MOitMNti, AUGUST 12. 1857 



BOSTON SOCIKTY Ol 
TOil Y. 



XATVXAL MS 



Jtrportetl for the Truvll'i by Uic n<corrtlnp; Secretary. 
Mrr*D<i July Meeting. 

Dr. CiiaB. T. .Iacksom, Vice-President, in the 
chair. 

The Committee of the Council to whom «n re- 
ferred the consideration of the expediency of 
railing tho nnnnol assessment from three to Ave 
dollar", presented a report, which wan road nnd 
accepted. The committee concluded their report 
witlt the recommendation that tho annual omcsh- 
ment be live instead of three dollars. Tho con- 
sideration of this recommendation was postponed 
to the next meeting. 

The chairman read a letter from Towi»aend 
Glovi.k of Washington, returning thanks to the 
Society for his election as Corresponding Mem- 
ber, and accepting the same. Mr. Glover like- 
wise wrote that he intended soon to send to the 
Society a number of plates of Insects injurious to 
Vtgrtatiun, which ho was preparing for publica- 
tion, 

Mr. T. J. Wiiittemore read a letter from a 
gentleman in Germany, proposing to exchange a 
collection of fossil shells of Austria for those of 
North America, or a rare and costly work on Fos- 
sils for tho same. The letter was referred to the 
Curator of Geology. 

Tho Secret art said thnt he felt It his duty to 
call the attention of the Society to the fact, that, 
of lato, several reports of the proceedings of the 
Society had been published in the Boston Couritr, 
contrary to the rules of the society, and la viola- 
tion of an arrangement made with the Boston 
Traveller, for the exclusive reports of tho meet- 
ings. The snbject of these reports had been dis- 
cussed at u recent meeting, and although at that 
time it was not deemed advisable, in virtue of the 
existing rules, to take any action in the premises, 
nevertheless, the opinion generally expressed by 



those entering into the discussion was, that the 
meetings of the society were privato, and that no 
person, member or otherwise, had a right to re- 
port ita transactions, unless so authorized by tbo 
society. lie was not certain who was the author 
of the communications to the Courier, but ho 
thought it was the duty of the society cither to 
discontmuo Its relations with tho Travlkr, or to 
suppress unauthorized reports. 

The Chairman, Dr. C. T. Jacksow, stated thai, 
owing to the difficulty of having correct reports 
printed in the newspapers, an arrangement was 
some years since made with the editors of the 
Traveller f to have full reports, or abstracts of 
communications made to this Society published 
In their paper, under the directions of the Record- 
ing Secretary; and a contract had been made 
with the editors of that paper, to tho effect that 
the Secretary should preparo for that paper, ex- 
clusively, the reports of the doings of this Socie- 
ty. This arrangement was beneficial both to tho 
Society and to that newspaper, and although 
much of the mutter published by the Society was 
too technical for popular readers, yet the Traoei- 
ler had performed faithfully its part in tho publi- 
cation of all the matter communicated by Uio 
Secretary. AH papers arc subject to revision by 
the Society, before they arc publit-hcd, by being 
prodaced at the next meeting after they have 
been read. This arrangement affords opportuni- 
ties for corrections, if errors have l>ecn mado in 
the record. He further remarked that the Dostou 
Society of Natural History has an undoubted 
right to control the publication of its proceedings, 
and that not even the author of a communication, 
alter he had presented his paper to tho Society, 
had any right to publish it himself, in advance of 
the publication by the Society, unless by vote of 
tho Society this privilege was granted, or unless 
the right to do so had been claimed and allowed 
before reading the paper. This is a law recogniz- 
ed by all scientific Societies, and one tbat is ne- 
' cessary to their welfare. To allow tho proceed- 
I Ings of this Society to be reported irreciilarly and 



partially, would be a great evil, and especially to 
subject them to the numerous errors that would 
be liable to occur, where the proofs were not reed 
by e competent naturalist. The Vice President 
therefore ruled, from the choir, that no one but the 
Secretary of thi* Society, as author ind by a vote 
ofits Council, and by its agreement with the Boston 
Traveller, has any riijht to report the proceedings of 
the Society for any htwsj>apiT or journal. 

Dr. Sam rr.t. Kneela>d, Jr., read a paper on 
the Birds or Keweenaw Point, Lake Supe- 
rior.— The birds mentioned In this list were 
se n by De. K. during a residence of nearly a year 
at Portage Lake, fiom August, 1836, to June, 1867. 
A few have been introduced by tho authority of 
competent eye witnesses. By Keweenaw Point is 
in< ludod that portion of the Upper Peninsula of 
Michigan, which extends op Into Lake Superior, 
embracing not only the Point proper, but the 
western portion as far as Ontonagon, the region 
of Portage Lake and Entry, and the Ansc of Ke- 
weenaw Bay,— ell of which localities he visited. 
It is the Copper Kcglon of Lake Superior, lying 
between 47 and 48 degrees north latitude, and 
between 88 and 90 degrees longitude west from 
Greenwich. The list Is only an approximation to 
a complete catalogue of the birds of Upper Michi- 
gan, as tho adjacent regions have been but little 
explored; ana it is probable that many warblers 
and migratory birds will be hereafter added to It. 
This district is for the most part heavily wooded 
with pinet, spruces, maple* , &e., and would natu- 
rally be supposed to bo the favorite retreat of 
many more birds than ore found in it. The still- 
ness of the dark and virgin forests is most re- 
markable, and It is only during the few warmer 
months that the woods lose their dismal charac- 
ter. Snow begins to fall about tho middle of 
November, fiora which date to the middle of 
March there is scarcely a day without some fall of 
snow. Hence only the hardier bird* can remain 
during the winter months. The numerous (mail 
laavs and water courses are the resorts and breed- 
ing places of various uator-birds. 



For want of space enly tho common names will 
be given The gclentiflcnamcs were fully given In 
Dr. Knoeland's paper, which will be published In 
tho " Proceedings'' of the Society :— 

FALCOMDJE. 

Golden Eagle. Bald Kagle. 

Kl*h dawk. livr-Kalcoa 

Groat-footed Dawk I'lgeon Hawk. 

SperrewTlawk. Common Buz/ard 

Ked-shouJdered Hawk, lled-talled Buzzard 

Bough legged Buzzard. Goshawk. 

Cooper's Hawk. Common Han icr 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 



bti:i«id.f. 

Snowy •)«•!. 
Cinereous Owl. 
Great Iiorued On'. 



Hawk Owl. 

Acadian Owl. 
BVred Owl. 
Mottled Owl. 

i.tprjMrL'iiu.i' 
Whip-poor-will. N'»! ht H *wk 

umCKDIMDJt. 

Barn Swallow. Whltc-bcllied Swallow. 

ALCKUINTDwC. 

Belted King-Saber. 

CUTBIDX. 

Bed-bellied Nuthatch. Winter Wren. 

LCBCIMD.*. 

Blue Bird. Arctic Bine Bird. 

Water Thruah. Black-oappod Tit. 

Hudson's Bay Tit . Yellow roll Warbler. 
Canada Warbler. Yellow-ramped Warbler 
Black Poll Warbler. Black ft Yellow Warbler. 
Black throated G reen Warbler. Wag 1 at] ■ 
TtmsiD*. 
Amerioan Robin.— This bint appears In the latter part 
of April, a month before the snow leaves tbe 
grouud. . . , 

Wood Thrush. Bufoua-becked Thrush. Olive-backed 

Thrush. 
Cat Bird -This bird Is not fennd at Portage Lake, 
though k la said to occur in the more settled parts 
of tbe country As it la one of the species which 
fellow the owne ot agriculture, It is quite likely 
that it will soon become a general summer resident. 
arceoiCAFioj;. 
Kins: Bird. Tcwlt Flyoatchcr. Wood rewet. 
Bed Start. Bed-eyed Vlreo. Wliltc-eyedVlreo 

AJsrsuDj;. 
Bohemian Wax. Wing. 

uniJ. 
Great American Shrike. 

ocmvnMt. 
Canada Jay.— This bird is common in the winter, and 
la a great pest to the trappere/from its propensity to 
steal their poisoned baits. Like the raven it often 



Cedar Bird 



rails a victim to Ita grcedloesa by devouring meat 
set for foxes and the 



containing strychnine 
bearing animal*. 

Blue Jay. 

Amerioan Raven 



fur- 



American Sfegpte. 
American Crow. 



erunNin.B. 
Rusty Oraple.— Appears early lu the spring In im- 
mense flocks, and very fat 
Cow Blackbird. Ked-wlneed Blackbird. 

Bob-o'-Unk? 

FniNoii.Lin.c. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak American Goldfinch. 

Lesser Red-poll. 

These bird* are seen In flocks of twenty or thisty all 
through the whiter, in the woods near the lake and ' 
in the beaten roads, In company frequently with the 
snow birds. 

Snow Bird. Tox-colorcd Sparrow. 

Pine Pinch. Long Sparrow. 

White-throated Sparrow. 

This bird Is very abundant, and It* sweet song I* to 
be heard at all hours 01 the da; an J night In the spring 
and summer. 



Ray-winged Sparrow 
Trc»- Sparrow 



Whlta-crowued Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 

e'oow Bunting. Lapland i. hril 

Shore Lark T i'urplr Klnch 

Pine Orosbeak. Common c rr . 

Whlte-wtnged Crossbill. 

The former of these Crossbill* occurs in >, 
daring most of the winter, hopping »hom • 
with tbe familiarity of chipping sparrow* 

riciD^t. 
Arctic Woodpeokor — Common during tlit 

the severe winters of Lake Superior. 
Tbree-toed Woodpecker Hairy \v. 

Downy n Canada 

Pllsated " Hed-hes«li.i 

Golden-winged " 

coLtmain.it. 
Passenger Pigeon —Seen at Portage I.«U. r- . 
May 4th. 

TITttAOMD.E 

Common Quail.— Another of the birds whirl, 
man In agricultural progress. A f«w y,... 
unknown In tbe Upper Peninsula, now no' 
monon the Point. As more attention I- ... 
agriculture the qua! will doubtless be m,,- r J* 
moo In tbe fleld*. ^ 

Canada Grow*. Butted Crotus 

The first specie* of Grouse Is oomnarativ. '. „_ 
Tbe latter-ts very oommon In the woods at mi .. „,T> 
*f tbe year. ^^ 

Whtte Ptarmigan — There Is a white g*a»« i iw 
region, bot whether It Is the Lagopm m..rv- „ , 
Incuru: Dr. Kneelasd is uneertaln. ' * 



«t 






*» 



'■■>«• 

■UK, 

lMt» 



'HI 



" fceea 



86 



CHAJtABBIADJB. 

Black-bellied Plover. Golden l'i -.„, 

American King Plover. 

AHDKID.B. 

Sandhill Crane. Green II, r „ 

American Bittern 
8COLOPAC1D.W 

Yellow-shanks Tatler. Tell-tale Taller 
Solitary Ta'ler. Lon"-l«i K geri S; i ,• 

gchtnx's Sandpiper hemlpnlmm, i i 

1'eep. Hed-breaMed Si ,. ' 

Common Snipe. Woodcock 

Wilson's Pbalarrope 
BALLID.SJ 

Sora Rail.— Not uncommon at Portagr ! , f . 
September and October. - * 

American Coot. 
Tbe Tellers, Sandpipers, Snipes, t.'oui* rata 
Duck* and Look* begin to arrive at Porta, . i 2,' 
about the last of Aprll7 when onry the small 'n^™! 
opening Into rh» lake are free from kv i, „, . u 
time till the last of May, when the ice u.. ,,«inL 
they are very numerous, and are shot In ;»■■;.« 
ber*. 

UtATTBA. 
White-fronted Goose. Snow (, v . ( 

Canada Goose. 
The Ant two species are rare compared n -h tt» 
Canada Goose. ™ 

American Swan, seen flying over; not In in ■« 
alight. 
Summer or Wood Buck American Wi''»e«n 
Plutoil Duck 
MaUard, Dusky Duck, 

Grccn-wlngod Teal. Blue-winged Te.,1 

Gadwall Duck, Shoveller Duck, 

Rlag-neoked Duck. Scaup Duck, 

Canvass Bock Duck. 

The Canvas* Back Duck has been occasion; 
there during Its migrations, but none Is 
known to have beeu sliot. 
Red-headed Duck, Golden-eye Duck, 

buffet-beaded Duck, Goosander, 

Red breasted Merganser, Hooded Merganser. 

Dr. K. has been Informed by hunters th t there n- 
1st* at some seasons a nearly white nier^m.., r ot 
"Mw-t>i/'," as they call it, la the lakes of tlm- ricuiit*. 
Prom the alleged Improbability of the ocoui react ol 
the Stnrw (Mergellus albellus, Linn ) except :i- i vert 
rare visitor from Arctic Europe, Dr. K. ha- ,■■■• lg . 
eluded this bird In bin Hit. though its occur." nee u 
flrmly maintained by the Indians and hunter' w ho 
ought to know. The bird seen by them my l sve 
been some whlte-plurnage«! duck; 'hougli-l>i li. it 
Inclined to believe that Audubon Is wronplu ■ \Jua- 
tag tbe Smew fiom the American continent mi it'ist 
Wilson Is right in making it uot an onconnr. ,n titd 
hare. 

COLTMDIDJt. 

Common Loco This is a very common 'recitttt 
rortage Lake, in the spring and summer, una it hers 
possessed of all the shyness peculiar to it iu more pop. 
ulous localities Tbe only way the gunner can tp> 
proaeh It lu the open lake, where it delights to "port 
and feed, is to conceal the bow of bts bout or canoe 
with branches of evergreen, and surmount this with i 
bright flag. Behind this screen he can pod'Ueeaiuj 
towards the bird, whose natural curiosity nronir/.»hin 
to swim toward* it to see "what it Is. By keejun£ up a 
•brill whistle at the same time, it is not d.'fhcmt to get 
within gun shot. The bird Is bunted convider..Uy for 
It* skin, which is used by the natives tor b»g» );uct- 
e* and knife-sheath*. 

Bad-throated Diver. B!ack-thro.if. <l Diver. 

Created Grebe, Horned Grebe, I'lcd-Ml V i.eluck. 

LAAJD.C 

Herring Gull. Very common on the great lakes, fol- 
lowing in tbo wake of steamer* and veaselsand It Is 
not uncommon on Portapc Ijtke. There Uss.'l to be 
*, imaUler black-headed Gull there, but Dr K has 
never seen It above tho 8au» St. Marie. 

Common Tern. Al«o undoubtedly other j-^ces of 

"*' PBLICAWIDi. 

White Pelican. One seen and shot at lie Puntl 
few years since. 

Total 117 apocictf; ofwfaijh OC arc Ian 1 birds 
and Gl water birds. Th<» birds of prey -re an- 
tncrous, and conscquontly the ^nrblers, fly <-atch- 
ere and finches ore In the proportion to tupplj 
them with food. The Crow and Woodpecker fam- 
ilies preserve the ustinl ratio of cold ilrnates; 
while the ducka, divers, and beach birds ute what 
we should naturally expect to find In the nemb- 
borhood or the largest end finest ahect v. ire* 
water in tho world. 

Dr. Silas Dcbkbe exhibited two fp c : mcn« 
of the Common Otow Worm, (Lampyrisuocti'r.ca,) 
whU h weie found in DcuVham. Tbospct imettt are 
not the larva: of Insects; but the perfect t'einaleoi 
a winged beetle (colcoptcru.) from which it li so 
dlflerent, that nothing but the actual observation 
would enable us to infer that tbey arc dif- 
ferent eexes of the s amo Insect. They have a 
small flat head; tho antenna: are about l^f a 
lliw in length; and when examined wi:!, ;> '•om- 
mon pocket mariner, arc seen to consist ff two 
colors, white ami chestnut, alternatelv. lit. y do 



not appear to h.tvo the power of prod'ui jii,t or ex- 
tinguishing the light Bt will. Their briiliiinryii 
les» than that of the Elatcr noctilncus, two •■pcCi 
mens of wliich Dr. D. oxhibitct' several months 
since. Uc took occasion to watch the>> r *i'jw 
wonns during an interval of about 9 hour . otu- 
raenciiiR ut eignt o'clock in the evening Joe 
pcculii.r titcnlty of producing light beg.'i; : 'oiv 
its. If bctwocn the segments of the ho.,,, ,-/«t 
tho larjrc f piracies or stigmata which rn v I., een 
In connection with the wings — there Uv ' 'wo of 
these splrucula to each seguent, and t ■■ ;:v-fita 
in all. 

yrova about 6 o'clock to midnight, tho lii'bt 
along the rings and at tbe spimcUN ws< much 
more brilliant thun it v. us throngh the "sflnenw 
themselves. But during the latter pttrt < : tbe 
night, tbe light wns equnlly diffused tliroj^itout 
the entire length of the worm. This w-.is ihccate 
In both spe'-lmcns. And daring t bis tl .-tri' ution 
of the luminous power, or properties nothing 
could be neon of the spiracuia, or of tho M-i'menis 
orjolntx. The worms appeared a* if they w«* 
two fused masses of beautiful pho iphorcttnt 
light; sometimes at rest, sometimes assuming a 
variety of shapes, according to tho slow und grace- 
ful movements of the iru-ects. Tho litmiiuut 
properties were perfectly dlxpUycd through a few 
of the spiracuia and a low of the joints, while all 
tho rest were in a condition like that which ii 
molutalnod during the day ; that ig, they yieMed do 
light. This partial illuinlnatiou, however, soon 
gave place to the most charming diffusion of light, 
along the whole length of tho body, and the Litter 
condition was preserved unbroken until tho light 
of day broke U.c charm, and these fairy little crea- 
tures were transformed into mere worm' 1 . H >* 
said that tho light in the fomalo is most i»r lllont 
In the season when tho sexes are destined to meet. 
In sonic species tho light is emitted only iit.ring 
the period of propagation. 

The CcRATon of Crudaeta and Radiant a* Lei' 
to be excused from the care of thecmstaci.s.nrt'J 
have the derailment divided. He though', t! ore 
was sufficient labor fur two curators, and he cou'd 
properly take charge of tho rudiata only Tee 
subject was referred to a committee con-i-tluc of 
Mossrs. Abbot, Uould and Whittemoie. 

Pheslkta uoNS.— A specimen of Blpph Marl s 
In Sandstone; Parasitic Shells from a Luh'Ur; 
Algte, 4c., from Dr. S. Knecland, Jr.; »«>nic l' 8- 
raguay Tea from Mr. N. H. Bishop; and a Horn- 
ed Toad from Texas, from Mr. Alnswo'lh, fwi 
which tbe thanks of the Society were voted. 

Jambs H. St.* w sow, vf Houghton, Mieliu,"" 1 . 
was elected a Correspotnling Monkr. 

Messrs. Chas. V. Iu.mih, M. Dv, of Medi'orl. 
and Olitkr W. Pkauout, ol' Boston, were rl*" 
od Bosldent Members. 

A Detalh-Scrae. 

Paled, at length, the ss.-et sun letting, 
Subk to peace the twlll|(bt breeze 

Summer dew* fell softly, wetting 
Glen, and glade, and rllcnt trees 

Then his eyes bcgai> to wear}-, 
Weigtiea beneath p mcrtal sleep; 

Ann their orbs grvw rtruiigcly dreary, 
Clouded, <vvn as they would weep. 

But they wep' not. tut they changed noi. 
Net er moved Lurt never closod ; 

Troubled •till, und 'till they ranged not, 
Wandered uot, nor yet reposed 

So I knrvi that I., was dytog — 
Stooped and ra!«rd bia langnl.l head ; 

Pelt no breath, and oewrd no sighing, 
£o 1 kin n tlist be w > dead 

^ -Fr..'. &■ ." 



[Emily Bronte] 



87 

488.21 I shall be glad to receive the Drosera at any timej He dis- 
cusses the Drosera rotundifolia in the Journal . II, 431; IV, 75; IX, 291 
— a species of "a large genus of bog-inhabiting insectivorous herbs, the 
sundews . . . . " 

488.22 I am looking over Loudon's "Arboretum" .. .added to our Library] 
Thoreau himself owned John Claudius Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum 
Britannicum ; or the Trees and Shrubs of Britain , native and foreign , de - 
lineated and .. .described . ( 8 vols. ) London, 1838. The Concord Town Li- 
brary acquired the second edition in eight volumes (London, 1844). 

489.4 Your Wilson Flagg... His style, as I remember, is singularly 
vague (I refer to the book;] Thoreau here gives important memoranda on 
what he considers an effective prose style. Thomas Wilson Flagg (1805- 
1884), born in Beverly, Massachusetts, was a minor naturalist, essayist, 
and poet. The book referred to was Studies in the Field & Forest . Bos- 
ton, 1857. Thoreau quoted from one of Flagg's works in Journal, XII, 
258 (July 25, 1859). See W. G. Barton, "Thoreau, Flagg, and Burroughs," 
Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 16 (III Quarter 1959), pp. 51-64. 

490.5 Can't you extract any advantage out of that depression of spi- 
rits] Cf. the note on Goethe on 222.2. 

496.11 "The Lord reigneth, let the earth rejoice"] See Psalm 97.1. 

496.22 banks are found to be mere reeds shaken by the wind] See 
Matthew 11:7 and Luke 7:24. 

497.16 read Ruskin's books... his "Modern Painters" .. ."Seven Lamps of 
Architecture"] For echoes of Thoreau 1 s reading in Ruskin, see the Jour - 
nal . X, 69, 147, 209-210 (Oct. 6, 29; Nov. 27, 1857). In the last he 
quotes from Ruskin's Elements of Drawing . 

498.25 I keep a mountain anchored off eastward. . .which I ascend in my 
dreams] For an excellent commentary on the mountain symbol in English and 
American Romanticism, see Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Moun - 
tain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite . Ithaca, 
[1959]. 

498.37 Was it not Umbagog?] Umbagog Lake, source of the Androscoggin 
River. It lies partly in Coos County, New Hampshire, and partly in Ox- 
ford County, Maine. 

499.7 when the night is coming in which no man can walk] Modification 
of the language of John 9:4 — "I must work the works of him that sent me, 
while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work." 

500.5 "Where thro' the desert walks the lapwing flies 

And tires their echoes with unceasing cries."] 

Ricketson thought these lines might have come from Sir Walter Scott. They 

are actually a variation of a couplet from Goldsmith's "Deserted Village," 

lintjs 44""45 * 

Amid thy desert-walks the lapwing flies, 

And tires their echoes with unvaried cries. 

500.19 come out and call together the lost sheep of Israel] Echo of 
Matthew 10:6 and 15:24. 

500.28 "carrying coals to Newcastle"] Proverbial in England since the 
seventeenth century. For variations and parallels, see Burton Stevenson, 



88 
The Home Book of Proverbs and The Home Book of Quotations . 

500.28 I would sit at the feet of Gamaliel] See Acts 22:3 in which 
St. Paul says he was educated in Jerusalem "at the feet of Gamaliel and 
taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers...." 
For the character of Gamaliel, see Acts 5:34-59. 

506.20 (V. Hodges 1 account of his excursion [to Quebec] via the Alle- 
gash...in the 2nd Report on the Geology of the Public Lands of Maine & 
Mass, in '37.)] See Maine: Geological Survey, Second Annual Report on 
the Geology of the Public Lands , belonging to the two States of Massachu - 
setts and Maine , by Charles Thomas Jackson, Boston, 1838. (Issued also 
as House Document No. 70, Mass. General Court, 1838. Printed also in Au- 
gusta, 1838. The "Report on the Allagash Section from the Penobscot to 
the St. Lawrence River" by James Thatcher Hodge appears on pages 46-68. 

507.12 (V. Colton's R. R. & Township map of Maine.) Not listed under 
"Maps" in Harding's Thoreau's Library . I reproduce a section of Francis 
Parkman's copy, now in the Map Room of Harvard College Library. It was 
published by Joseph H. Colton and Co. (New York) and C. C. Hall (Portland, 
Maine) in 1855. Its call number is M3275.16. 







V^ e w^ e 




90 




.«tf v ^ 



91 

512.6 What a prospect you can get every morning from the hill-top 
east of your house!] I believe these phrases are unconscious echoes of 
Emerson's Nature (Boston, 1836), 21.12ff.: "I have seen the spectacle of 
morning from the hill-top over against my house... with emotions which an 
angel might share . " 

513.18 and 28 "fire in my belly"] Possibly an expression used by 
Thoreau in a letter to B. B. Wiley now lost, or one of the figurative ex- 
pressions Emerson praised in the chapter on "Language" in Nature — expres- 
sions noticeable in "the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back- 
woodsman, which all men relish." See Nature (Boston, 1836), 37.14-16. 

513.22 I believe that am I once fairly on deck I should not want to 
go below again.] Wiley here paraphrases Thoreau' s famous words in the 
final chapter of Walden ; "I did not wish to take a cabin passage, but 
rather to go before the mast and on the deck of the world.... I do not 
wish to go below now." 

513.33 came across your translation of Cato's advice to those buying 
farms... and I let this farm alone.] Wiley is referring to the following 
passage in Walden . chap. II: "Old Cato, whose 'De Re RusticS' is my 'Cul- 
tivator,' says...'When you think of getting a farm turn it thus in your 
mind, not to buy greedily .. .and do not think it enough to go round it 
once. The oftener you go there the more it will please you, if it is good.' 
I think I shall not buy greedily, but go round and round it as long as I 
live. ..." 

519.15 Channing's poem "Near Home" was printed (if not published) by 
James Munroe and Co.] See William Ellery Channing (the younger), Near 
Home ; a Poem . Boston, 1858. One copy survives in the Boston Athenaeum; 
another was once in Thoreau 's book collection. (See Harding's Thoreau *s 
Library , p. 40.) On the basis of this letter, the work must have ap- 
peared in early July. Thoreau had been critical of the poet's handwriting. 

523.1 reflections over these inspiring vessels. (P.S. Of wrath?)] 
A playful allusion to Romans 9:22 and Rev. 15:7 and 16:1. 

523.5 This puts me to thinking, as Jack Downing would say] I cannot 
locate the phrase in either [Seba Smith's] The Life and Writings of Major 
Jack Downing of Downingville away down East in the State of Maine (Bos- 
ton, 1833) or [Charles Augustus Davis'] Letters of J. Downing . Ma.lor . 
Downingville Militia . Second Brigade , to his old Friend . Mr. Dwight . or 
the New York Daily Advertiser . New- York, 1834. 

523.8 I am ready to "acknowledge the corn," and plead guilty] The 
quoted words— now proverbial — were uttered by Charles A. Wickliffe, of 
Kentucky, while debating in the House of Representatives in 1828. See 
Maximilian Scheie De Vere, Americanisms ; the English of the New World . 
N.Y., 1872. 

523.14 whence like the decensus averni there is no return] The first 
of the italicized words is misspelled. Ricketson alludes to Virgil's 
A*Eneid . Book VI, lines 126ff . : 

facilis descensus Averno; 
Noctes atque dies patet atri ianua Ditis; 
Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras, 
Hoc opus, hie labor est. 

523.22 and the phrase, tribute to the sea , is, I think, borrowed from 



92 

...your winter voyage to Nantucket] Thoreau used the italicized words in 
his letter to Ricketson dated January 6, 1855. See Correspondence . 362.6. 
He was apparently seasick on the voyage to the island on December 27-29, 
1854. See Journal . VII, 91-97. 

523.25 I have published my history of New Bedford in a neat duodeci- 
mo] See Daniel Ricketson, The History of New Bedford . Bristol County . 
Massachusetts; including a history of the old Township of Dartmouth and 
the present Townships of Westport . Dartmouth , and Fairhaven from their 
Settlement to the Present Time . New Bedford, 1858. 

523.26 am prospecting for a volume of poems— also writing some sketch- 
es called "Smoke from my Pipe"— in. . .which I introduce a certain philoso- 
pher] Ricketson* s poems and sketch of Thoreau ultimately appeared in 
Daniel Ricketson and his Friends ; Letters . Poems . Sketches , etc . . edited 
by Anna and Walton Ricketson, Boston & N.Y., 1902. 

524.20 Your "Isle of Haut" is properly "Isle Haute" or the High Is- 
land of Champlain's map.] Thoreau' s thorough knowledge of the French 
settlement of Nova Scotia, made fifteen years prior to the arrival of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth, and his acquaintance with French explorations of the 
New England coast between 1604 and 1608 are demonstrated in chapter X of 
Cape Cod . See his Writings (Walden ed.), IV, pp. 227-233. For his study 
of Champlain's maps, see the reproductions of the Canadian Notebook and 
its inserts in my forthcoming Transcendental Climate , vols. II and III. 
(The original MS. is in the Pierpont Morgan Library.) 

525.5 Did you ever see an English traveller who was not ["highly con- 
nected"]? While at Harvard, Thoreau formed a not-too-pleasant view of 
the English traveller. (It was considerably softened after he had met 
Charles Lane and Thomas Cholmondeley . ) See his "Index Rerum, " containing 
references to his reading in Bulwer-Lytton 's England and the English . (2 
vols.) N.Y., 1833 ( Transcendentalists and Minerva . III. 877-882). On 
Oct. 28, 1836, Prof. Edward Tyrrel Channing assigned to Thoreau' s class 
the following theme topic: "Travellers & Inhabitants: Causes of equally 
imperfect & differing accounts of Countries by Travellers & by inhabi- 
tants" — the theme to be due on Nov. 11, 1836. Though Thoreau* s paper 
probably does not survive, he made use of the following paragraph from 
England and the English . I, 5-6, if one may hazard a guess: 

A work of this character, if written by a native, must necessarily, however, 
be somewhat serious, and to the ordinary reader somewhat dull. A foreigner cannot 
fail to be a more amusing writer on the characteristics of a people than one of 
themselves. The piquant foibles— the humorous peculiarities which he finds on 
the surface of society, he transfers to his pages with all the freshness of first 
impressions. We are pleased to see in his book every thing most familiar to our- 
selves treated with the vivacity of a new observer. Even his little mistakes 
entertain us. His freedom from the social ties which trammel ourselves enables 
him to intersperse his pages with descriptions of individuals, and to enliven 
general remarks by pointed personalities: he unites, in one word, the adventure, 
spirit, and enterprise of travel, with the drier disquisitions of critical obser- 
vation. But, on the other hand, he sports only with effects; he has rarely 
lived long enough in the country of which he treats to penetrate to the causes 
of what he perceives. That which makes him usually amusing makes him also usually 
superficial. Neither does he, in general, write sufficiently in earnest ; he 
seldom cares very greatly to improve a people in whose improvement he has no in- 
terest; he writes to describe, not to ameliorate; he neither knows nor asks what 
may be the subjects most important to a particular people, at particular seasons 
to examine,— what delusions it will be most useful to dispel,— what principles 



93 

may be the most salutary to establish. Nor can he detect thoroughly the in- 
fluences which pervade, and perhans create, the spirit and character of a nation: 
he does not mix intimately with all classes; he is necessarily thrown into sects 
and coteries: he picks up individual opinions, and adapts them to superficial im- 
pressions or previous prejudice. In addition to these deficiencies, looking only 
to external customs, and the ostensibilities of manner, he runs the risk of being 
either too much in love with a people or too much revolted by them. Whatever is 
new to all of us either excessively delightful or utterly unpleasing,— Custom 
in all things is the best cure to Passion. Hence, strange as it may seem, travel- 
lers and tourists are nearly always the writers of a party,— where you would ex- 
pect the most impartiality you find the least. But a native having every disad- 
vantage in writing an amusing book, his every advantage in writing a true one,— 
provided only that he has mixed largely with all classes, and, by a constitutional 
coolness, or loneliness of mind, has maintained himself aloof from the prejudices 
of sectarianism and the interests of faction. 

In his theme, "Various Means of Public Influence," presented to Chan- 
ning on March 3, 1837 (See Sanborn, The Life of Henry David Thoreau . Bos- 
ton & N.Y., 1917, pp. 159-162) he reverts to the subject. I edit here the 
fragment of the original manuscript surviving in the Houghton Library as 
an insert in Edmund Clarence Stedman's Poets of America . (2 vols.) Cam- 
bridge, 1885, II, Part I, p. 340. (The reader may see what liberties San- 
born took by comparing the following with his printed text.) 

The travelling author lands on our shores with all the prejudices of the old 
country fresh in his mind, prepared to criticise our manners, our customs, and 
our country— or in other words, to compare them with those paragons which he 
has left at home. Fully impressed, as every honest citizen should be, with 
the superiority of his own country, and the preeminent perfection of her govern- 
ment and institutions, to say nothing of her children, he judges of what is 
right and wrong, good and bad, for these are but relative terms, by a compari- 
son with those fixed and faultless standards, to mistrust which is to him more 
than sacrilege, as he gives his countrymen the height of our mountains or breadth 
of our rivers by referring them to their particular measures— their miles, 
leagues, or acres, as the case may be. Be he ever so free from prejudice, ever 
so liberal, a cosmopolite in the broadest sense of the word, the professed jour- 
nalist and travelling bachelor, is too tender of the bantling in his hands, that 
is soon to astonish the natives the shape of a respectable (i speak of the ex- 
ternals,) duodecimo, containing hints to travellers, gleanings during a 3 weeks* 
tour in the Valley of the Mississipi [ sic ] . too solicitous is he for the popu- 
larity of his book, to withhold the "Sugared Cates" so temptingly offered at 
every turn, or when he has done, to administer the needed cathartic. Preferring 
infamy to oblivion— in despair of acquiring a vigorous and healthy fame, he is 
fain to content himself with a shortlived and bloated reputation, though at the 
expense of truth. 

525.15 I suppose that I have read it in The Mercury. Yet. . .curious 
to see how it looks in a volume] This was the New Bedford Mercury . 

529.11 the Association of the Alumni of Harvard College .. .made their 
report in print, a copy of which has been sent to you] Thoreau, doubt- 
less, read this pamphlet with considerable interest— especially the con- 
vincing letter of the Librarian, his friend John Langdon Sibley. The 
following excerpt from Sibley's letter appears on pages 26-29 of the Re - 
port of the Committee of the Association of the Alumni of Harvard College . 
appointed to take into Consideration the State of the College Library . 
Cambridge, 1858: 

If it were possible, it would be desirable to go further. Va- 
rious departments are deficient in rare old books and pam- 



94 



phlet*, which arc n» important to thorough students a» the 
modern. The Library is not more used for reading than it is 
for literary, genealogical, historical, statistical, philological, 
philosophical, scientific, and other investigations. It is the 
reservoir from which all minds at the University are mainly 
to be supplied. No limits can be set to its wants, as may 
sometimes be done with libraries got up for specific pur- 
poses. The field of intellectual labor is now so broad, and so 
carefully and extensively cultivated, that applications arc 
made, not only by the officers and students, but by men of 
eminent literary attainments, for books, pamphlets, and pa- 
pers, which by a superficial, one-sided inquirer would be con- 
sidered worthless. Books which arc seldom read arc wanted 
to verify quotations. Biographers and historians ask for 
ephemeral pamphlets, newspapers, manuscript diaries and 
letters, relating to the times and persons of which they write. 
Macaulay cites old almanacs. Some American Hallam or 
Sismondi will want to examine the school-books of the last 
and present centuries, to obtain a general idea of their charac- 
ter and of the early education of the country. And where is 
a collection to be found ? Nowhere. They have not been 
considered worth saving. 

The student of mental and ethical philosophy, and the 
writer of the civil and ecclesiastical history of the country, 
want the newspapers and books issued by the different relig- 
ious denominations, from the strong works of Edwards, down 
to the little Sunday-school primer and the catechism, which are 
implanting in the child's mind principles by which he will be 
governed when he becomes a man. The destruction of papers 
and pamphlets has been so great, and books are so scarce, 
that it has been said there are not, either in America or Eu- 
rope, materials for writing a history of the New England 
Primer, — a little book which has exerted an inconceivable 
influence on the religious opinions and character, and remotely 

on the welfare and condition, of the nation. I think it doubt- 
ful if there is in existence even one copy of any of the very 
early editions. 

Junk-dealers in the city, and tinmen in the country, collect 
wagon-loads of dead stock, old books, pamphlets, and papers, 
among which must be many of great rarity and value, and 
sell them for a cent or two a pound to paper-makers, to be 
ground over and converted into paper-hangings. About a 
year ago I saw in Washington Street, in Boston, three large 
wagons, nearly filled with huge bags, just leaving a very 
humble auction-room ; and from a few pamphlets which a 
man was stuffing into the last bag, I rescued one which for 
nearly eleven years I had been trying to find, to assist me in 
completing the volumes of a valuable periodical. 

I have known a journey to be made from New York to 
Cambridge, in a storm in January, mainly for the purpose of 
consulting an old funeral sermon, of which another copy 
could not be found in the country. It had probably never 
before been asked for during the generations since it came to 
the Library ; but it was now wanted in a law case involving 
nearly half a million of dollars. How many would think a 
funeral sermon worth sending to the Library of Harvard 
College ? 



From a remote part of Maine, journeys were repeatedly 
made to this vicinity for information respecting land claims 
and mill-privileges, and the parties found at last, by means of 
an old Boston Directory to which I called their attention, that 
for years they had probably been pursuing their inquiries on 
one of the most important points in the wrong direction. 
And yet the question is often asked, " Of what use is an old 
Boston Directory ? " 

A family in a neighboring city, on vacating a house, sent a 
valuable donation ; but from an apprehension that a thorough 
gleaning had not been made, a messenger was despatched to 
the place, and he found in the barn, among papers which had 
been thrown there as worthless, several of the old, scarce Acts 
and Resolves of the State, other valuable documents, and a 
small unbound volume, of which fruitless efforts had been 
made to obtain a copy for the Library. 

From a closet where they had probably remained nearly a 
century, we recently received tolerably complete files of the 
Boston News Letter and of the Evening Post for the years 
1742, 1743, and 1744, which contain a large amount of im- 
portant information, nowhere else to be had, respecting White- 
field and the great Revival, and the circumstances connected 
with the publication and statements of Prince's Christian 
History. 

In a neat butter-firkin of literary remnants sent to the Li- 
brary at my special request, I found pamphlets, odd numbers 
of periodicals, enabling me to complete imperfect volumes, 
and a file of newspapers which made a perfect copy of the 
first volume of the Boston Gazette, beginning in the year 
1755, an important period in the history of the American 
Colonies. 

More than once old barrels have been sent to the Library, 
and though in some instances mice had been feasting on the 
literary treasures, and running riot among them, I always 
found something that was desirable. 

I might multiply cases to show the value of what is com- 
monly considered worthless, and to call your attention to the 
vast number and variety of the applications from officers and 
students, and from others who arc drawn to the Library by 
its reputation and their necessities. I may add, that some of 
the officers whom I have requested to write to you on the 
subject cannot speak in detail, but only in general terms, of 
the poverty-stricken character of their departments, and of 
the necessity they are under of having recourse to other pub- 
lic libraries, to private libraries, and to their salaries, to eke 
out, so far as they can, the means to bring their instruction 
up to the highest standard of the present day. But on this 
point I may have already become tedious. 

I think it would be well if it were generally known that 
there was never anything printed of which we should not be 
grateful for one copy. There are hundreds of persons who 
would be glad to get rid of what they call trash and rubbish. 
They would make not only their book-shelves, but their gar- 
rets, closets, old chests, trunks, and barrels empty their alma- 
nacs, sermons, newspapers, directories, reports, old books, 
manuscript letters and diaries, and pamphlets of every kind, 
into the lap of our Alma Mater. Among them we should 
find much that is valuable. Possibly we might get some 



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95 

things, of which not a copy is now known (o be in existence. 
Authors, desirous of having their works accessible "to the 
public, and preserved where they will be likely to be looked 
for and found by posterity, might be inclined in some cases 
to put in the Library a copy of each of their publications. 
Booksellers would find it for their interest to place here what- 
ever they may print, for there arc hundreds of readers to appre- 
ciate it and make it known. There arc many instances where 
persons have bought for their own libraries, and for presenta- 
tion to friends, books of which they obtained their first knowl- 
edge from the copies given to the Library. Many graduates 
might be prompted to give copies of all their writings, and, 
like the late Hon. Judge John Davis, also to make it a rule to 
send at least one good book to the Library every year. If 
this were generally done by the Alumni, with permission 
from the givers to exchange the duplicates, it would lead to 
important annual accessions. There may be persons inter- 
ested in particular studies or pursuits, as poetry, political 
economy, ethics, American history, the drama, numismatics, 
Shakespeare, Milton, the reports and acts of some society or 
corporation, spiritualism, Mormonism, particular classes of 
sermons, of orations, of speeches, of periodicals, the Texan 

536,5 going to the West Indies, or rather to Weiss-nicht-wo] An allu- 
sion to Carlyle's Sartor Resartus . Weissnichtwo was the residence of Di- 
ogenes Teuf elsdrockh. Thoreau implies that Cholmondeley, like the German 
professor, was engaged on important celestial business and was being re- 
tailored. At the same time, though quite reliable, he was "very pecul- 
iar. " 

556.10 I was glad to hear that you had called on R. How did you like 
him?] I can find no record either of Blake's impressions of Ricketson or 
of Ricketson' s reaction to Blake. 

536.22 "Hercules with his club 

The Dragon did drub; With nothing at all, 

But More of More Hall, He slew the Dragon of Wantley." 

Thoreau is here quoting from memory the first stanza of "The Dragon of 
Wantley", which appears in Thomas Percy, Reliques of Ancient English Po - 
etry . (5th ed., 3 vols.) London, 1812, III, 356-367: 

Old stories tell, how Hercules 

A dragon slew at Lerna, 
With seven heads, and fourteen eyes, 
To see and well discern-a: 
But he had a club, this dragon to drub, 

Or he had ne'er done it, I warrant ye: 
But More of More-Hall, with nothing at all, 
He slew the dragon of Wantley. 

537.38 There is Dobson over the hill. Have not you and I... trying 
••• to sympathize with him?] This Dobson was probably an inmate of the 
poor house, and Thoreau was probably speaking in the idiom that survives 
in Wil] Carleton's Over the Hill to the Poorhouse . If not, he was a 
transient sharecropper. I have checked the land records, the probate 
registry, the poll-tax lists, and the town reports, as well as the birth, 
baptism, marriage and burial records. None of these contains even the 
surname. I tried unsuccessfully to locate jail records for this period. 



96 

558.21 What a fool he must be who thinks that his El Dorado is any- 
where but where he lives!] See note on 124.7. A possible echo of Vol- 
taire's Candida . chap. XVII. So the Spaniards called Manhoa of Guiana. 
See Milton's Paradise Lost . XI, 411-412: 

Guiana, whose great city Geryon's sons 
Call "El Dorado." 

Orellana, lieutenant of Pizarro, asserted that he had discovered such a 
"gold country" between the Orinoco and the Amazon. Sir Walter Raleigh, 
one of Thoreau's favorite authors, twice visited the spot indicated and 
published interesting accounts of its vast wealth. See note on 39 8.24. 

538.29 Thus is it ever with your fair cities of the plain.] Allusion 
to Lot's choice of dwelling place — Sodom and Gomorrah — at the time of his 
separation from Abram. See Genesis 13:12-15. 

538.29 Their streets may be paved with silver and gold] See note on 
538.21. Here may possibly be an allusion to hymns about the Heavenly Je- 
rusalem, sung in the churches and at the piano in Thoreau's home. E .g . . 
"Blessed City, Heavenly Salem" or "Jerusalem, My Happy Home." If not, 
then possibly an allusion to the streets of Eldorado. 

538.31 the real homes of the citizens are in the T U ckerman's Ravines] 
For Thoreau's acquaintance with Tuckerman's Ravine in the White Moun tains, 
see Journal , XI, 21-29. He, Blake, and Theophilus Brown had visited it on 
July 8 and 9, 1858. 

558.39 you hear a neighbor halloo (Brown, may be) and think it is a 
bear.] For Blake's friend, Theophilus Brown, of Worcester, see note on 
538.31. 

539.3 the excellent drainage of that city of God.] Allusion to St. 
Augustine's De Civitate Dei . On the spiritual and symbolic significance 
of mountains and their ravines, see the note on 498.25. 

540.18 "What shall it profit a Man?"] See note on 170.1; 247. 8; 356.18. 
See Thoreau's essay: "Life Without Principle," which seems to have been 
created out of two earlier lectures: "What Shall It Profit A Man if he 
Gain the Whole World and Lose His Soul" and "Getting a Living." See Mark 
8:55-37: "For whosoever will save his life shall lose itj but whosoever 
shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it. 
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and 
lose his own soul. Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?" 

544.3 written by Francis Jeffrey... "If it were not for my love of 
beautiful nature and poetry, my heart would have died within me long ago." 
Not located. 

549.10 "Behind the plough Burns sang his wood-notes wild. 

And richest Shakespeare was a poor man's child."] See Eben- 
ezer Elliot, Poems . (2 vols.) London, 1834. 

549.30 "Is there none for me in the wide world, — no kindred spirit?"] 
This question seems to echo Papageno's lines in Mozart's The Magic Flute . 

550 o 8 according to Blackstone, "What is not reason is not law"] Not 
original with Blackstone. Cf . Sir Edward Coke, Institutes: Commentary 
upon Littleton . Institute I, 1T80: "Reason is the life of the lawj nay, 
the common law itself is nothing but reason.... The law... is perfection 



97 

of reason." Cf. Sir John Pov/ell in the case of Coggs vs. Bernard (quoted 
in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia of Practical Quotations , comp. Kate Louise Rob- 
erts^ N .Y. and London, [1940] , p~. 43 2b : "Let us consider the reasons of 
the case. For nothing is law that is not reason." 

551.22 In the long run, we find what we expect.] Cf. Matt. 7:7 and 
Luke 11:9 — "Seek and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you." 
Cf. the great Transcendental postulates: "Like only can know like." 
"What we are within that only can we see without." "Quantum sumus, scimus." 
See the Index of Emerson the Essayist . 

557.17 This is the way I am serving King Admetus, confound him.'] See 
note on 47.4. 

558.11 Scott's Tactics will not help you to it.] See Winfield Scott, 
Infantry-Tactics ; or Rules for the Exercise and Manoeuvres of the United 
States' Infantry . (3 vols.) New-York, 1835; (3 vols.) N.Y., 1840; (3 vols.) 
N.Y., 1854. 

558.27 Swords have no edges, bullets no penetration, for such a con- 
test. In your mind must be a liquor which will dissolve the world when- 
ever it is dropt in it.] For significance of this imagery in Thoreau, 
see my "The Potent Song in Emerson's Merlin Poems," P Q . XXXII, no. 1 
(Jan., 1953), pp. 22-28. 

559.7 to read a lecture to Parker's society on the 9th of October 
next] It was a Sunday engagement. Thoreau was considered for other ser- 
mons or lectures at Theodore Parker's church, and once was asked to at- 
tend a church picnic. From this last he begged to be excused. See my 
"Thoreau and Emerson in Channing's Letters to the Watsons," Emerson So - 
ciety Quarterly , no. 14 (I Quarter 1959), pp. 77-85, esp. p. 82. See also 
Correspondence . p. 582 c 

560.21 "But unimproved, Heaven's noblest brows are vain, 
No sun with plenty crowns the uncultured vale; 
Where green lakes languish on the silent plain, 
Death rides the billows of the western gale."] Unidentified. 

564.19 but in due time we shall reap if we faint not.] See Galatians 
6:9. See note on 9.30. 

566.12 The best... one of the Brown Lecture was in the Boston "Atlas & 
Bee" of Nov 2nd.... There were others in the Traveller — the Journal &c of 
the same date.] See the Boston paper, The Atlas & Daily Bee , Wednesday 
morning, Nov. 2, 1859: 



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Notices. 

(^ EXECUTION OF CAPT. JOHN 

BROWN. At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
(be American Auti-Slavery Society, held lu Boston Not, 
let, the following Resolution was adopted :— 

K'su.'ttd, That it is recommended to the friends of Im- 
partial freedom throughout the Free Status, in case of the 
execution of Capt. John Brown, now on trial for his lift 
in Virginia, to observe that tragical event. Of THE DAT or 
its ecci'BctNCE. in such manner as by them may be deem- 
ed most appropriate in their various localities. — whether 
by public meetings and addresses, the adoption of reso" 
lutions. private conferences, or any other justifiable mod* 
of action, — for the furtherance of the Anti-Slavery cause 
and renewedly to consecrate themselves to the patriotic 
and Christian work of effecting the abolition of that most 
dangerous, unnatural, cruel and impious system of sla- 
very, which is the fruitful source of all our sectional 
heart-burnings and conflicts, which powerfully and in- 
creasingly tends to promote servile insurrections and civil 
war, which cannot be more truly or more comprehensive- 
ly described than as "the sex or all tillahiej," which 
is a buruiug disgrace and fearful curse to the whole coun- 
try, and by the speedy extinction of which, alone, can 
the land be saved from violence, blood, and utter demor- 
alization. 

In behalf of the Executive Committee of the American 
Anti-Slavery Society. 

\\ M. LLOYD GARRISON, President. 

Wendell Phillips, 1 o.___,._i_. 

Charles C. BuBLEion, ] Secretaries. 

tJl'"* Editors of newspapers are respectfully requested 
to copy the above. 2t nov 2 



98 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN 

UNION. The Dedicatory Exercises at the New Rooms 
of the Young Men's Christian L'Dion, Mercantile Build- 
ing, l>i Summer street, will take place on WEDNESDAY 
EVENING, Nov. 2, commencing at half-past seven o'clock. 

The public is respectfully invited. 

W. L. P. BOARDMAX, President. 

S. G. Stbdley*, Secretary. 3t oct 31 



LATEST NEWS. 

In the Legislature yesterday, l lit- »"rk of r 'vising the 
statutes «a» advanced us far as it could !•<• In tin- 
House, the time was occupied with the di.-oussinu i-i Mr. 
Griffin's right to" a seat. The House voted to sustain Mr. 
Griffin's right, and he accordingly remain*. 

The investigation into the aftVrs of the State Liquor 
Agency was continued yesterday. It appears lit the tes- 
timony of the chief clerk of the Agency that Mr. Ilurn- 
haiu was not cognizant of the transaction with leltou & 
Co., and that the article received \> as analysed and pro' 
Bounced pure. 

The lecture of Mr. Thoreau, reported in ourcolumns 
this uioruiug. prceuts the views of a fanatic in relation 
to John Brown's Virginia War. and. as lui^ht be expect- 
ed, tin \ an extreme enough. 

The telegraph reports a disastrous conflagration, which 
debtrojed a large portion of the town of Mariana, in 
Florida. 

We have our files of fr reign papers by the Nova Sco- 
tian, but they contain nothing additional or inter- 
esting. 

It is rumored about town that the Whig State Central 
Committee has had another resurrection 

An excursion train on the Northwestern Itailroad. from 
Fondu Lac, Wisconsin, bound to Chicago, run upon an 
ox and was thrown from the track, near Watt-rtown, yes- 
terday. Eight persons were killed and others mangled. 
The traiu consisted of thirteen cars, hilled with passen- 
gers. 

The trial of the Virginia insurrectionists continues. 
Coppie w.is first arraigned, and the testimony was sub- 
stantially the same as that agatn«t Brown, though put in 
more brietly. The legal public will be edified with the 
developments respecting \ irgiuia law. as stated by Mr. 
Hunter Cook warn- I an examination before the justices 

The news from Washington is interesting. 

The Aragn has arrived at New York, but with dates no 
later than the Nova Scotian. 



fraternity Lecture*. 

"Cmpt. J •»■ Br* w B •(* On»w*ll*»l«." 
BT HENRY D THOREAU 



PhooofrapsdcaUy Reported Ibr The A ties and DaVy Be*. 

The lecturer origtnall v announced Ibr last evening, in 
Aw Fraternity Course, was Frederick Douglas. Charles 
W Slack, Esq., appeared before the audience to apologise 
Ibr Mr. Douglas' absence. At a late hoar on Monday, a 
message had been received from him, at a point which 
need not be mentioned, and imparting intelligence wliich 
could not properly be dlwk»*d. In this communication 
Mr Douglas expressed hla regret that the fulfilment of 
his engagement to lector* was not in his power. A ftce- 
man, Mr. Slack continued, by right of taking that which 
to him belonged, as well as by purchase, a cltia n of the 
Empire State. Frederick Douglas would not. that night, 
bo sats in the city of Boston. However differently the 
audi. neesnl^bt view the recent events in the South, 
there were few present who did not honor the manly bra- 
»ery of John Brown, in this hour of his deep distress 
If they had not one with them who, many think, was 
engaged In the scheme of Brown, they hud oue who sym- 
pathized with him lu his enterprise— Henry D. Thoreau, 
of Concord. 



Mr. Thoreau commenced by aaying that he did not wish 
to force his thougnts upon the audience, but he felt 
toned himself to speak. Little a* he knew of Captain 
Brown, he would fain do his part to correct the tone of 
the newspapers . and of the country generally, respecting 
his character. We can at least express eur admiration of 
and sympathy with hira and hi* companions, and this it 
wa» that the lecturer proposed to do. 

First, of his history. His grandfather, John Brown, 
was an officer In the Revolution. He himself was born in 
Connecticut, about the beginning of this century, but 
early went, with his father, to Ohio. His father was a 
contractor, who furnished beef to the army there, in the 
war of is 12 John Brown accompanied his father to the 
camp, and assisted him in his employment, seeing consid- 
erable of u Hilary life— more, perhaps, than if he had been 
a soldier, for he was often present at the councils of the 
officers. He learned by experience how armies are sup- 
plied and maintained in the field. ' He saw enough of mil- 
itary life to disgust him with it, and to excite in him a 
great abhorrence of it. Thought tempted by the offer of 
some petty office in the army, wtun about eighteen, he 
not only declined to accept this, but refused to train, and 
was fined iu consequence. He then resolved that he 
would j have nothing to do with any war unless It were a 
war for liberty. When <the struggle began in Kansas, he 
sent several sons there io help the Free State party, tell- 
ing them that if there were Deed he would follow and as- 




may be in some respects compared, were rangers in a far 
lower and lese important field than he. They could face 
their country 's foes; he faced his country herself, when 
•he was wrong. He did not go to lUrvar 1 He waa not 
fed ou the pap that is there furnished. As he phrased it. 
"I know no more grammar than auy of your calves." 
But he went to the University of the Went, where he 
studied the science of liberty. And having taken his de- 
gree*, he li uaily commenced the public practice of human- 
ity in Kansas. Such were his humanities — he would have 
k ft a Greek accent slanting the wrong way, and righted 
up a falling man. He »aa a Puritan, and that was not 
so strange, for some of the Puritans once settled in Amer- 
ica. It would be vain to kill him , he died in the time of 
Cromwell, but he re-appearcd here. In his camp be per- 
mitted no profanity. No man of loose morals was suffered 
to remain there , except aa prisoner of war. " I would 
rather,'' aays he, " have the small pox, yellow fever, and 
cholera, together, than a man without principle." 
It is a mistake that our people make, when they 
think that bullies are the best fighters, or the men to 
oppose these Southerners. Give me Uod-fcaring men, 
who respect themselves, and with a doxen of them I will 
oppose a hundred such men as these Buford ruffians ' 
If a man boasted, he had little confidence in him. He 
had prayer* in his camp, morning and evening. He waa 
a man of Spartan habits. At table, he would excuse him- 
self, saying he must eat sparingly and live bard, aa a man 
must who would fit himself for a life of action and ex- 
posure, and tor great enterprises. He waa, above all, a 
Transcendentalist, a man of ideas and principles, not 
yielding to a mere transient Impulse, but carrying out 
the purpose of a life. He waa a man accustomed to speak 
within bounds,— a volcano with an ordinary chimney -flue. 
Aa an illustration of this, of certain border-ruffian* he 
•aid, simply, " They had a perfect right to be hung." 
His simplicity made him appear incomparably strong, and 
In Its presence eloquence seamed at a discount. 

As to his tact and prudence— when scarcely a man from 
the Free States could enter Kansas without molestation, 
be, with what weapons he could collect, slowly drove an 
ox-cart through Missouri, apparently as a surveyor. 
When, In Kansas, he saw a knot of the Ruffians, on the 
prairie, discussing the^oplo which then engrossed their 
their thoughts, he would take his compass,and one of his 
sons, and proceed to run an Imaginary line right through 
the spot where the conclave was assembled. On coming 
up with them, he would have some talk, and, having 
learned their plans, and thus completed his real survey, 
he would proceed to finish his imaginary one. As to his 
recent failure, it must be remembered that we do not 
know the facta about It. His enemy, Mr. Yallandlngham, 
said It was one of the best planned conspiracies that ever 
failed. Bid it show want of good management to deliver 
a down human beings, as he did, walking leisurely with 
them from one State to another, the government BaaWatl 
not lenient, but afraid of htm? 

But to make haste, said the lecturer, to his last act, and 
its effects. The newspapers seem really ignorant of the 
fact that there are at least two or three Individuals to a 
town, throughout the North, who think much as the 
speaker did. about Brown and his enterprise. It may be 
true that ouly seventeen wuite men and live negroes were 
concerned in the enterprise. But the anxiety exhibit- 
ed to show this may convince us that all is not told. 
They are so anxious, because of a dim consciousness of a 
fact which they do not distinctly confess, that at least a 
million of the free inhabitants of the United States, not 
privy to this attempt, would have rejoiced if it had suc- 
ceeded. If any one who has seen him here can pursue, 
successfully, any other train of thought, I do not know, 
said the lecturer, what he is mode of I put a piece of 
paper and a pencil under my pillow, and when I caunot 
sleep. I write in the dark. The lecturer's respect for his 
fellow-men was not being increased in these days. 
The fate of this man is ordinarily spoken of as if a com- 
mon criminal, with only the redeeming quality of being, 
as Gov. Wise, in the language of the cock-pit. calls him, 
''thegauicst man' alive, had been apprehended. When 



99 



(lev. Wise thought lie looked so brave, he was not think- 
inii of his foes. One neighbor of the speaker said, "lie 
died as the fool dieth." which suggested a likeness be- 
tween his doing ami his neighbor's living. Others dis- 
paragingly said, he threw his life away. How do these 
men throw thtir life away ' Another asks, "What will he 
gain !" as if lie expected to til) his pockets! He will not 
"gaiu" anything by it. for he could not get four-and- 
sixpuncc a day ior being hung, take the year round: but 
lie gets a considerable chance to save his soul — and such 
a soul ! — and you do not. No doubt you can get more in 
your market for a c|uart of milk than a quart of blo<d; 
but such is not the market that heroes carry their blood 
to When you plant or bury a hero, a crop of heroes is 
sure to spring up. The momentary charge at Balaklava 
has been celebrated by a poet-laureate. But the steady, 
and for the most part successful charge of this man. for 
years, against the legions of slavery, is as much more 
memorable than that, as an intelligent and conscientious 
man is superior to a machine. Bo you think that that 
will go unsung? 

'• Served him right— a dangerous man ! He is undoubt- 
edly insane.' 

So they proceed to live their sane and wise and altogeth- 
er admirable lives, reading their Plutarch a little, but 
chiefly studying that feat of Putnam, who was let down 
in a wolfs den ; and in this wise nourish themselves for 
brave and patriotic deeds, some time or other. But the 
foes we have to meet are in our midst and all about us. 
There is hardly a house but is divided against itself; for 
our foe is the want of vitality in man, whence are begot- 
ten fear, sloth, superstition, persecution, slavery of all 
kinds. We are mere figure-heads upon a hulk. The curse 
of the times is the worship of idols, which at last changes 
the worshipper himself into a stone image. This man was 
an exception ; for he did not even set up a political graven 
image between hiuvand his (Sod. Our modern Christian- 
ity is lifeless. All the modern Christian's prayers begin 
with " Now I lay me down to sleep," and he is always 
looking forward to his " long rest." He shows the whites 
of his eyes on the Sabbath, and the blacks all the rest of 
theweek. Many, no doubt, are well disposed? but slug- 
gish by constitution and habit; and they cannot conceive 
of a man actuated by higher motive* than they are. Ae* 
rordlngly ,tbey pronounce this man insane ; for they know 
they never could have done as he does, as long as they are 
themselves. We dream of other countries and times, 
placing them at a distance ; but let some significant event 
occur in our midst, and we discover this distance and 
strangeness between us and our nearest neighbors. Our 
crowded society becomes well-spaced all at once — a city of 
megnifleent distances. 

I read, said Mr. Thoreau, all the newspapers I [could 
get, the week after this event ; and 1 do not remember a 
single expression of sympathy for these men. I have 
since seen one noble statement, not editorial, in the 
Allot an'l I>e. Some voluminous sheets decided not 
to print Brown's words, to the exclusion of other matter. 
It was as if a publisher should reject the manuscript of 
the New Testament, and print Wilson's last speech. The 
same journal which contained this was chiefly Abed, in 
parallel columns, with the reports of political conven- 
tions. They should at least have been printed separately, 
In an extra. To turn from the words and deeds of earnest 
men to the cackling of politic «1 conventions!. 

But it was not so much to what the newspapers have 
omitted, that he objected, as to what they have inserted. 
Even the Ltbtrator called it a misguided, wild, and appa- 
rently insane effort. As for the herd of papers and mag- 
azines, he did not know of one in the country which 
would print anything that would ultimately and perma- 
nently reduce the number of its subscriber*. How, then, 
can they print truth ' A man doe* a brave ind human* 
deed, and we bear parties on all sides crying "I did n't 
help him to do It, or in any way countenance it." Tbey 
need not take so much pains to wash their skirts of him — 
no Intelligent person will ever be convinced th&t he was 



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him. He could not have been tried by his peers, became 
his peert did not exist. 

As tor the Democratic journals, they are not human 
enough, the lecturer said, to affect me at all. I do not 
feel indlguation at anything; they may say. 

I wonld rather see the statue of Captain Brown in 
front of our Massachusetts State House, than that of 
any other man that I koow. I rejoice that I live in this 
•ire. that I am his contemporary. Insane' A father, 
and six sons, and one son-in-law, and several more men. 
beside at least twelve disciples, all struck with infinity 
at once t J ust at Insane were his efforts in Kansas. Auk 
the tyrant who is the most dangerous foe, the sane man 
or the Insane. Such a word as insane is a mere trope 
with those who persist In using it, and I have no do.bt 
that many of them, in silence, have already retraced 
their words. Read his admirable answers to Mason, and 
others. How they are dwarfed and defeated by the con- 
trast! On the one side, half brutish, half timid ques- 
tioning, on the other, truth, clear as lightning, crashing 
into their obsoene temples. They are made to stand as 
Pilate, and Oesler, and the Inquisition. 

Probably all the speeches of all the men whom 
Massachasetts has sent to Congress for the last fowl 
yeam, do not match, for manly directness and force, and* 
for simple truth, the few casual remarks of John Brown 
on the floor of the Harper's Ferry engine-house — that 
man whom yon are about to send to the other world — 
though not to represent you there. He is too fair a speci- 
men of a man to represent the like of us. Who, then, 
were his constituents? Read his words, understanding!)', 
and you will find out. In his case there is no idle elo- 
quence. Truth is his iosplrer, and earnestness the pol- 
isher of his sentences. He could afford the loss of his 
Sharp's rifles, while he retained the faculty of speech— a 
rifle of far strahjhter sight and longer range. It in a re- 
lief to turn from the slanders against him to the testimo- 
ny of his enemies. Mr. Thoreau here quoted from the 
published remarks of Gov. Wise, Col. Washington, and 
Bfr.VaUandingham, In praise of Brown's evident integrity, 
and heroism. 



100 



This ev^nt, the lecturer considered, Is a touchstone to 
bring out with distinctness the character of this govern- 
ment. When a government puts forth its strength on 
the side of injustice, it reveals Itself a merely brute 
force, or worse, a demoniacal force. It Is the head of the 
Plug Uglies. He saw this government to be fairly allied 
with France and Austria, in oppressing mankind. It 
says, Cease agitation on the subject of slavery, or I will 
make a slave of you, or hang you. The only government 
he recognises is the power that establishes justice In the 
land. Treason? Where does such treason take its rise? 
You presume to contend with a Foe against whom West 
Point cadets and rifled cannon point not. 

The lecturer proceeded to denounce the government, at 
much length, and to charge upon Massachusetts complic- 
ity in its worst crimes. He defended Brown from the im- 
putation of folly in undertaking his enterprise with so 
few assistants. Would we bare the good and the brave 
wait, for action, till they are in the majority? His com- 
pany was small simply because few could be found worthy 
to pass muster. Each was a picked man, culled out of 
thousands, if not of millions. Surely they were the best 
men you could select to be hung. That is the greatest 
compliment this country could pay them. It was Brown's 
doctrine thai we have a right to interfere, by force, with 
the slaveholders, to rescue the slave. The lecturer agreed 
with him. A true man would not be at much shocked by 
the death of the slaveholder as by his life. Forever to 
talk against slavery, and never to act, Is futile and foolish, 
unless a man were continually inspired. The question It 
not about the weapon, but the spirit In which yon use It. 
No man has yet appeared In America who loved hit fel- 
low-man so well, and treated them so well. For him he 
took up htt life ; for him he will lay It down. 

Thlt event advertises us that there la suoh a thing as 
death. There has been, before, no death in America, for 
there has been no life. Men have only rotted and 
'sloughed off as they rotted and sloughed along. The best 
only run down like a clock. They say they will die. I 
defy them; they cannot do it; they only deliquesce, 
and leave a hundred eulogists mopping up the spot 



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572.31 the precept "Write with fury, and correct with flegm"] Cognate with: 
"Marry in haste and repent at leisure"— common since it appeared in John Ray's 
English Proverbs (1670). I have not been able to locate an example in Thoreau's 
vocabulary. 

579.9 Tophet is his dwelling place.] The desecrated valley of Hinnom outside 
Jerusalem, sometimes called the Valley of Gehenna. See Isaiah 30:33; Jeremiah 
19:6; and the "Gehenna of fire" of Matthew 5:22. 

579.17 It is his condition that determines his locality. The principal, the 
only thing a man makes is his condition, or fate.] Cf. Milton's Paradise Lost, 
Book I, lines 254-255: "The mind is its own place, and in itself / Can make a 
Heav'n of Hell, a hell of Heav'n." Cf. Marlowe's Dr. Faustus. Scene iii, lines 
79-80: Faustus : How comes it then that thou art out of hell? / Meoh . Why, this 
is hell, nor am I out of it. For the rich Swedenborgian dimension of Thoreau* s 
lines, see Emerson the Essayist. I, 232 et passim and my "Emerson and Swedenbor- 
gism: A Study Outline and Analysis," E S a. no. 10 (i Guar. 1958), pp. 14-20. 

580.13 Why do you ever mend your clothes, unless.. .you may mend your ways?] 
Cf. Sartor Resartus and chapter one of Walden . 

585.15 your two speeches on the Hyatt case] See Charles Sumner, Usurpation 
of the Senate in Imprisoning a Citizen . Two Speeches. ..on the Imprison ment of 
Thaddeus Hyatt for refusing to testify in the Harper's Ferry Investigation, in. 



101 
the Senate , March 12 and June 15 . 1860 . Washington, 1860. 

585.16 two Patent Office Reports on Agriculture] See Walter Harding, 
Thoreau's Library , p. 95. 

585.17 your speech on the Barbarism of Slavery] See The Barbarism of 
Slavery .. .Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner , on the Bill for the Admission of 
Kansas as a Free State . In the United States Senate . June 4. 1860 . Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1860. 

591.27 Audubon & Bachman give "soles hairy"] See John James Audubon 
and John Bachman, The Quadrupeds of North America . N.Y., 1851. (In Thor- 
eau' s library) . 

592.2 Emmons (in the Massachusetts' Reports)] Massachusetts: Zoolo- 
gical and Botanical Survey. Reports on the Herbaceous Plants and on the 
Quadrupeds of Massachusetts , [by Chester Dewey and Ebenezer Emmons], Cam- 
bridge, 1840. 

592.12 I obtained a copy of Bairds ' "Mammals"] See Spencer Fullerton 
Baird, Catalogue of North American Mammals , chiefly in the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution . Washington, D.C., 1857. 

596.23 true mt. hospitality — kill the fatted cloud] Allusion to the 
"fatted calf" of Luke 15:23-30. 

597.11 I suppose the tune was "Excelsior." A possible reference to 
Longfellow's poem by that title, first published in Ballads and Other 
Poems (1841). 

598.28 None of your .lust made perfect — pickled eels!] See Hebrews 
12 :22-23— "But ye are come unto mount Sion...to the general assembly and 
church of the firstborn. . .and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits 
of just men made perfect." 

59 8.33 You looked into the land of promise.] The Land of Canaan. See 
Hebrews 11:9. 

603o5 "Heywood's New England Gazeteer Concord, New Hampshire, 1839."] 
John Hayward, The New England Gazetteer . (4th ed.) Concord, N.H., and 
Boston, Mass., 1839. (Copy in the Boston Athenaeum). 

608.12 We must "bear and forbear" with each other.] See Epictetus: 
"If anyone will take these two words to heart and use them for his own 
guidance and regulation, he will be almost without sin and lead a very 
peaceful life. These two words are bear and forbear." Quoted by Aulus 
Gellius in Noctes Atticae . Book XVII, epistle 19, section 6. 

611.12 you are "an angel of light" .. .pondering over the deeds of dark- 
ness] See 2 Cor. 11:14 — "And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed 
into an angel of light." Cf. "children of light" as opposed to "children 
of darkness" in 1 Timothy 5:5j Ephesians 5:8; Luke 16:8; and John 12:36, 

611.20 Blessed are they who never read a newspaper, for they shall 
see Nature, and through her, God.] A parody of the Beatitudes in Matt. 
5:1-12. 

611.24 I am reading Herodotus] Probably Herodotus , a New and Literal 
Version . From the text of Baehr . By Henry Cary, London (Bonn) 1854. 



102 

611.25 Strabo] The Geography of Strabo . Literally translated , with 
notes. The First Six Books by Hans Claude Hamilton; the remainder by 
William Falconer, (3 vols.) London (Bonn), 1854-1857. 

611.25 Blodget's Climatology] See Lorin Blodget, Climatology of the 
United States , and of the Temperate Latitudes of the North American Con - 
tinent , Philadelphia, 1857. 

611.25 Six Years in the Deserts of North America] The only title I 
have discovered that approximates this one is: Joseph Robson, An Account 
of Six Years' Residence in Hudson's Bay , from 1755 to 1736 . and 1744 to 
1747 . London, 1752. 

612.27 So we are making merry & living while we can ] This Epicurean 
note appears in Luke 12:19. 

615.7 I think " Burnt N.jal " good & believe it to be genuine.] Nja'la: 
The Story of Burnt N.jal; or Life in Iceland at the End of the Tenth Cen - 
tury , tr . from the Icelandic by George Webbe Dasent, ( 2 vols. ) Edinburgh, 
1861. 

615.8 "Hast thou not heard (says Steinrora to Thangbrand how Thor 
challenged Christ to single combat] See The Story of Burnt N.jal . ed . cit . . 
II, p. 72. 

615.10 When Gunnar brandishes his sword three swords are seen in air.] 
Ibid., I, 60. The quotation continues: "...and he smote so swiftly with 
his sword, that three seemed to flash through the air at once." 

615.11 The account of Ospah & Brodir & Brians battle. . .only histori- 
cal account] Ospak the Viking appears in chapter CLVI ("Brian's Battle"). 
See II, 535-343. 

613.15 I place little trust in OHallorans authority] Possibly Sylves- 
ter O'Halloran, A General History of Ireland from the Earliest Accounts to 
the Close of the Twelfth Century . (2 vols.) London, 1778. 

615.15 Darwin's origin of species... is a move in the right direction.] 
Charles Robert Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selec - 
tion , or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life . Lon- 
don, 1859. 

615.19 The book of the season is DeChaillu's Central Africa with ac- 
counts of the Gorilla ] See Paul Belloni Du Chaillu, Explorations and Ad - 
ventures in Equatorial Africa ; with accounts of the Manners and Customs 
of the People , and of the Chase of the Gorilla .. .and other Animals , N.Y., 
1861; also London, 1861. 

615.24 you have seen Sir Emerson Tennent's Ceylon] Sir James Emerson 
Tennent, Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon . London, 1861. 

615.27 a foreign Hamlet. . .Mr Fechter. . . the best actor in the wbrld. . . 
Goethe's idea. ..in the Wilhelm Meister] Charles Albert Fechter (1824- 
1879), born in London. Concerning his interpretation of Hamlet , see 
George C. D. Odell, Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving . (2 vols.) N.Y., 
1920, II, 255; 558-560. 

621.6 reminded of the last letter or two in the Voyages of the Baron 
la Hontan..."La Riviere Longue" .. .regarded as pure fiction] Thoreau bor- 



103 

rowed from Harvard on Feb. 2, 1852: Louis Armand de Lorn d'Arce, baron 
Lahontan, Voyages du Baron de La Hontan dans 1 'Amerique Septentrionale , 
qui contiennent une relation des differens peuples qui y habitent etc . , 
(2 vols, in 1) Amsterdam, 1705. 

635.4 the magazine which I loaned you... (The Continental) J See The 
Continental Monthly , I, no. 1 (Jan., 1862). It was actually distributed 
in December, 1861, founded by James Roberts G-ilrnore and edited by Charles 
Godfrey Leland. The first number contained Delia M. Colton's article, 
"Ralph Waldo Emerson," on pages 49-62. For Emerson's reaction to it, see 
"A Sheaf of Emerson Letters," American Literature . XXIV, no. 4 (Jan., 1953), 
p. 477. For Miss Colton's article itself, see my Emerson . Thoreau and 
Concord in Early Newspapers . Hartford, 1958, pp. 264-271. 

641.11 verses... in Conway's "Dial"... by F. B. Sanborn] The Dial . 
founded and published in Cincinnati by Moncure Daniel Conway in 1860, was 
short— lived. Sanborn's verses, "Walden Woods" and "Walden Water," ap- 
peared on pages 101-102 of the only volume issued. 

642.34 you are heralded in the Atlantic for April .. .under the head of 
"Forester"] See Amos Bronson Alcott's "The Forester," Atlantic Monthly . 
IX, no. 54 (April, 1862), pp. 443-445. 



THE FORESTER. 



Then bleas thy secret growth, nor catch 

At noise, but thrive unseen and dumb, 
Keep clean, bear fruit, earn life, and watch 

Till the white-winged reapers come. — IUnrt Vioaius. 



I had never thought of knowing a 
nian so thoroughly of the country as this 
friend of mine, and so purely a son of 
Nature. Perhaps he has the profoundest 
passion for it of any one living ; and had 
the human sentiment been as tender from 
the first, and as pervading, we might 
have had pastorals of which Virgil and 
Theocritus would have envied him the 
authorship, had they chanced to be his 
contemporaries. As it is, he has come 
nearer the antique spirit than any of our 
native poets, and touched the fields and 
groves and streams of his native town 
with a classic interest that shall not fade. 
Some of his verses are suffused with an ele- 
giac tenderness, as if the woods and fields 
bewailed the absence of their forester, and 
murmured their griefs meanwhile to-one 
another, — responsive like idyls. Living 
in close companionship with Nature, his 
Muse breathes the spirit and voice of 
poetry; his excellence lying herein: for 
when the heart is once divorced from the 
tenses and all sympathy with common 
tilings, then poetry has fled, and the love 
that >ings. 

The most weleome of companions, this 
plain countryman, One shall not meet 
with thoughts invigorating like his of- 
ten : coining so scented of mountain and 
field breezes and rippling springs, so 
like a luxuriant clod from under forest- 
leaven, moist and mossy with earth-spir- 



its. His presence is tonic, like ice-wa- 
ter in dog -days to the parched citizen 
pent in chambers and under brazen ceil- 
ings. Welcome as the gurgle of brooks, 
the dripping of pitchers, — then drink 
and be cool ! He seems one with things, 
of Nature's essence and core, knit of 
strong timbers, most like a wood and 
its inhabitants. There are in him sod 
and shade, woods and waters manifold, 

the mould and mist of earth and sky. 
Self-poised and sagacious as any denizen 
of the elements, he has the key to every 
animal's brain, every plant, every shrub; 
and were an Indian to (lower forth, and 
reveal the secrets hidden in his cranium, 
it would not be more surprising than the 
speech of our Sylvanus. He must be- 
long to the Homeric age, — is older than 
pastures and gardens, as if he were of 
the race of heroes, and one with the el- 
ements. He, of all men, seems to be 
the nativo New-Englander, as much so 
as the oak, the granite ledge, our best 
sample of an indigenous American, un- 
touched by the Old Country, unless he 
came down from Thor, the Northman ; 
as yet unfathered by any, and a non- 
descript in the books of natural history. 
A peripatetic philosopher, and out of 
doors for the best parts of his days and 
nights, he has manifold weather and sea- 
sons in him, and the manners of an ani- 
mal of probity and virtues unstained. Of 



our moralists he seems the wholesomest ; 
and the best republican citizen in the 
world, — always at home, and minding his 
own affairs. Perhaps a little over- con- 
fident sometimes, and stilllv individual, 
dropping society clean out of his theories, 
while standing friendly in his strict sense 
of friendship, there is in him an integrity 
and sense of justice that make possible 
and actual the virtues of Sparta and the 
Stoics, and all the more welcome to us 
in these times of shuttling and of pusilla- 
nimity. Plutarch would have made him 
immortal in his pages, had he lived before 
his day. Nor have we any so modern as 
he, — his own and ours ; too purely so to bo 
appreciated at once. A scholar by birth- 
right, and an author, his lame has not yet 
travelled far from the banks of the rivers 
he has described in his books ; but I haz- 
ard only the truth in affirming of his 
prose, that in substance and sense it sur- 
passes that of any naturalist of his time, 
and that he is sure of a reading in the fu- 
ture. There are fairer fishes in his pages 
than any now swimming in/our streams, 
and some sleep of his on the banks of the 
Merrimack by moonlight that Egypt nev- 
er rivalled ; a morning of which Rlcm- 
non might have envied the music, and 
a greyhound that was meant for Ado- 
nis ; some frogs, too, better than any of 
Aristophanes. Perhaps we have had no 
eyes like his since Pliny's time. His 



senses seem double, giving him access to 
secrets not easily read by other men : 
his sagacity resembling that of the beaver 
and the bee, the dog and the deer; an 
instinct for seeing and judging, as by some 
Other or seventh sense, dealing with ob- 
jects as if they were shooting forth from 
his own mind mythologically, thus com- 
pleting Nature all round to his senses, 
and a creation of his at the moment I 
am sure he knows the animals, one by 
one, and everything else knowable in our 
town, and has named them rightly as 
Adam did in Paradise, if he be not that 
ancestor himself. His works are pieces 
of exquisite sense, celebrations of Nature's 
virginity, exemplified by rare learning 
and original observations. Persistently in- 
dependent and manly, he criticizes men 
and times largely, urging and defending 
his opinions with the spirit and pertinaci- 
ty befitting a descendant of him of the 
Hammer. A head of mixed genealogy 
like his, Franco-Norman crossed by Scot- 
tish and New-England descent, may be 
forgiven a few characteristic peculiar- 
ities and trenchant traits of thinking, 
amidst his great common sense and fidel- 
ity to the core of natural things. Sel- 
dom has a head circumscribed so much 
of the sense of Cosmos as this footed intel- 
ligence, — nothing less than all out-of- 
doors sufficing his genius and scopes, 
and, day by day, through all weeks and 
seasons, the year round. 

If one would find the wealth of wit 
there is in this plain man, the informa- 
tion, the sagacity, the poetry, the piety, 
let him take a walk with him, say of a 
winter's afternoon, to the Blue Water, or 
anywhere about the outskirts of his village- 
residence. Pagan as he shall outwardly 
appear, yet he soon shall be seen to be 
the hearty worshipper of whatsoever is 
sonnd and wholesome in Nature, — a piece 
of russet probity and sound sense that she 
delights to own and honor. His talk shall 
be suggestive, subtile, and sincere, un- 
der as many masks and mimicries as the 
shows he passes, and as significant, — Na- 
ture choosing to speak through her chosen 
mouth-piece, — cynically, perhaps, some- 
times, and searching into the marrows of 
men and times he chances to speak of, 
to his discomfort mostly, and avoidance. 
Nature, poetry, life, — not politics, not 
strict science, not society as it is, — are 
his preferred themes: the new Pantheon, 
probably, before he gets far, to the nam- 
ing of the gods some coining Angelo, some 
Pliny, is to paint and describe. The world 
is holy, the things seen symbolizing the 
Unseen, and worthy of worship so, the 
Zoroastrian rites most becoming a nature 



104 



so fine as ours in this thin newness, this 
worship being so sensible, so promotive 
of possible pieties, — calling us out of 
doors and under the firmament, where 
health and wholesomeness are finely in- 
sinuated into our souls, — not as idolaters, 
but as idealists, the seekers of the Un- 
seen through images of the Invisible. 

I think his religion of the most prim- 
itive type, and inclusive of all natural 
creatures and things, even to " the spar- 
row that falls to the ground," — though 
never by shot of his, — and, for whatso- 
ever is manly in man, his worship may 
compare with that of the priests and he- 
roes of pagan times. Nor is he false to 
these traits under any guise, — worship- 
ping at unbloody altars, a favorite of the 
Unseen, Wisest, and Host. Certainly he 
is better poised and more nearly self-reli- 
ant than other men. 

Perhaps he deals best with matter, 
properly, though very adroitly with mind, 
with persons, as he knows them best, and 
sees them from Nature's circle, wherein 
he dwells habitu ally. I should say he 
inspired the sentiment of love, if, indeed, 
the sentiment he awakens did not seem 
to partake of a yet purer sentiment, were 
that possible, — but nameless from its ex- 
cellency." Friendly he is, and holds his 
friends by bearings as strict in their ten- 
derness and consideration as are the laws 
of his thinking, — as prompt and kind- 
ly equitable, — neighborly always, and 
as apt for occasions as he is strenuous 
against meddling with others in things 
not his. 

I know of nothing more creditable to 
his greatness than the thoughtful regard, 
approaching to reverence, by wliich he 
has held for many years some of the best 



persons of his time, living at a distance, 
and wont to make their annual pilgrim- 
age, usually on foot, to the master, — a 
devotion very rare in these times of per- 
sonal indifference, if not of confessed un- 
belief in persons and ideas. 

He has been less of a housekeeper than 
most, has harvested more wind and storm, 
sun and sky ; abroad night and day with 
his leash of keen scents, hounding any 
game stirring, and running it down, for 
certain, to be spread on the dresser of his 
page, and served as a feast to the sound 
intelligences, before he has done with it. 
We have been accustomed to consider him 
the salt of things so long that they must 
lose their savor without his to season 
them. And when he goes hence, then 
Pan is dead, and Nature ailing through- 
out. 

His friend sings him thus, with the ad- 
vantages of his Walden to show him in 
Nature : — 

" It is not far beyond the Village church, 
After we pass the wood that skirts the road, 
A Lake,— the blue-eyed Walden, that doth 

smile 
Most tenderly upon its neighbor Pines; 
And they, as if to recompense this love, 
In double beauty spread their branches 

forth. 
This Lake has tranquil loveliness and 

breadth, 
And, of late years, has added to its charms ; 
For one attracted to its pleasant edge 
Has built himself a little Hermitage, 
Where with much piety he passes life. 



" More fitting place I cannot fancy now, 
For such a man to let the line run off 
The mortal reel, — such patience hath the 

Lake, 
Such gratitude and cheer is in the Pines. 
Hut more than either lake or forest's depths 
This man has in himself: a tranquil man, 
With sunny sides where well the fruit is 

ripe, , 

Good front and resolute bearing to this life, 
And some serener virtues, which control 
This rich exterior prudence, — virtues high, 
That in the principles of Things are set, 
Great by their nature, and consigned to him, 
Who, like a faithful Merchant, docs account 
To God for what he spends, and in what 

way. 
Thrice happy art thou, Walden, in thyself ! 
Such purity is in thy limpid springs, — 
In those green shores which do reflect in 

thee, 
And in this man who dwells upon thy edge, 
A holy man within a Hermitage. 
May all good showers fall gently into thee, 
May thy surrounding forests long be spared, 
And may the Dweller on thy tranquil marge 
There lead a life of deep tranquillity, 
Pure as thy Waters, handsome as thy Shores, 
And with those virtues which are like the 

Stars!" 



105 

643 4 "Footnotes from the page of Nature...." By Rev. Hugh Macmillan] 
See Hugh Macmillan, Footnotes from the Page of Nature ; or , First Forms of 
Vegetation. . .With Illustrations , Cambridge, 1861 o 

648.25 the spirit shall survive the earthly tabernacle of clay] Cf. 
the language of 2 Cor. 5:1 — "For we know that, if our earthly house of 
this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not 
made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

649.1 "It must be so — Plato, thou reasonest well:- 

Else, whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire, 
This longing after immortality."] 
See Joseph Addison, Cato . V.i.1-3. 

649.5 "The soul's dark cottage, battered, and decayed...."] See 
Edmund Waller, "Of the Last Verses in the Book" (1645), lines 13-18. 

650.5 the great Shepherd. .. "tempers the wind to the shorn lamb"] 
"God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb" is quoted in Laurence Sterne's 
A Sentimental Journey , chapter "Maria." For its many precursors and 
variants, see Burton Stevenson, The Home Book of Quotations , (3rd ed.) 
N.Y., 1937, p. 789. 

651.19 Concord has found a new voice... a literary journal y'clept 
"The Monitor"] Albert Stacy was the publisher, and S. Ripley Bartlett 
was manager. No editor's name was given. For Thoreauviana in this new 
work, see my "Thoreau, Parker, and Emerson's 'Mousetrap' in The Monitor 
(1862)," Emerson Society Quarterly , no. 7 (II Quarter 1957), pp. 42-46. 

651 a 30 is not Emerson wrong in his interpretation of the whistle of 
the Chickadee as "Phoebe"?] See Emerson's "The Titmouse," Works . IX, 
233-236 especially lines 93-94 on page 236. 




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Publishers' Bulletin. 



III. 

SOUTHERN NOTES FOR NATIONAL CIRCULA- 
TION. Edited by James Redpath. Boston : Thayer 
8c Eldridge, 114 and 116 Washington Street. A hand- 
some pamphlet of 132 pages. Price 25 cents. 

This is a volume otfacti of recent Southern life, as narrated by the 
Southern and Metropolitan press. It is not too much to say that, next to 
Charles Sumner's Speech, it is the most unanswerable and exhaustive im- 
peachment of the Slave Power that has hitherto been published. Although 
treating of different topics, it extends, completes, and strengthens the argu- 
ment of the Senator. It is a history of the Southern States for six months 
subsequent to John Brown's Invasion of Virginia. No one who has read 
Sumner's Speech should fail to procure this pamphlet. The diversity of 
its contents may be judged from the titles of its Chapters — Key Notes, 
Free Speech South, Free Press South, Law of the Suspected, Southern 
Gospel Freedom, Southern Hospitality, Post Office South, Our Adopted 
Fellow-Citizens South, Persecutions of Southern Citizens, The Shivering 
Chivalry, Sports of Heathen Gentlemen. As a manual for Anti-Slavery 
and Republican orators and editors it is invaluable. 



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ANNOTATIONS ON THOREAU'S CORRESPONDENCE 



ADDENDA 



9:23 I shall return to C. next term if they will receive me*] Immediately 
after hie return to Cambridge, Thoreau was required to participate in Harvard's 
Seeond Centennial Anniversary, observed on Thursday, September 8, 1836* The fol- 
lowing extract from the Boston Courier of September 10 will outline the events* 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1830. 



THE CliLKHRATIOI* AT CAMBRIDGE. 

TIlO SECOND CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY of the in- 
stitution of Harvard University Avas celebrated at 
Cambridge on Thursday, the Bill inst. The various 
orders of processions, and services at the meeting- 
house, as published on that day by the Committee of 
Arrangements, were carried into effect with prompt- 
ness a.nd without variation. 

At nine o'clock, the Alumni, to the number of sev- 
eral hundreds, together with the under graduates 
and gentlemen specially invited, assembled at Uni- 
versity Hall. It was gratifying to sec the cordial 
salutations of many who there met after years of se- 
paration, and the uniform smile of friendship which 
played upon the faces of all, from eighteen to eighty 
There were venerable and reverend divines, — grave 
and dignified judges, statesmen and lawyers, — learn 
ed and skilful doctors, — and intellectual men of oth 
er professions, — all of sober age, pleased with ima 
gesof the past; and there were the young and ar 
dent, looking forward to the sunny and brilliant 
scenes of the future, gazing on undiscovered worlds, 
and drawing distant landscapes to entertain the 
mind, and cheer the heart on the voyage to those 
"sweet fields" of ease and independence, " beyond 
the swelling floods," to which all, one day, hope to 
arrive. 

At ten o'clock, ^j. procession, was formed in tin' 

Chapel, in the following order : — 

Students nf the University. 

Candor Music 

Chief Marshal and Aids. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

President Qnincy and the Chaplain of the Day. 

Tile Corporation of the University. 

El-Prcsidcrtt K.rkl.uid and President Humphrey of Ainhcrst 

College. 

His Evccllencjetlie Governor and Suite. 

The Vice-Presidents of the Day. 

Senators and Representatives' in Congress. 

Judges of U. P. and State Courts and Attorney -General. 

Benefactors of the University, distinguished Strangers an I other 

Guests specially invited. 

The Overseers ol the University. ' 

Professor", Tutors, and Officers of the University. 

Gentlemen n ho have received Honorary Degrees, and who do not 

com? under any regular Class of Graduates. 

Graduates ofllieUnivcrsilv in the order of their Classes, from 

the oldest Class present, to 1836. 

Students at the Divinity School, Law School and Medical School, 

who are not included above. 

R. C. Wintiirop, Esq. acted as Chief Marshal of 

the Day, and the following gentlemen as Assistant 

Marshals. 



Epes S. Dixwell, 

E. Weston, Jr. 

E. G. Austin, 

B. R. Curtis, 

Alanson Tucker, 

R. T. S. Lowell, Esquires, 

on the part of the Alumni. 



Thomas Dwight, 

Win. Gray, 

G. W. Phillips, 

Jos. Lyman, 

D. F. Webster, and 



163 



C. C. Holmes, S. T. Hildreth, 

J. D. Haywood, B. S. Rotch, 

J. S. Terry, M. Davis, 

G. P. Sanger, A. Sonthworth, 

on the part of the Students. 
The procession, thus formed, passed through the 
principal avenues of the college square, and thence 
to the Mecting-llousc. On arriving at the door, that 
part of the procession composed of the undergradu- 
ates, opened to the right and left, while the remain- 
der passed in. The number of persons in the pro- 
cession was probably about one thousand, and filled 
the entire lower floor of the Meeting-House. 

After a voluntary on the organ, by Mr. Comer, the 
Rev. Dr. Ripley of Concord, made a solemn and fer- 
vent prayer. Thi3 gentleman was the oldest gradu- 
ate present, and was one of the class of 1776, and 
though now near ninety years of age, he spoke in a 
rich and powerful tone of voice, apparently with the 
vigor of middle age. Like the Jewish leader, " his 
eye was not cfirn, nor was his natural force abated." 
After the prayer, the following ode, written by the 
Rev. Samdel Gilman of Charleston, S. C. wassnng 
by a select choir :— 

Fur Harvard ! thy soils to 'by Jubilee throng. 

And with blessing* surrender thee o'er, 
H> these festival-rites, from the Age that is put, 

To the Ace that is waiting before. 
O Relic and Type of our ancestors' worth, 

Thou hurt long kept their memory warm ! 
First flower of their wilderness! Star of their night, 

Calm il ing through change and through storm ! 

To thy bowers we were led in the bloom of our youth, 

From the home of our free-roving years, 
When our fathers had warned, and our mothers had prayed, 

And our sisters had blessed, through their tears. 
Thou then wet our Parent, — the nurse of our souls,— 

We were moulded to manhood by thee," 
Till, freighted with treasure -thoughts/riendships, and bopes, 

Thou diaV launch us on Destiny's sea. ' 

When, as pilgrims, we come to revisit tby balls, 

To what kindlings the season gives birth ! 
Thy shades arc more soothing, thy sunlight more dear, 

Thau descend on less privileged earth : 
For the Good and the Great, in their beautiful prime, 

Through thy precincts have musingly trod, 
As they girded their spirits, or deepened the streams 

That make glad the fair City ol God. 

Farewell ! be thy destinies onward and bright ! 

To thy children the lesson still give, 
With frteilnm to think, and with piuence to bear, 

And for Right ever bravely to live. 



Let nut moss-covend Error inooriAct at Iti «ide, 

As I lift world on Truth's current (lideg by ; 
De me herald of Light, and the hearer of Love, 

Till the slock of Die Puritans die. 

Then followed the Discourse, by President Quin- 
cr ; a discourse which must have coat great labor in 
the composition, and occupied much time in the col- 
lection of facts which it embraced. The style was 
simple and concise, and well adapted to the subject, 
which was purely narrative. The discourse took a 
rapid view of the origin of the College, and the mo- 
tives which led to its foundation, with brief but inter- 
esting notices of its first private benefactor, John 
IlAiivAsn, and its first President, Henry Dunster. 
Of the first named of these time-honored individuals, 
but little is known, beyond the. dales of his arrival 
and death, and the clause in his will which has given 
immortality to his name and secured the grateful re- 
membrance of successive generations. Of Dunster, 
history is more liberal, and the detail of his services, 
sacrifices, persecutions, and sufferings, as given by 
President Quincy, were deeply -interesting, and in 
some particulars affecting. The discourse then pro- 
ceeded with historical notices of the institution, under 
the presidency of Chaunc.y, Hoar, and Mather, down 
to the early part of the last century. It would be 
impossible to present to the reader, from mere recol- 
lection of the discourse, as wc caught it from the lips 
of the speaker, any satisfactory account of its details, 
which* were striking and almost numberless. Much 
of what was written, we observed, was omitted in 
delivery, and probably the numerous pages which 
were thus passed over, arc as rich in historical notices 
as any of those which were read, and perhaps are em- 
bellished with more eloquent language and illustrated 
with more labor of investigation and rhetorical image- 
ry. We presume that the whole will he presented to 
the public in another and more enduring form, when 
they will be better able to judge of its merits and to 
estimate its value, than by these, our barren and 
meagre recollections. Though chiefly a narration, 
there were thrown into the discourse, occasionally, 
some playful touches on ancient matters, and some of 
a more serious and solemn character, that touched 
the finer sympathies of the heart. 

Toward the close of the discourse, the President 
paid a passing tribute to the departed benefactors of 
the University, and most eloquently and feelingly 
touched upon the character of CiinisToriiLR Gore — 
a gentleman, a scholar, and a patriot, whose heart 
was the scat of honor and truth, and whose name 
and fame will be forever bright and spotless. 

The discourse was followed by a prayer from the 
Rev. Dr. Homer of Newton, another, octogenarian, 
and one of the class of 1777. 

The solemn services of the day were then closed 
by the singing of the following doxology : — 

From all 1 1 a > i dwell IkIow the skies, 

Let the Creator's praise arise ; 

Lit the Redeemer's name he sunp 

Through every land, hy every tongue. 

Eternal are thy mercies, Ix>rd ; 

Eternal truth attends thy word ; 

Thy praise shall sound from shore ta shore, 

'I ill mjiis shall rise and bet no mure. 

About half an hour after the close of these servi- 
ces, a procession was formed, in the same order as 



194 

before, and proceeded to a Pavilion, erected as the 
scene of the festivities, prepared to honor the occa- 
sion. The Pavilion was placed on a portion of the 
college ground, recently purchased of the First Par- 
ish in Cambridge, and known as the parsonage es- 
tate. The spot was judiciously chosen, on a gently 
sloping surface ; and covering about 10,000 square 
feet. The centre of the Pavilion was supported by 
a spar sixty-five feet high. It was covered with can- 
vass. Radiatinj from the centre, pendants or stream- 
ers, of blue and white, were conducted to the wall in 
all directions. The posts were tastefully decorated 
with evergreens and flowers. On the lower side of 
the Pavilion, a table for the President and the more 
distinguished guests was raised so as to bring 
the persons seated at it nearly to a level with those 
on the upper side. The tables were so disposed as to 
present the appearance of an amphitheatre, and eve- 
ry one when seated could sec distinctly the President 
and face the centre of the table. Back of the Chair, 
on a white drapery, was an arch, supported by two 
columns, the whole formed of evergreens and flow- 
ers.- Between the columns was the seal of the Uni- 
versity, and on the arch was inscribed " Sept. viii. 
1836," — the devices, letters and figures all composed 
of similar materials. The tables were beautifully 
supplied with the usual ingredients of a feast. The 
constriction of the Pavilion and the accommodations 
wan \'J »,"* ! LtC under the direction of Colonel H. F. 
Baker. 

The alumni, and the guests specially invited, fill- 
ed up all the tables, except the division on the left of 
the chair, reserved for and occupied by the under 
graduates. The appearance of this division, after 
the students of the university were seated, was one 
of the pleasantest spectacles which the occasion pre- 
sented. Two hundred young gentlemen, thus assem- 
bled, displaying the bloom of health, and indicating 
in their countenances the attractive frankness and 
generosity of youth, could not fail to excite in the 
older portion of the company, emotions of pleasure, 
— the pleasures of hope and the satisfaction arising 
from confidence in the virtuous impulses of well-ed- 
ucated youth. 

Among the guests were Messrs. Webster and Da- 
vis, Senators in Congress; Messrs. Lincoln, Law- 
rence, Phillips, Jackson, Calhoun and Briggs, of our 
Representative Delegation in Congress; Judges Sto- 
ry and Davis of the United States Court, and Shaw, 
Putnam, Ward and Thacher of the Slate Courts ; 
Ex-President Kirkland, President Humphrey of Am- 
herst College, Professor Kingsley of Yale College, 
Chancellor Jones and Mr. King "of New- York, Mr. 
Lcgare and Mr. Elliott of South-Carolina, Mr. J. 
Akin of Connecticut, the Mayors of Boston and Sa- 
lem, Mr. Jeremiah Mason, Colonel Perkins, and ma- 
ny other gentlemen of Boston, and many strangers. 

His Excellency, Governor Everett, at the request 
of the Committee of Arrangcments,took the chair as 
President of the festival. On his right was seated 
President Quincy, and on the left, the Rev. Dr. Rip- 
ley. When the company were all in their places, a 
blessing was invoked by the Rev. Dr. Humphrey, 



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descriptive of the first classes in the college, when 
the senior class of three goecmed the Jrcshman class 
of one, full of wit and humor. Appropriate to an- 
other sentiment, the following was sung by the 
choir : — 

AULD LANG SYXE. 

Come youth and age, come grave and gay, 

Come all old Harvard's line, 
And pour one honest, hearty lay 

To " auld lang syne." 

CHORUS. 

To auld lang sync so dear — 

To auld lang syne — 
We'll pour one honest, hearty lay 

To auld lang syne. 

O fields of toil ! O scenes of joy ! 

O learning's living shrine ! 
O dreams, O memories of the boy ! 

O " auld lang syne !" 

CHORUS. 

We all have "run about these braes," 

And sal beneath this vine; 
And blessings on the golden days 

Of "auld lang syne !" 

CHORUS. 

Ye rooms, ye halls, yc rough old bricks, 

Ye trees, ye walks of mine ! 
How are ye hallowed by the dreams 

Of " auld lang sync." 

CHORUS. 

The clouds of care have spread above, 

Hope's star has ceased to shine, 
And seas of trouble round us flowed, 

Since " auld lang syne." 

CHORUS. 

But through the cloud, and o'er the wave, 

One. beam has cheered our mind, 
The thought of our old hearth-stone here, 

And '• aulil lang syne." 

CHORUS. 

Alanson Tucker, Jr. sung the "Carmen Sa?co- 
lare," as followeth : — 

In doodle Yankee cantandum. 
" Qui alicujua gradiks lau- 

rca donati" estis, 
Alumni spectatissimi, 
Salvcte, qui adastia. 
Nunc rite ffratulandum est, 

Ncc absinendum joco, 
Pernctis Innis sa-culis, 
Ocsipitur in loco. 

CHORUS. 

Nunc rit6 grutnlandum est, 

Nee absinendum joco, 
Peraetis bints sa cults, 

Dcsipitur in loco. 

Majorcs nostri inclyti, 

Quos vocant Puritannos, 
Errabant, fato profugi, 

Per menses, et per annos. 
Ad littusubi ventum fist, 

Spcrncntcs egestatem, 
Condebant, opus maximum, 

llano Universitatcm. 
Chorus. Nunc rili, &, c. 

Hie hodie conveniunt, 

Novissimi nepotcs, 
Et sencs cum juvenibua, 

Et pii saccrdotes. 
Prensarc mauus juvat nunc, 

Post annos, lieu, vclocc* ! 



166 

Et bene notas, itcrum 
Audire, ct dare, voces. 
Chorus. Nunc rite, fye. 

Dum fluvii prscipites 
In mare altum tendunt, 

Dum iinber, nix et tonitru 

E nubibus descendunt, 
Dum soliti Catalog! 

Tricnnes inipriniantur, 
Dum literis ltalicis 

Pastures exarantur. 
Chorus. Nunc rili, fyc. 

Dum artibus ingenuis 
Tyrones imbuuntur, 
Dum fides, dumquc probitas, 

In laudibus feruntur; 
Cantanda semper omnibus, 
Dum vox, et aura, datar, 
Vigescat, atque valeat, 
Insignia alma mater ! 

Chords. 
Cantanda semper omnibus, 

Dum vox et aura da-tur, 
Vigescat, atque valeat, 
Insignis alma mater! 
The following was distributed around the tables, 
but no one could be found to sing it : 

Ctarmnt <Seculart : 

In linguft LatinA porcelliani compositum, et ^t can- 
tic urn Nov-Anglis pergratnm, t 
Yankeedoodledandiuin, accoinraodatum. 
Liccntia poet ic a frequentissime usurpaU, calamo cur- 
rente scripsit 
GULIELMUS MAGNUSHU.MILIS. * 
Die Scptembris VIII, Anno Salutis MDCCCXXXVI, 
Collegiique Hai vardini Fundati CC. 

1. 

Ccaserunt anni ducenti, 
Cum plurimia humanis, 
Annisque ae addidcre 
Antediluviania ; 
Ex illo die faato, quo 
Mater Alma amata 
Hue in desertum horridum 
Et fcrox est illata. ""s. 

Chorus. Alinam Matrcm pulcherrimira ... 

Colant nati natorum, 

Et qui nascentur ab illia, 

In sccula seclorum. 

II. 

IlLi, ut quondam Roinulo, 
Eupa mammas admovit; 
At brevi tempore disjuncla 
Nutricem non agnovit. 
Si omnia scircs pluraque, 
Lege, si non legisti, 
Cottiini Malheri creduli 
Nota " Magnalia Christi." 
Chorus. Alinam Matrem, &c. 

III. 

Ut Nov-Anglorum filii, 
Gratiarum Actidnia 
Die, domuni adveuiunt 
Et oncrantur bonis ; 
Sic nos doinuin advenimus 
Amata? Alma; Matris, 
Saliil.il.-jue alius aliuin 
Corde maim que fratris. 
Chorus. Alinam Matrcm, &c. 

IV. 

Quamvis abhorrent Stoici 
Faccetiis atque joco, 



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columns of the piazza were cntwinod with evergreens. 
The gate-posts of the main entrances were similarly 
decorated. On the arches over one of these avenues 
was the name of DuN&TF.K,on another that of Ciiauh- 
cv. Front of the Library the name of Quincv was 
equally conspicuous. The embellishments were ar- 
ranged and executed entirely by the students — an in- 
dication of* more than ordinary taste and industry. 

The edifices for the Divinity and Law schools — 
the Gothic windows in the front of the Meeting- 
House — the entire row of brick buildings occupied 
by and adjoining the Charles River Bank — the row 
of which the University Bookstore is a part — Mr. 
Willard's Hotel, and several private houses were also 
tastefully illuminated. 

Some of the neighboring eminences were illumin- 
ated by bonfires, which shed their light to a great 
distance. 

There was an immense concourse of spectators 
from the city and the adjacent villages. During the 



*•• illumination, from fight to nine o'clock, the crowd 

was so great in the college enclosure, that one could 
not pass without difficulty. 

The manner in which this celebration was con- 
ceived, carried on, and concluded, affords perfect 
satisfaction. The arrangements of the procession, 
and of the company at the dinner table, were so well 
prepared, and so happily were all concerned dispos- 
ed to be gratified and to contribute to the gratifica- 
tion of others, that there seemed to be no necessity 
of marshals or police officers. Even at the time 
when there was the greatest concourse of people in 
the streets and college grounds, the decorum of the 
scene was undisturbed by any marks of rudeness, 
impertinence, or vulgarity. For a century to come, 
the beauty, the order, the felicities of the celebration 
may be an appropriate theme for grateful reminiscen- 
ces to those who were present, and of generous ad- 
miration to their successors. 



13.23 the campaign of 37] Part of the "campaign" of the Class of 1837 was 
the famous rebellion of 1834. 1 reprint herewith (l) the student broadside of 
June 2, 1834, and (z) the faculty response of June 4, 1834. 



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171 

47*4 God Apollo, who s aired King Admetus for a while on earth*] Thoreau al- 
ludes to this fable in chapter I ("Economy") of Walden ; "While my acquaintances 
went unhesitatingly into trade or the professions, 1 contemplated this occupation 
as most like theirs; ranging the hills all summer to pick the berries which came 
in my way, and thereafter carelessly dispose of them; so, to keep the flocks of 
Admetus* " 

47*15 "Three scipen gode / Comen mid than flode / Three hundred cnihten."] 
See The Transcendentalists and Minerva. I, p, 246, Thoreau found this quotation 
from Layamon in Sharon Turner, History of the Anglo-Saxons. (2nd ed*, 2 vols*) 
London, 1807, 1, 90* 

74*12 it is a part of the harmony of the spheres] See the Thoreau Society 
Bulletin, no* 84, p* 4: "Sometimes, we seem to hear a faint musie from all the 
horizon* When our senses are clear and purified we may always hear the notes of 
music in the air— and catch its echoes dying away when we awake in the dawn* 
This is the tradition under various forms of all nations* The music of the 
spheres*— the statue of Mamnon etc*" 

See the description of the singing spheres in Plato's Republic. Book X (the Ar- 
diaeus episode)* For the Pythagorean doctrine of "harmonical relations" estab- 
lished in the universe, see any classical dictionary; e.g . . William Smith, Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. (3 vols.) London, 1864, II, 
624: "The intervals between the heavenly bodies were supposed to be determined 
according to the laws and relations of musical harmony (Nicom* Harm * i, p* 6, 
ii, 33; Plin, N, H * ii. 20; Simpl, in Arist. de Caelo Schol. p. 496, b* 9, 
497, ll). Hence arose the celebrated doctrine of the harmony of the spheres; for 
the heavenly bodies in their motion could not but occasion a certain sound or 
note, depending on their distances and velocities; and as these were determined 
by the laws of harmonical intervals, the notes altogether formed a regular musi- 
cal scale or harmony. This harmony, however, we do not hear, either because we 
have been accustomed to it from the first, and have never had an opportunity of 
contrasting it with stillness, or because the sound is so powerful as to exceed 
our capacities for hearing (Arist, de Caelo. ii* 9; Porph, in Harm, Ptol, 4, p* 
257)." 

See under "Music of the Spheres" and "Nine Spheres" in E. Cobham Brewer, Diction- 
ary of Phrase and Fable, (enlarged ed* ) Phila. and London, n*d. For the motif 
in Thoreau* s fellow Romantic, Percy Bysshe Shelley, see James A, Notopoules, Thq 
Platonism of Shelley . Durham, N.C., 1949, index. 

See also Joseph J, Moldenhauer, "Images of Circularity in Thoreau's Prose," Uni- 
versity of Texas Studies in Literature and Language. I, no* 2 (Summer, 1959), pp, 
245-263, For possible psychological significance of the "music of the spheres," 
see "Lessons from the Peak-Experiences," Emerson Society Quarterly, no* 30 (I 
ftuarter 1963), p* 90* 

77*86 Mr* Wright, according to the last accounts, is in Lynn] Two days after 
Thoreau* s letter was written, Henry G, Wright, along with his compatriot Charles 
Lane, attended the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety in Boston (Thursday, January 26, 1843). Lane spoke in favor of a dissolu- 
tion of the Union, See The Liberator. XIII, no* 5 (Feb. 3, 1843), p, 19, col* 
2: 



TUUKPD*1 MoRNINO.y 

Society met at 10 o'clock 

Prayor wbs offered by Mr. Jewel/ of Providence 

On motion of 8. Sprngtie, H. A/Morse of llolliston 
wu added to tlia Committee on ^Nominations. 

The discussion of tlie resolution in relation to Iho 
dissolution of the Union, vvus/cuonnued by Mr. Poule, 
of Portsmouth, N. II. 

On nomination ol ilia/Chair, E. D. Hudson, of 
Northampton, w»i upeointed a member of the Nom- 
inating Committee. Us t 

Mr. Charles Lane, nf London/was then introduced 



172 



lo the meeting, and nddr< s*ed/l ill favor of the reso- 
liltion. 

N. P. Rngrri, of Concnr/, N. H. presented aundry 
reeolutioiir, with a requey that they be considered in 
connexion with those imiiiy before the meeting. 

The discussion was ffcsumed by C. M.Burleigh, and 
aAer • most inspiring *>iig by the Hutchinson family, 
woe continued by.x! P. Beach, of New-Hempshire, 
Henry G Wrighlol England, W. L. Garrison, of 
Cambridgeport, and Geo. Bradbn ro , and at I u" cluck, 
on motion nf J. A. Collin*, the Society adjourned to 
9 t-9 o clock, P. M. 



77.34 lecture on Peace by a Mr # Spear] Possibly John M, Spear, of Weymouth 
or Norfolk, Massachusetts, who was a Vice-President of the Massachusetts Anti- 
Slavery Society. See, for example, The Liberator . XIII, no. 5 (Feb. 3, 1843) p, 
19: " 

of Bristol, J. A. Colling of Suffolk, George Brudburn 
of Nantucket. 



THE LIBERATOR 



BOSTON: 
FRIDAY .HORNING, FEBRUARY 3, 1843. 

O* A REPEAL OP THE UMON BETWEEN KORTHIM 
LIBERTY AND SOUTHtr.N SUVtHI IS ESSENTIAL TO 
THE ABOLITION OF THE ONE, AND THE PRESERVA- 
TION OP THE OTHER. .O 



U* Temporary illneaa, we very much regret to say, 
has prevented the Editor from attending to his du- 
ties the present week. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

OP THB 

Miuaaxhnsetts Anti-Slaverr Society. 

The Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Massachu- 
setts Ami 8Javery Society was held at Faneuil Hall, 
in thecily of Boston, Wednesday, January 86, 1843, 
commencing nt 10 o'clock, A. M. the President, 
FRANCIS JACKSON, in the chair. 

Prayer waa offered by J. T. Raymond, or Boston. 

Jno. F. Emerson, of New-Bedford, Cornelius 
Bramhall, of Boston, nnd William Basseit, of 
Lynn, were appointed Arsistant Secretaries. 

On motion of H. W. Williams, voted, that a Busi- 
ness Committee of seven be chosen). 

The following perMons were appointed, vix : Win 
Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Maria W. Chap- 
man, N. P. Rogers, George Bradburn, John A. Col- 
lin*, C. L. Retnond. 

On motion of Wm. Baasett, 

Voted, That a Committee of threo be appointed on 
Finance and the Roll. 

Charles K. Whipple, Jamos N. Buflum, Cyrus M. 
Burleigh were appointed. 

On motion of E. Quincy, 

Voted, That a Committcy, consisting of one person 
from each county, bo appointed to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year. 

The fallowing person/ were appointed, vis : 8etb 
Sprogue cf Plyraouth/wm. L. Garrison of Middle- 
sex, Samuel May of^Voreesler, Wm. Ashby, Jr. of 
Essex, John M. Spenr of Norfolk, Franklin Emerson 



After a most inspiring song from the Hutchinsoos, 
the report of the nominating committee waa presented 
by its Chairman, belli Sprague of Duxbury, which re- 
port was adopted ; and the following named persons 
were elected the officers of the Society for tbe ensuing 
year : 

Pruidtnt. 
Francis Jaci son of Boston, 
Vice- Presidents . 
Seth Sprague of Duxbury, 
Andrew Robeson of New-Bedford, 
Nathaniel B. Borden of Fall River, 
George T. Davis of Greenfield, 
Stillmun Lothrop of Cambridgeport, 
Amos Farnsworth of Groton, 
Joseph South wick of Boston, 
Jamuel J. Mny of Lexington, 
Adin Ballon of Milford, 
John M. Fiske of West Brookfield, 
Joshua T. Everett of Princeton, 
Effinghnm L. Copron of Uxbridge, 
William B. Eurle of Leicester, 
Jefferson Church of Springfield, 
Horatio G. Wood of Middleboro', 
Josiah Gilford of Sandwich, 
George Bradburn nf Nantucket, 
Sumner Lincoln of WJiateley, 
Samuel May of Leicester, 
Harris Cowdry of Acton, 
Nathan Webster of Haverhill, 
William Adam of Northampton, 
George- Hoyt of Albol, 
Theodore P. Lock* of Barre, 
William Bassett of Lynn, 
John ('. Gore of Roxoury, 
Curol.ine WeNton of Boston, 
Cornelius Bramhall of Boston, ^j." -""'"^ 
John M. 8pear of Weymouth. *^ - 

Corresponding Secretary, 
William Lloyd Garrison of Cambridgeport, 

Rerording Secretary, 
Henry W. Williams of Boston. 

Trtturer, 
Samuel Pbilbrick of Brooklioe. 



Samuel E 



Aadiot, 
Sewall of Boston. 



173 

78.3 But Lane. ..had cogitated and even written on the matter....] For Charles 
Lane's report, see The Liberator. XIII, no. 4 (Jan. 27, 1843), p. 16, cols. 3-4: 



: State Slavery — Imprisonment or A. Dronson 
Alcott— Dawn of Libert}'. 

To the F.ditur of the Liberator. 

Sir — Another stone in t lie olil castle of liiiinan 
wrongs litis this tiny been loosened, of which you anil 
your renders will be interested in learning the par- 
ticulars, if, in tlie unavoidable excitement of the oc- 
casion, they can be reported'. Thousands feel the in- 
iquity of the incorporated state system us keenly as 
the millions have felt the incompatibility and base- 
ness of the incorporated (lurch system. A forced 
church, a tyrannous hive, has long been felt to he 
no church and no love whatever; and not a few per- 
sons in this country, as well as in all other parts of 
the world, are fully prepared -to suffer violence, perse- 
cution ami death, rather than commit any act to sup- 
port such false and forced Christianity. Hut of the 
numbers who feci that the Stale, when it callj upon 
us by its dull law, its mere brigand right of a strong 
arm, to support guns and bayonets, murderous armies 
and navies, legislators, judges, jailers, executioners, 
teachers, &c. &.c. no one has yet, it seems, ventured 
to act ii jm n the conviction, and passively endure the 
consequences, whatever they might be, of a faithful 
adherence to principle. It is often said, that in a con- 
dition of society where one is obliged to let pass so 
much that is immoral, it is not worth while to under- 
go so much inconvenience as close imprisonment on 
account of Slate prosecution. 

Very different to this, however, has been the feel- 
ing of A. Brokson Alcott. oT Concoid ; rabd being 
convinced that the payment of the town lax involved 
principles and practices most degrading and injurious 
to man, he had long determined not to he a voluntary 
party to its continuance. Last year, by the leniency 
of the collector in prepaying the 1 1-2 dollar, the 
question was not brought to issue, and only the hum- 
blest instrument of the Stale was subdued, in so far 
as he declared the law was too base for him to exe- 
cute. This year, a step further has been gained. 

By the system of putting up the collector's office to 
public auction, and accepting the man who will do the 
dirty work lor the lowest per ventage, the town is 
pretty sure to secure the services of the most suitable 
instrument of its tyranny. When the citizens gene- 
rally shall take the trouble to look into the law and 
the circumstances of this affair, they will shudder at 
the slavery to which they subject themselves , and the 
sooner they do so, the better; for greater oppressions 
than any they have thrown off, have grown from 
smaller beginnings. 

This year, a collector was Appointed, who could ex- 
ecute the luw ; and although no duuht it went hard 
with him to snatch a man away from his home, from 
his wife, from the provision ami education of his lit- 
tle children, in which latter he found Mr. Alcott se- 
renely engaged, he nevertheless did it lie witness- 
ed, with his own eyes, the little hasty preparations to 
alien J him to the jail, the packing up a few personal 



conveniences to ward oil' the inclemencies of the sea- 
son, and yet, with no higher authority than the gen- 
eral warrant in his pocket, which, without particular 
investigation, trial, or inquiry, hands over the. liberty 
of every townsman to his discretion, he took n fellow- 
cilizeu, an um lfending man, to a long confinement. 

To the county jail, therefore, Mr. Alcott went, or 
rather was forced by the benignant Stale and its del- 
icate instrument. Probably the authorities antici- 
pated that if they showed a rigid determination to en- 
force this old monstrous system, u weakness would 
be discovered soiiiewhcrc ; th.it domestic attractions 
would be too potent ; that wive or friend would inter- 
fern, and pay the money. But they were mistaken. 
A virtuous man is not often surrounded by friends, 
who would pcrsuado him to desert conscience, and 
turn his back upon moral principles, just at the trying 
moment. In this case, at all events, no one was un- 
wise enough so to uct. 

Having worked up to In is point, it appears the en- 
emy's courage failed. The constable collector hav- 
ing biought Ins victim to the jail, the next step was 
to tind the jailer, who appeared to be not at home. A 
considerable delay ensued, during which the prisoner, 
of course, waited patiently ; and ufter nearly two 
hours had thus been passed, the constable announced 
that he no longer had a right to detain his caption. — 
On inquiring how that huppened, ho said that both 
the tux and costs hnd been paid. To the question, by 
whom the payment had been made, he replied by 
naming a gentleman who may be regarded, nud who 
would willingly be regarded, as the very personifica- 
tion of the Stale. 

In these facts, humble as the individual and the cir- 
cuinsianciia may appear, we have a wide and deep 
subject for reflection, which 1 trust you will not per- 
mit to pass in a barren manner. This act of non-re- 
sistance, you will perceive, does not rest on the plea 
of poverty. For Mr. Alcott has always supplied some 
poor neighbor with food and clothing to a much higher 
auiount than his tax. Neither is it wholly based on 
the iniquitous purposes to which the money when 
collected is applied. Fcr part of it is devoted to ed- 
ucation, and education has not a heartier friend in the 
world than Bronsnn Alcott. But it is founded on 
the moral instinct which forbids every moral being to 
be ,t party, cither actively or pcrmissiv ely, to the de- 
structive principles of power and might over peace 
and love. 

Suppose thi« tax were levied by the town in its ca- 
price, and the full value ol the amount were to be 
returned the next Jay to each payer in bread. Would 
it not be a sacred duly in every niun, in the viituous 
integrity of his nature, to deny such a proceeding ? 
Doubtless it would. All but the'moanest souls would 
thereby be raised to dis-anncx themselves from the 
false and tyrannous assumption, that the human will 
il to be subject to the bruie force which the majority 
may set up. It is only tolerated by public opinion, 
because the fact is not yet perceived that ull the (rue 



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174 

90.5 As they say in geology, time never fails, there is always enough of it] 
See Consciousness in Concord, p. 172: "Aristotle says in his 'Meteorics 1 : f As 
time never fails, and the universe is eternal, neither the Tanais, nor the Nile, 
can have flowed forever." This sentence is quoted in an interesting context in 
A Week (Walden edition), p. 133. See Benjamin Silliman's "Appendix" (pp. 461- 
579) to Robert Bakewell's An Introduction to Geology . (3rd Am. from the 5th Lon- 
don edition) New Haven, 1839: "Geology cannot decide on the amount of years or 
ages, but it assures us that there was enough to cover all the events connected 
with the formation of the mineral masses, and with the succession of the genera- 
tions of living beings, whose remains are found preserved in them." [Page 536] 

124.7 Staying at home is the heavenly way.] See The T r anscendentalists and 
Minerva. I, 292. Thoreau found the following in Simon Ockley, History of the 
Saracens (London, 1718): "When Abu Musa. of Cufah, was asked what he thought of 
going out to assist All against his enemies, he answered— * Sitting still at home 
is the heavenly way. The going out is the way of the world.*" Cf. Horace, Epjg- 
tolae P I, xi, 27: "...coelum, non animum, mutant, qui trans mare currunt." 

224*39 I shall certainly be satisfied to receive $25.00 for it] Horace 
Greeley offered Thoreau that sum for the "Maine Woods" in his letter of May 17, 
1848 ( Correspondence, p. 223) and, when Thoreau accepted, planned to carry that 
manuscript to Philadelphia to Charles Chauncey Burr, founder of The Nineteenth 
Century . The following letter containing the evidence is in the New-York Histor- 
ical Society (James Wright Brown Collection) and is edited here with permission: 



H 



New York, May 19, 1848. 

C. C. Burr, 

My Friend: 

,?,_, I enclose you a few letters, in obedience 

"So to yours, received this morning. Robinson, my correspondent, 

fc # will introduce you to every body, but I apprehend he will be 

• Q in Baltimore till Thursday morning. After that, you will find 

*** jT him (as well as Hale and Nash Hunt) at Colmen's [Coleman's] Hotel* 

u o 

£ ■£> James Dixon of Conn. Tuck of N. H # Root of Ohio, 

h .2 Gregory of N. Jersey, and Thompson of la. are about as good 

% -g fellows as you will find in Congress, where, I am sorry to say, 

„ m .* the right sort do not preponderate. But you will pick up some 

§ ^ subscribers if they get acquainted with you. 

s —J 

—I shall secure an article from Thoreau of Concord. 
Though not in the Reforming vein, it is full of Poetry and 
Nature. Shall I send it before, or bring it with me when I 
come to Philadelphia on the 5th of June? 

Yours, 

Horace Greeley* 

228*21 Don't scold at my publishing a part of your last private letter (May 
19, 1848) in this morning's paper.] Greeley's memorable article, "A Lesson for 
Young Poets," appeared in the New York Daily Tribune. VIII, no* 4 (whole no. 
2220), Thursday morning, May 25, 1848, page 2, colume 3: 



« e 

O O 




A l.tniion lor Vouu« l'oci». 

We are continually receiving letters limn yniiiia 
xeutlenicn who deem themselves Iwrn to enlighten 
the world in some way— to 'stnko the sounding 
lyre.' or from the Editorial tripod dispense w isdoni 
and guidance to on instructed aud admiring world 
Tliese generally want to know why they cauuot be 
employed in our establishment, or find a publisher 
tor their poems, or a chance in aumu shape to aston- 
ish mankind and cam a livelihimd-hv k-tferv — To 
this lai^r and mere nsinc class, we wish to propound 
one question : -Suppose all who desire to live \>\ 
Literature or Trade could find places who would 
hoe the needtul corn or die the indispensable potn 
toea .''—But we purposed iu beginning to ask their 
attention to the following extract from a private 
letter we have just received from a very different 
sort of literary youth— a thorough classical scholar. 
true poet i though he rarely or never wrote verses, i 
and never sought to make a livelihood by his wr.t 
itiCs. though there arc not six men iu America 
who can surpass them We feel indeed honored 
by his friendship . and m the course of a private- 
letter we have jnst received from him he ctsualiv 
saya : 

" For the last five years. I have suppoiteil my- 
telf solely by the labor of my hand? I have not 
received one cent from any other source ; and this- 
has cost me so little time — say, a month in the 
Spring and another in the Autumn — doinu' the 
coarse* t work of all kluds. that 1 have piohably. 
enjoyed more leisure tor literary pursuits than an\ 
contemporary For more than two years past, 1 
have lived oloue m the woods, in a cood plastered 
and shingled bouse eutirely'oi inv own building, 
earning only what 1 wanted. au<{' sticking to im- 
proper work The fact is. Man need not live by 
the sweat ot his brow — unless he sweats easier 
than 1 do— he needs so little. For two years ami 
'two months, all mv expenses have s mounted u> 
but 2? cents a week, and 1 have fared gioriously 
in all respects. It' a man must have money— and 
be needs hut the smallest amount — the trite and 
independent way to earn it is by day -labor with 
his bands at a dollar a day. 1 have tried many 
ways and can apeak from experience. 

•' Scholars are apt to think themselves privileged 
to complain as if their lot were a peculiarly bard 
one. How much have we heard about the attain- 
ment of knowledge under difficulties— -oi poets 



178 



starving in garrets— ol literary men depending on 
the patronage of the wealthy, aud finally dying 
mad! It is. time that men ».<ui another "anna.— 
There is no reason why the scholar, who professes 
to be a little wiser tlutn the mass ot men. should 
not do his work iu the ditch occasionally, and, by 
means ot lus superior wisdoiu. mnke much les» 
suffice tor him. A wise man will uot he unfoiiu 
note. How otherwise would \\>u kuow that he 
waa not a fool 1" 

. — We trust our friend will purdou the liberty we 
have taken in printing the foregoiuv, since we :ire 
•ore. of ejecting signal good thereby Wc have uo 
idea of making a hero of him. Our object is sim- 
ply to shame the herd of pusilhuumoQs creature* 
who whine out their laziness iu bad verses, and 
execrate the stupidity of publishers and readers 
who will not buy these maudlin effusions at the 
paternal estimate of their value, and thus spare 
them the dire necessity oi doing something useful 
for a living. It is only lAeVr paltriness thai elevates 
oar independent friend above the level of ordinary 
manhood, and whenever they shall rise to the lev- 
el of true self-respect, his course will be no longer 
remarkable. 

4 What '. ' aays oue of them. ' do you menu (lint 
1 evory one must hoe corn or <wing the slede. ' — 
' thai no life is useful or honorable but oue of rude 
4 manual toil V — No. Sir ; we say uo such thing. — 
If any one i* sought not, -required, dcinajuled. in- 
some vocation specially intellectual, let him e:»i 
brace it and live by it. But the general rule is 
that Labor — thai- labor which produces food and 
clothe* and shelter — is every man** duty nn.l des 
tiny, for which he should be Hue), in which he 
should be willing to do his port manfully. But let 
him study , ami meditate, and cultivate his nobler 
faculties as he shall fi'nd op|ioriiuiiiy ; ami when 
ever a career of intellectual exert km shall open 
b e fo r e him, let him embrace it if he be inclined 
and. uualined But to coin his thoughts into some 

n*arkotohl« atamblaare, disdam useful lulmr ot tie 

hoed* because he has a facility of writing, aud ui 
crying hie mortal wore* in the market, seeking to 

exchaoga them lor brood and clothe*— this i* most 
degrading and despicable Shall not the world oat 



389.8ff« I inquired for Gilpin's works] Thoreau's inquiry of three Boston 
booksellers led him to the 1851 edition of The London Catalogue of Books Pub- 
lished in Great Britain, pages 216-217, from which he copied in pencil a list of 
Gilpin* s available works, which lies behind his letter to Daniel Ricketson of 
October 12, 1855* On the next page I give a facsimile of that list, which now 
lies loose in his "Fact Book 11 in the Harry Elkins Widener Collection at Harvard. 
See also Correspondence . 341.23. For volumes of Gilpin which Thoreau borrowed 
from the Harvard College Library during 1852 and 1853, see Emerson the Essayist. 
II, 196 and 202, noting especially the order in which he read them. See also 
William Templeman, "Thoreau, Moralist of the Picturesque," P M L A. XLVII (1932), 
pp. 864-869, and James Southworth, "Reply." P M L A. XLIX (1934), pp. 971-974. 
See also Walter Harding, A Thoreau Handbook. [New York], 1959, pp. 107, 127, 156. 



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Qiovanni Finati ; Life and Adventures in the Ka»t, 2 r. 12mo 

Sbogarro, a Tale, 2 v. 12mo 

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178 

444.1 I should not care if I sprouted into a living tree, put forth leaves 4 
flowers, <& have fruit.] This metamorphosis may be an echo of the myth of Baucis 
and Philemon, who were similarly transformed after entertaining Jupiter. See 
Ovid, Metamorphoses . VIII, 631ff», and John Lempriere, A Classical Dictionary. 
London, 1804, s.v . 

536*22 "Hercules with his club 

The Dragon did drub; With nothing at all, 

But More of More Hall, He slew the Dragon of Wantley. " 

Thoreau alludes to "The Dragon of Wantley" in chapter IX ("The Ponds") of Walden 
in speaking of the railroad that has "browsed off all the woods"— a veritable 
"Trojan horse, with a thousand men in his belly, introduced by mercenary Greeksi 
Where is the country's champion, the Moore f sic l of Moore Hall, to meet him at 
the Deep Cut and thrust an avenging lance between the ribs of the bloated pest?" 

542.17 I will come and read you an extract from "Autumnal Tints "••••] San- 
born, in a letter to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, dated Concord, March 4, 1859, 
now in the Boston Public Library (and quoted here with its kind permission) 
wrote: "You missed hearing one of the best lectures in not hearing Thoreau' s 
'Autumnal Tints* at Worcester 'tother night." 

565.2 assisted by H. D. Thoreau of Concord] During October, November and 
early December, 1859, Thoreau lived in an excited New England, Sanborn's letter 
to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, at Worcester, (now in the Boston Public Library 
and here quoted with permission) conveys the tenseness of the Abolitionist lead- 
ers: [B.P.L. : MS. E.5.1, folio 126] 

Boston Nov 28— 1859 

Dear Friend; 

Hoyt brings word that nothing is doing in Ohio. Redpath did 
not go on — perhaps it is as well he did not. Le Barnes is in N,Y. 
but I have telegraphed to him to return— that nothing can be done,— 
so I suppose we must give up all hopes of saving our old friend [John 
Brown], Hoyt had an interview with Wise on Wednesday night— gave 
him the affidavits of insanity, but does not hope much from them — 

I have written Stearns urging him and Howe to return— although Hoyt 
and Blair are very desirous all of us should go and cause a conflict- 
That is what I should desire to bring on— and he says [that] is what 
the South wants. Hoyt remains here till Thursday— at Montgomery 
House. I return to Concord today and may be there till after Friday 
when we are to have a solemn service. Wright 4c. have a meeting to 
make arrangements— Mr Thoreau being one of the principal persons 
interested— 

The body of Brown is to be taken by A. H, Lewis of Ohio, if the 
authorities will allow; he is to go down for the purpose. Owen 
Brown is in Ashtabula Co. and cannot be taken . The others are in 
Canada. Except Tidd, whose fate is not certainly known— I shall 
write you more if there is more news— 



179 

Redpath wishes you to send him the facts you hare about 
Brown, if it be only dates— 

Yours Ever 

F. B. S. 

566*12 The best. ..one of the Brown Lecture....] See inter alia Charles K* 
Whipple's (?) report of Thoreau's Fraternity Lecture on John Brown in The Libera- 
tor. XXIX, p. 174 (Not. 4, 1859). See ibid .. XXX, p. 118 (July 27, I860) for a 
report of the John Brown Memorial Celebration at North Elba, N.Y., on July 4. 
Richard J. Hinton, the secretary of the meeting, read Thoreau's address, prefacing 
his reading with appreciation for Thoreau's coming out strongly for Brown. 

571.32 dear old John Brown has met... his death] Those in Massachusetts who 
had known or assisted Brown were immediately placed under suspicion; some were 
summoned to testify in Washington. Sanborn's letter to Higginson (now in the Bos- 
ton Public Library and here edited with permission)— deliberately unsigned— re- 
veals the contemporary excitement. Redpath' s book was The Public Life of Capt * 
John Brown. ..with an Auto-biogra-phy of his Childhood and Youth, Boston, 1860, 
dedicated to Emerson, Thoreau, and Wendell Phillips. See above pages 157-158* 



th 
Concord Jan'y 16 — 1860 



Dear Friend: 



Mr Surette informs me you are to lecture here next week. Will 
you take shelter with me for the night? Mrs Emerson also invites 
you, and if any chance should take me from home at that time, (which 
I do not anticipate) you would find hers the pleasanter place. Per- 
haps you would at any rate,— so please make your own choice. There 
is more treason here— more beauty there* Mr E- will not be at home, 
being in the West, for which he started this morning— to be gone until 
Feb 21~ Perhaps a happy compromise may be to spend the night with 
me, who live near the railroad, and call on Mrs Emerson and her chil- 
dren and Miss Jackson after the lecture. But pray do what is most 
agreeable to yourself— 

I have heard nothing from you of late. They told me in Boston 
Saturday that you had not decided whether to go to Washington] or 
not. I shall not ; nor do I think I shall be arrested. If I am an- 
noyed sufficiently to injure my school keeping I shall go abroad in 
March I think,— perhaps in February and join Morton in England and 
Mr Parker in Rome 

But I trust to avoid this and continue my pursuits here. 

Redpath' s book is good— especially the part you wrote, but I think 
he has told too much. It is selling wondrously— 

Hinton is "oph"— G. L. S. gone to N. Elba— Dr H I know not 



180 



where— 

I hope neither you nor W. Phillips will go to W[ashington]. 
Redpath vill not— 

Please write me a word and believe me 

Yours Ever 

[Deliberately unsigned] 



[ &M. 



>&ffe^:* : 



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*** '■ i'-L ifSK, 



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**& 












NEW LETTERS AND FRAGMENTS 
SUPPLEMENT TO THE RECENT EDITION 



[1837-1838] 



[1837, May 20. Facsimile appears in Kenneth W. Cameron, "The Solitary Thoreau of 
the Alumni Notes," E S ft. No, 7 (il ftuarter 1957), pp. 2-37, especially p. 18.] 









Cambridge, 


May 


20 th , 


1837. 


[Mr Thoreau], 














D'sir, 








• 






In 


behalf of 


the class of 


/37 


I have been 


requested to invite 


you to join with 


us in the 


exercises 


of "ClasB Day", 


, the 


18 th 


of July next 


• 










Henry Williams 


Jr. 












Class Secretary. 







[1838, May 1. This is not strictly a part of the correspondence . Since the edi- 
tors wisely included a note from President Josiah ftuiney (page 26)— also not 
strictly a part— I include the following from P. B. Sanborn, Henry D. Thoreau. 
Boston A N.Y., [1882], which indicates that the letter was accompanied by a list 
of clergymen in the towns of Maine: Portland, Belfast, Camden, Kennebunk, Cas- 
tine and others. See pages 57 and 58.] 



"Concord, May 1, 1838. 
"To the Friends op Education, — The 
undersigned very cheerfully hereby introduces to 
public notice the bearer, Mr. David Henry Tho- 
reau, as a teacher in the higher branches of 
useful literature. He Is a native of this town, 

and a graduate of Harvard University. He is 
well disposed and well qualified to instruct the 
rising generation. His scholarship and moral 
character will bear the strictest scrutiny. He is 
modest and mild in his disposition and govern- 
ment, but not wanting in energy of character and 
fidelity in the duties of his profession. It is pre- 
sumed his character and usefulness will be appre- 
ciated more highly as an acquaintance with him 
shall be cultivated. Cordial wishes for his sue- 

181 



182 

cess, reputation, and usefulness attend him, as an 
instructor and gentleman. 

" Ezra Ripley, 
"Senior Pastor of the First Church in 
Concord, J/ass. 

" N. R. — // is but justice to observe here that 
the eyesir/ht of the writer is much impaired." 



[1838-1843] 



[1838, May 2. See Franklin B. Sanborn, Henry D. Thoreau. Boston & N.Y., [1882], 
page 59. My reasons for including the following fragment are the same as those 
giren on the preceding page*] 



" I cordially recommend Mr. Henry D. Tho- 
reau, a graduate of Harvard University in August, 
18o7, to the confidence of such parents or guard- 
ians as may propose to employ him as an instruc- 
tor. I have the highest confidence in Mr. Tho- 
reau's moral character, and in his intellectual 
ability. lie is an excellent scholar, a man of 
energy and kindness, and I shall esteem the town 
fortunate that secures his services. 

" R. Waldo Emehson. 

'Concord, May 2, 1838." 



[1843, Sept, 25. Margaret Puller to Thoreau, (Cf, Correspondence, p. 140, ) It 
is reprinted here vith the kind permission of the editor and publishers: Wil- 
liam White, "Three Unpublished Thoreau Letters," N E ft. XXXIII, no, 3 (Septem- 
ber, I960), pp. 372-374, The owner is Charles E. Feinberg, Esq*, of Detroit, 
generous friend of scholars* Professor White comments as follows: "The letter 
is addressed to "Mr Henry Thoreau / Care W. Emerson Esq. / 61 Wall St / N, York," 
The Emerson poem referred to is 'Ode to Beauty,* which appeared in the Dial. 17, 
257-259, October 1843, Ellery is Ellery Channing," 



Dear Henry, 

You are not, I know, deeply interested in the chapter of little 
etiquettes, yet I think out of kindness you will be willing to read a 
text therein & act conformably in my behalf— As I read the text on 
the subject of visits or visitations, our hosts martyr themselves 
every way for us, their guests, while we are with them, in time, 
temper, & praise, but we are expected to get to them and get away 
from them as we can. 

Then I ought to have paid for the carriage which came to take 
me away, though I went in another. But I did not see the man 
when I got down to the landing.— I do not know what is due, but 



183 



[1843-1846] 



E Hoar told me the enclosed was enough, will you pay it for me 
wherever it belongs & pardon the carelessness that gives you this 
trouble? 

Immediately after my return I passed two days at Concord, a 
visit all too short, yet pleasant. The cottages of the Irish laborers 
look pretty just now but their railroad looks foreign to Concord. 

Mr Emerson has written a fine poem. You will see it in the Dial. 
Ellery will not go to the West, at least not this year. He regrets your 
absence, you, he says, are the man to be with in the woods. 

I remember my visit to Staten Island with great pleasure, & find 
your histories and the grand pictures you showed me are very 
full in my mind. I have not yet dreamt of the fort, but I intend to 
some leisure night. 

With best regards to Mr & Mrs Emerson, whose hospitality I 
hold in grateful remembrance, 

Yours S. M. Fuller. 
25"' Sepf / 43 



er- 



[1845, Aug* 6 or 13 or 20* 1 reprint the following memorable note from the Em 
son Society Quarterly. no* 23 (I Quarter 196l), page 96, with permission. It 
was owned by the late Warren H* Colson, Esq., of Proctorsyille, Vermont, from 
whom I originally secured permission to edit* Though undated, it fits in remark- 
ably well with other facts. 



Writing to his brother William on Oct. 4, 1844, 
Emerson indicated that his sister-in-law, Lucy 
(Jackson) Brown, wished him to build her a cot- 
tage "on some land near my house." On May 19, 
1846, he again wrote William! "Mrs Brown's 
well was dug A three good feet of water found 
at the bottom the day before the plenteous 
rains set in, and the lumber for the house is 
piled 4 piling on the bank in today's sun." 
On Aug. 3, 1846, he wrote James Elliot Cabot: 
"...these with the accident of some company at 
home, and the building of a house I am finish- 
ing epposite mine, have made my bad habits 
worse, and my negligence is gross...." Mrs* 
Brown's house was being finished in August, and 
Rusk ( Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson, p. 308), 
drawing upon Emerson's account books, says 
that Thoreau "came in from his Walden hermit- 
age to do some of the work. Emerson put over 
a thousand dollars into the house. It would 
help keep a good entertainer near Lidian." 
(One wonders why the editors of The Corre- 
spondence of Henry David Thoreau . p. 138, de- 
clare: "The house for Mrs. Lucy Brown was 



never built.") Among other tasks, Thoreau 
seems to have superintended the work of Mr. 
Cutler, a carpenter frequently mentioned in 
Emerson's Letters . The following note was 
sent either to Thoreau' s Concord home or to 
Walden Pond, where he was completing his hut 
—preparing to apply the shingles for which 
he says (in the first chapter of Walden ) he 
had paid $4.00. The shingling of the hut 
preceded the plastering by two or three 
months, the latter being accomplished in ear- 
ly November. See Thoreau* s Journal. I, 387 
[1845]: "Left house on account of plaster- 
ing, Wednesday, November 12th, at night; re- 
turned Saturday. December 8th. " See Walden 
("Housewarming"; f Writings . II, 271]: "I did 
not plaster till it was freezing weather. I 
brought over some whiter and cleaner sand for 
this purpose from the opposite shore of the 
pond in a boat.... My house had in the mean- 
while been shingled down to the ground on 
every side...." The size of the little 
manuscript is approximately 3 1/2 x 5 1/4 in- 
ches. ] 



Dear Henry- 
Can you not without injurious 
delay to the shingling give a quar- 



184 

ter or a half hour tomorrow morning 
to the direction of the Carpenter 
who builds Mrs Brown's fence? Cut- 
ler has sent another man, & will not 
be here to repeat what you told him 
so that the new man wants new orders, 
I suppose he will be on the ground 
at 7, or a little after & Lidian 
shall keep your breakfast warm. But 
do not come to the spoiling of your 
day. 

R. W • E . 

Wednesday 

P. M. 5 o'clock 



[1845-1849] 



[1849, Feb* SO* The following article is reprinted completely from the Essex 
Institute Historical Collect long . XCIV, pp. 191-193 (July, 1958), with the kind 
permission of the Essex Institute of Salem, Massachusetts* It is copyrighted by 
the Essex Institute and nay not be quoted without its express permission*] 



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Concord Feb 20th 1849 
Dear Hawthorne, 

I will come to your house in Mall Street on the 18th inst. 
and go from thence to the Lyceum. 

I am glad to know of your interest in my book, for I have 
thought of you as a reader while writing it My MSS. are 
not even yet in the hands of the printer, but I am doing my 
best to make him take them into his hands. In any case the 
MSS which he will begin with is not that from which I shall 
read. 

I wish to be remembered and read also by Mrs Hawthorne. 
Yrs. sincerely 

Henry D. Thoreau 



This letter 1 of Thoreau's is a prompt reply to Hawthorne's 
letter of February 19, 1849, inviting him to be hit guest 
in the Hawthorne home at 14 Mall Street, Salem. Hawthorne's 
letter to Thoreau is in the Pierpont Morgan Library In New 
York City. Thoreau had lectured in Salem earlier in the tine 
Lyceum season, on November 25, 1848, on the subject "Econ- 
omy," using materials ready for the first chapter of Walden. On 
that occasion the Salem Observer had identified him as "Henry 
S. Thoreau, of Concord, N. H." The paper came nearer being 
accurate on February 23rd, 1849, in announcing that the forth- 
coming lecture would be by "Henry T. Thoreau, the pencil maker 
and philosopher of Concord." The manuscript mentioned in the 
present letter of Thoreau's as being ready for die hands of the 
printer was, of course, the text of A Week on the Concord end 
Merrimack Rivers, which was published on May 26, 1849* by 
James Munroe of Boston. 



185 



[1849] 



Thoreau's two lectures in Salem with his visits to the Haw- 
thorne home brought about a change in Mrs. Hawthorne's opinion 
of the Concord naturalist. On the day of his arrival for the sec- 
ond lecture she wrote to her sister Mary Mann (Mrs. Horace 
Mann): 

i. Recently acquired by the Essex Institute from the Richard C. Man- 
ning Estate. 



This evening Mr. Thoreau is going to lecture, and will stay 
with us. His lecture before was so enchanting; such a revela- 
tion of nature in all its exquisite details of wood-thrushes, 
squirrels, sunshine, mists and shadows, fresh, vernal odors, 
pine-tree ocean melodies, that my ear rang with music, and I 
seemed to have been wandering through copse and dingle! 
Mr. Thoreau has risen above all his arrogance of manner, 
and is as gentle, simple, ruddy, and meek as all geniuses 
should be; and now his great blue eyes fairly outshine and 
put into shade a nose which I once thought must make him 
uncomely forever. 2 

The lecture of February 28, 1849, was clearly drawn from 
materials now in the second chapter of Walden, "Where I lived, 
And What I Lived For." 3 The report of the second lecture which 
appeared in the Salem Observer of March 3, 1849, makes this 
clear and is worth quoting in full because of its balanced judge- 
ment and because at the close it contains what is perhaps the first 
reference in print to Thoreau's Walden: 

Mr. Thoreau, of Concord, delivered a second lecture on 
Wednesday evening upon his life in the woods. The first lec- 
ture was upon the economy of that life; this was upon its 
object and some of its enjoyments. Judging from the re- 
marks which we have heard concerning it, Mr. Thoreau was 
even less successful this time in suiting all, than on the for- 
mer occasion. The diversity of opinion is quite amusing. 
Some persons are unwilling to speak of his lecture as any 
better than "tomfoolery and nonsense," while others think 
they perceived, beneath the outward sense of his remarks, 
something wise and valuable. It is undoubtedly true that Mr. 
Thoreau's style is rather too allegorical for a popular audi- 
ence. He "peoples the solitudes" of the woods too profusely, 
and give voices to their "dim aisles" not recognized by the 
larger part of common ears. 

Some parts of this lecture — which on the whole we 
thought less successful than the former one — were generally 
admitted to be excellent. He gave a well-considered defence 
of classical literature, in connection with some common sense 

2. Quoted in Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, Memories of Hawthorne (Bos- 
ton, 1897) pp. 91-93- 

3. It would seem that the listing of the title of Thoreau's February 28, 
1849, lectures as "Student Life, Its Aims and Employments" on page 50 
of Historical Sketch of the Salem Lyceum with a List of the Officers and 
Lecturers Since Its Formation in 1830 (Salem, 1879) confused the two 
lectures. It is in the "Economy" chapter of Walden that Thoreau men- 
tions student life and its costs. 



I 

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188 [1860] 

[1850, ca* July 23. Letter to Thoreau from Harrison Gray Otis Blake, living at 
Milton, Massachusetts* The letter arrived just as Thoreau was leaving Concord 
for Fire Island (July 24, 1850). Between July ZZ and August 11, Blake moved 
from Milton to Worcester* Thoreau* s letter to Blake of August 9 wag apparently 
kept in Milton until August 17 before being forwarded* 

What happened to all Blake's letters to Thoreau? According to the Springfield 
Republican of Friday, April 29, 1898, they were in existence at the time of 
Blake's death and probably passed into the custody of his executor, Mr* E. 
Harlow Russell, who, with a desire to protect Blake, destroyed them* See the 
Emerson Society Ctuarterlv. no* 11 (il Quarter 1968), p # 26: "Mr* Blake, half a 
century ago, took that sturdy protestant against New England Protestantism, Hen- 
ry Thoreau, for his guide and philosopher; and out of their friendship grew a 
remarkable correspondence, one-half of which, the didactic and humorous letters 
of Thoreau,— has been published* The letters of Mr Blake, more numerous, but 
less racy, may some time be printed in connection with Thoreau* s* He became 
the literary executor of his friend, after the death of Sophia Thoreau in 1876, 
and edited several volumes of selections from the Concord Journals,— which now 
pass into other friendly hands, and may be printed entire at some future day, 
so great and increasing is the demand from readers of Thoreau for every word 
which he wrote* Mr Blake was the antipodes of Thoreau in many points,— a fact 
which often strengthens the tie of friendship, as it did that between Montaigne 
and his early-lost friend, Estienne La Boetie* There was a third in this Wor- 
cester and Concord alliance,— Theo Brown, a witty and independent citizen, fond 
of nature, as his neighbor Blake was, and drawn to Thoreau quite as much by his 
humor as by that common love of the visible world* Today [April 23] Mr Blake 
was buried at Sterling, which was one of his homes during his long career as 
student, teacher, author and friend* When he began to correspond with Thoreau 
he was teaching in Milton, along with Christopher Greene, another person of the 
like moods and gentleness, long since dead."] 

[1850, Oct. 27? According to the Harvard College Charging Book for 1850-1851, 
Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian asking that two books be delivered to the 
bearer, who, on October 28, withdrew in Thoreau* s name: 

Champlain, Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1603-1629) 

Voyages de decouverte au Canada (par GLuartier et al . ) 

The bearer* s name is not given in the Charging records. "To order" indicates 
that a note was received and filed with the Library's correspondence, which in 
latter part of the last century was plundered by autograph hunters. The lost 
note may one day reappear.] 

[1850, Nov. 17? According to the Harvard College Charging Book for 1850-1851, 
Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian asking that the following books be delivered 
to the bearer, who, on November 18, took back to Concord: 

Champlain, Voyages du sieur de Champlain (1613) 
Lescarbot, Hlstoire de jla Nouvelle-France (l,2) 
"To order" was entered in the ledger*] 



187 [1860] 

[1850, Dec. 26? According to the Harvard College Charging Book for 1850-1851, 
Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian asking that the one book listed below be de- 
livered to the bearer, who, on Dec* 27, took back to Concord: 

Champlain, Voyages de la Nourelle France ( 1603-1629) ] 



[1850, Late* Rough draft of a letter from Thoreau to Harrison Blake, now in the 
Houghton Library under Am278.5(l) — edited here with permission— consisting of 
materials he ultimately worked into "Life Without Principle" [Writings (Walden 
ed*), IV, 470-471. Since that posthumous essay seems to have been composed of 
two early lectures ("What Shall It Profit A Man if He Sain the Whole World and 
Lose His Soul" and "Getting a Living"), the materials in the rough draft may 
have formed a part of the former— a discourse which Thoreau seems early to have 
read in Worcester before an audience gathered by Blake* The fragment, moreover, 
contains themes which Thoreau repeatedly dealt with in his letters to Blake 
from the beginning of their correspondence in 1848 through 1855: 

(1) The inadequacy of the conversation and news which most men tend to value. 

(See Correspondence. 251, 257-258, 259*, 265, 296, 300, 365*) 

(2) Spiritual inadequacy of the much-praised London Times, which Emerson ad- 

mired* (See Correspondence. 230, 303*) 

(3) The distinction between getting a living and living in the spirit* 

(4) The heroism of facing reality where one is. the inward life being more im- 

portant than the outward* (See Correspondence. 303*) 

(5) The importance of working at what one can do* (See Correspondence. 312- 

313.) 

(6) What shall it profit a man.... (Mark 8:36). (See Correspondence. 300, 

441, 540.) 

This fragment provides further evidence of Thoreau* s habit of drawing upon his 
current journal for his letters to Blake* Compare, e.g. . Correspondence, pp* £88 
top and 260 top. Note that Journal. II, 43-45, enters his letter of August 9, 
1850* 

The fragment belongs to the period following Blake's abandoning Milton for Wor- 
cester. The final words of the manuscript are in faint pencil, deciphered un- 
der ultraviolet lamp in the Houghton Library* (i might have secured a slightly 
improved reading if 1 had had access to infra red*)] 



the brute beasts do — or of steadiness & solidity 
that the rocks do. Just so hollow & ineffectual 
for the most part is our ordinary conversation — 
Surface meets surface. 

When our life ceases to be inward and private, 
conversation degenerates into mere gossip. ^** We 
rarely meet a man who can tell^jae — us any news which 
he has not read in a newspaper, or been told by his 
neighbor and for the most part the only difference 



188 



[1860-1861] 



between me-" us and my"bur fellow is that he has 
seen the paper or been out to tea &^J^ we have 
not. But the London Times even is not one of the 
muses. It is no better when poet laureates write 
to you there. When a man's inward life fails, 
he begins to go more constantly & desperately to 
the post office, and despatches couriers to the 
other side of the globe j and so again he gains 
the whole world & loses his own soul. 

It appears that you think yourself reestab- 
lished by this time & that your leisure was again 
hindered. 

I like yr keeping at yr "noble task." 

Yours Henry D Thoreau 



[1851, January 26? According to the Harvard College Charging Book of 1850- 

1851, Thoreau wrote to Harvard's Librarian asking that a volume be given to the 
bearer, who, on January 27, withdrew and carried to Concord: 

Young: Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers 

The records indicate only that the book was delivered "To order."] 



[1851, April 29? According to the Harvard College Charging Book for 1850-1851, 
Thoreau wrote to Harvard's Librarian asking that books be delivered to the 
bearer, who, on April 30, withdrew and carried to Concord: 

Bigelow: American medical botany (1,2,3,4,5,6) 
Michaux, The North American svlva (2,3)] 



[1851, June 24 + 25 + July 1+3, Blake to Ames Bronson Alcott. found among the 
Alcott Letters now in the Houghton Library (*59M-306(3)-vol. 7), which with 
others 1 have been generously permitted to edit by Professor William A. Jackson 
and by Mrs* Frederic Wolsey Pratt, of Concord* Since Blake's letters to Thoreau 
do not seem to have survived, one may gather something of their tone and quali- 
ty in the Alcott correspondence* That is my excuse for including them in his 
collection.] 



Worcester, Tuesday, June 24nr-, 1851. 
My dear Sir, 

We saw each other so frequently during the last year, that 
I dare say you will not object to the continuance of our inter- 
course upon paper j indeed you hinted as much when I last saw 
you at your door. When I finally came here to establish my- 
self for the summer, I felt strongly the want of certain home- 
comforts & a home atmosphere, which I find in the family of my 



189 [1861] 

mother-in-law in Boston more than anywhere else. I missed, 
also, somewhat, tho • , but slightly, perhaps, the sparkle and 
excitement of Boston. There is a charm about the life of a 
large city, tho' I distrust it, and am disposed to think the 
quiet of Nature better. The change, but mainly, I think, the 
first-named circumstance, made me somewhat discontented for a 
time; at first, very much so, so that for a day or two, it was 
nothing but accident, perhaps, that prevented me from returning 
to Boston. My health became not very good, which added to my 
depression. But I lived it down, & after a time found the old 
contentment which this place has given me beyond any other. 
My teaching, my friends, nature, and my books, my books read 
in the light created by the three other circumstances, give me 
an atmosphere in which I cannot well remain unhappy for a long 
time. Yet I am now forging the chains which I feel that I must 
soon break, break for a time at least, for I do not give up the 
idea of making an experiment in Boston this fall. Altho ' my 
teaching is pleasant, here, it is not lucrative, pecuniarily, & 
hardly promises to be. I desire much to support my daughters, 
which I am not doing, hardly myself, I have no regular school j 
certain pupils come to me at stated hours; to one I go, once a 
week. Some of my teaching is very interesting, & none of it is 
very irksome. This arrangement I like much better than a regu- 
lar school. (June 25-5£.) Yet I do not feel now that I 
shall be quite satisfied to settle down here with no brighter 
worldly prospects than I have, until I shall have, at least, 
tried the world once more. It will not be surprising to me, if, 
after trying it, I con- (July 1 „^j) elude that, on the whole, 
the peace I find in my present path; is to be preferred to the 
chance or the reality of pecuniary independance . But I do not 
think I should be as contented as I now am, if I did not con- 
sider it pretty much settled that I should try the world in 
the Fall. You see I stopped, above, several days ago, in the 
middle of a word. What I had written I should be likely to 
say again, in substance, were I to begin a new letter, so I 
shall, to save trouble, let the old letter go. I wish I could 
give you news from a diviner world than I have been speaking of, 
but the tendency of my mind is so much towards this problem of 
securing what the world calls a living, that, tho 1 I have a sort 
of steady contentment, I fear many a lofty dream is shut out. 
Does trying experiments with the world harden one? Is that the 
process by which one gradually becomes a worldling? I ask this, 
because my experiment at Milton, tho' so unsuccessful, instead 
of sending me back contented to my old life [the ministry?], 
only makes me ready for a new trial, or, at least, leaves me so, 
tho' for a trial under different circumstances. It has taught 
me pretty thoroughly, I imagine, that I must be very cautious 
hereafter about certain external arrangements . Your statement 
to me, in conversation, that, if we found ourselves at peace, 
in any position, we had better remain there, & take the bread 
which came to us whether from love or whatever source, my first 



190 



[1861] 



experience strongly confirms, yet, as you see, I itch to try 

something else, perhaps to my sorrow. We had, as you 

perhaps know, Mr. Emerson here to give his Anti-Fugitive- 
Slave-Law Lecture sometime ago, also Thoreau, not long after, 
to give, in a parlour, his Lecture upon Walking. Both were 
rich treats to me. Mr. E. was brilliant & witty, making one 
laugh, often, in a very deep & refreshing way. His lecture 
was naturally of a more uniformly popular cast than most of 
his productions are. (July 3-&H.) Thoreau I enjoyed very much. 
He gave his lecture on a Saturday evening, & did not leave till 
Monday morning, taking a long walk with Mr. Brown & myself on 
Sunday. How peacefully he settles down upon realities amid the 
business, the hurry, the politics, the religion, & amusements of 
society. It seems as tho ■ he could hardly be humbugged for a 
moment, while I, (tho* I think I have some appreciation of his 
attitude, certainly, a very enthusiastic admiration for it,) 
feel that I am, in some sense, constantly under the influence of 
humbug, I say, constantly, because I do not, for a moment, 
seem to give up the purpose of seeking money in an enterprise, 
which, tho* it may possibly give me a living in the worldly 
sense, I strongly apprehend will strike a severe blow at my 
true living. There is, to be sure, a kind of hope that I may 
find a more satisfactory life than the dream-life to which I 
have so strong a tendency, but my feeling mostly is that I am 
only about attempting to serve God & Mammon more entirely than 
I now do. May this constant determination to try the world 
again, tho 1 I cannot justify it, prove to be the light of a bet- 
ter dawn. But I fear more than I hope, unless you will consider 
my determination a proof of the contrary. If you fall in with 
any who might like to send pupils to such a school as I shall 
probably keep, please to inform them that I shall very likely 
commence in September. I shall be glad to hear from you, if 
you feel disposed to write. 

Very truly yrs. H. G. 0. Blake. 



[1851, Sept. 18. 
Announcement of 
Blake 1 s school 
in a Boston 
paper. ] 



SCHOOL. rOH IOC.VU LADIffi*. 

Dt. V II CLEVELAND and Mr II. G. <>. BLARE, 
will iiprn i> nVhonl for Yrmiif I.Mtiea, on Moid.t, 
itopt. 29, at the moina Inirlv ncninled by Mr. Gonrfa Enirai, 
No. 3 Humatrxd Plan. The etudiee noraued will ha thoaa 
uaoally (mhnvril under the Irrma EL««tf :*BM by. Cliui - 
cat, and rtci««Tiric. I>r. Cleveland, who baa beat twenty 
ye«r«*#i|««rtenrein a etniilar nchnel In Ihrrlly nf flail liu»re, 
will ln»truri in the Knolikh departiiicnli ami Mr HUke, 
who h*a also had many )e»r» experience •• a '«a<-her, will 
liwiruct In (he I. >Tt«. Fbekch. 1 ru i»s. ami Oaaa.x Ian- 
gunaea, and in r.coiaiv ami Aueim In rnneaquonre 
of lUI- dlTl.iim of Ui>or briwcen loatruriera, equally Inter- 
nird and without aaalai •Ma, II la oh'ioua Ihal there will he 
un-i.iiHl opportunities f»r thorough "•'" , «>atetnalli teaching. 

Further Informal Uw may he hail al No 1 BiMialead Plane, 
where one nl Ihe frntlrMirii may he found each day till the 
Win In.tanl, between the hnara of II and I'i n'rlurk. 

They have peroii»alnn lorrler tnthe following gntlemen: 
Jaaco Hr,.«. " 



PrraidewU of 
Harvard University. 

Hon JaMta •>. OaBEii. 

Hon. Levi I. inch. i 

linn. Hi hi a I HUlTI. 

I'mf. Ilaajawm I'Eiace. 
Boston, faplemliri IS, IPS! 



Una i'hi>i.i> i*i«a«a 
T«o«n itHHWiii, Eaq. 

l,I«li.K E»Toa. f'eq. 
lidllOl H III UI Mq. 
Hon. John Hivh. 

BWIeSw 



191 [1868] 

[1858, July 13* Blake, in Worcester, to Alcott, in Boston. From the Amos 
Brensen Alcott Papers in the Houghton Library, edited here with permission*] 



Should you write, as I hope you 
will, please direct to the care of 
Geo. T. Rice, Esq? 

Worcester, Tuesday, July 13-^, 1852. 

My dear Sir, I feel a desire to renew my intercourse with 
you upon paper, as it cannot well be done otherwise, & hope 
you will be induced to break thro* your habit of not writing 
letters, by replying to me. While I was last in Boston for 
a few days, you had left the day before I called at your 
house, I believe, for Connecticut, on a Genealogical expedi- 
tion. By this time I suppose you have returned, as you were 
to be gone about three weeks. I was sorry then to have missed 
you, but suppose some good end was answered by it. I wonder 
if you have no interesting fruits for me from Connecticut. 

Since I saw you, I have had a recurrence of an old 

difficulty of mine, bleeding, & also a good deal of bodily 
weakness & lack of animal spirits. I am sorry to say also 
that with these things, there has been a lack of inward 
strength also, so that, much of the time, seeing little more 
than the shell of life, & seeing that I had very little to 
boast of in that department, I have been depressed in view of 
my condition. But I held on, as well as I conveniently could, 
& now with renewing bodily strength, I feel a new strength of 
soul also. My life does not appear to me nearly so poor as it 
did. Some of the Pythagorean sentences which I get from the 
book I took in your absence, have, I think, lately been doing 
me good, such as these, "Where that which is wise in you re- 
sides, there also is your good." "That which is not noxious 
to the soul, is not noxious to man." "If you wish to live 
with hilarity, be unwilling to do many things. For in a mul- 
titude of actions you will be minor." Most of them are com- 
mon truths enough, but it is strengthening to fall in with a 
new & assured utterance of them. It seems to me we need to 
study our Bibles quite regularly, our good books, to look over 
for a time, say, every morning the books we know beforehand to 
be good, reserving those we are experimenting upon, for other 
hours, to be introduced among the bibles, if found worthy. 
This reading should be done not carelessly, but earnestly, re- 
ligiously, not for a.-musement (according to an account I have 
seen of the composition of that word,) but for Musement, to 
win, if may be, the presence & power of the Divine Muse. I 
would not pledge myself to the observance of any such rule. 
But it seems to me we need something of this kind, each man 
should use the means he finds best; this is the ground & 
substance of the practice of Daily Devotions, A: in this light, 
they appear attractive to me. Without some direct effort, 



132 [1862] 

some outward practice, how apt we are, or shall I say I am, 
to forget great thoughts, slip down from noblemen, & fall in- 
to the world's ways of thinking. A great thought impresses 
us, it seems as tho * we could never forget it, but, soon, be- 
fore we know it, the atmosphere of the world has infected us, 
we find ourselves sad at the want of something, & are poor k 
feeble creatures. So we need to be daily lifted up out of this 
accursed worldly influence into contact with beautiful & en- 
riching realities. — ■ In these hot days, are you still in 

High St? And will you not impart to me of the visions that 
come to you? I have little to do in the way of teaching; a 
nephew of mine is hurrying to fit for College this summer, & 
I attend to a portion of his studies, & this goes for my 
board, tho 1 the work is little for the compensation. I wish 
it were more, & hope it will be before long. Then I hear a 
neice [ sic 3 of mine, recite usually every day in French or 
Latin. For this I ask no compensation. Then one young lady, 
an old scholar of mine, is studying Italian with me, & as a 
part of the exercise, translates from Tasso's Jerusalem De- 
livered. This translating I find quite pleasant. Another 
lady, married, is reading & discussing with me Stallo's Phi- 
losophy of Nature; we read very slowly, for the book is hard, 
as you may remember, but it is suggestive, I think, & good for 
discipline. This is all my regular business, & as most of my 
exercises do not come often, it does not take up a great deal 
of time. I should like more of it; it is the only kind of 
business affording any chance of giving a man his bread, that 
I have found much satisfaction in, thus far. But it will end 
with the summer, I suppose, when my nephew goes to College, & 
then I shall probably try Milton or Boston again. It is not 
certain whether Eustis will want me at Milton in the Fall; if 
he does, I shall probably go & try, tho* I have little hope 
of ever being contented in the position of a hired man. If 
he does not want me, & there shall be poor encouragement 
here, (since I am not wise enough to request even a slight en- 
couragement here, in what seems somewhere near my proper path, 
better than a louder pecuniary call in other less congenial di- 
rections,) I shall probably try Boston again. In case that 
should be, I wish we might make some arrangement with regard 
to a room, such as you used to speak of. I do not know whether 
we could collect much of a company for conversation in this 
warm weather, but I should like to have you come. We could 
show you some good people. In case you do come, you will 
find Mr. Theophilus Brown at the corner of Main & Pearl Sts., 
or me at Mr. Geo. T. Rice's. I hope you will find occasion 
for writing, either before or after my seeing you here. Give 
my regards to Mrs. Alcott, & remember me affectionately to 
Abby. I should like very well to have her for a scholar 

s * Yours very truly, 

H. G. 0. Blake, 



193 [1853] 

[1852, Aug* 28. From Blake in Worcester to Alcott in Boston.] 



Worcester, Aug 26*Tp, 
Thursday, 1852. 

My dear Sir, 

Tho ' I have received no reply to my last letter, & to 
one wh. I wrote to you before, still, you see, I am perse- 
vering. But this time I have a special reason for writing, 
for I have a piece of news to communicate, wh., I am confi- 
dent, will interest you. During the coming Autumn, I purpose 
to be married. The general topic of marriage is, I know, 
deeply interesting to you, & I trust you will be led to think 
of it anew in connexion with me, & to give me & the person 
whom I augit marry, the benefit of your best thoughts. 
(Aug. 27-g-.) For six years I was married & then for the 
last six years, I have been unmarried, thus having a good 
opportunity to compare the two states. During these six 
years of loneliness, I have found, perhaps, a sweeter Com- 
panionship, a greater Nearness of the True Friend, than ever 
before; I have found a fresh & beautiful youth of which my 
actual youth was but the faintest symbol, compared with which 
my early manhood was barren & unspiritual. I have found a new 
and purer delight in the society of friends, in the presence 
of natural objects, in the works of genius, in my own thoughts. 
Most of the time, I have felt that I should never marry, for 
it has seemed to me that marriage, any marriage wh. I could 
hope for, would almost inevitably stand in the way of these 
things, & so of my highest good. It is now about four years 
since this young person (between 12 k 13 yrs. younger than 
myself) came to take lessons of me. She was already a good 
Greek, Latin, & German scholar, & prepossessed in my favor, 
as a teacher. She had and has the genuine spirit of a scholar, 
a real love for close, accurate study, & the purest enthusiasm 
for the truth. Of course the lessons were delightful; as I 
loved best to teach, she loved best to learn. That aspect of 
truth wh. I loved most, she seemed most ready to receive & 
love also. Thus she grew up, as it were, a spiritual child 
beneath my eyes. When I was away from her for any great 
length of time, we corresponded, still upon the topics that 
we had so loved to contemplate together, tho 1 till within a 
few weeks, on her part, she thinks, & most of the time, till 
within the same period, on my part, there was no other feel- 
ing than that of friendship. And now we intend to be married, 
but with the deep & solemn purpose to continue together the 
same pursuits as heretofore, & to make our relation, if possi- 
ble, only more beautiful. (Boston, Sept. 4^.) Tho' I hope 
to see you to-day, I must finish my letter. Will you still 
say, as I believe you have said, to me, & as I have more or 
less deeply felt, that nobody is good enough to be married? 



194 [1868-1853] 

How shall we help each other to be more truly solitary in 
the good & beautiful sense, to be more truly free, to be near- 
er the common Friend than we could be, apart? For we aim, I 
think, at nothing less than that. How shall we treat each 
other, with what reserve, with what Holy Reverence, so that 
the Mystery, the Poetry, & Beauty which hang about the dawn- 
ing of love, may not be changed by too close an intercourse, 
by sharing, in common, the cares of daily life, into a pro- 
saic & vulgar familiarity. Is it only by shunning marriage 
that this accursed change can be guarded against? So, much 
of the time for six years, I have thought, but now I must 
try to learn another lesson. Will you not try to help us? 
This is the Lesson of Lessons which we would both learn. It 
involves every other. Give us on paper your Ideal of Mar- 
riage, that we may refer to it among our Scriptures & may we 
heed it enough to be forever grateful to you. 

Yours very truly, 

H. G. 0. Blake. 



[1853. Circular letter from Louis Agassis to Thoreau, dated Cambridge, [space] 
1853. It apparently stimulated the latter to send fish and other specimens in 
subsequent years. The following four-page document was discovered lying in 
Thoreau* s "Fact Book" now in the Harry Ilkins Videner Collection at Harvard*] 

[Page One] 



[NEW EDITION, WITH SEVERAL ADDITIONS] 
Dear Sir, — 

Having been engaged for several years in the preparation of a Natural History of the Ftshrs of the United States, 
I wish, before beginning the printing of my work, to collect as extensive materials as possible, respecting the geographical 
distribution of these animals. It has occurred to me, that by means of a circular containing directions for collecting fishes I 
might obtain the information required. I should, indeed, like to secure separate collections of our fishes from every bay 
and inlet along the coast, and from every stream, river, creek, lake, and pond upon tbe mainland, throughout the whole 
country, and am satisfied that such collections would furnish invaluable information respecting the geographical distribu- 
tion of our aquatic animals. I would thank you for any assistance and contribution you can furnish from your quarter 
of the country, and duly acknowledge it in my work; and since I extend my investigations to all the branches of Natural 
History, any specimens besides fishes, which may be obtained, would be equally acceptable, including geological specimens 
and fossil remains. In return I would propose exchanges of other specimens if desired, or reciprocate the favor in any 
other way in my power, and pay the expenses incurred in making collections for me. Specimens from foreign countries 
are also solicited, especially when their origin is satisfactorily ascertained. Any person into whose hands this circular 
may come, feeling inclined to correspond with me upon these subjects, is requested to address me under the following 

direction : — 

L. AGASS1Z, 

Profaior of Zoology and Geology in the 
Lawrence Scientific School, at 

Cambridge, Mass. 



195 [1863] 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING FISHES AND OTHER OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

The present condition of our science requires collections made in a very different spirit from those gathered in former 
years. The naturalist must not only know all the different kinds of animals ; he must also become acquainted with the 
changes they undergo while growing-, and with their geographical range. To arrive at this knowledge, it is necessary to 
obtain, separately, complete collections from every district upon the mainland, from every inlet along the sea-shores, and 
from every distinct fresh-water basin, and to select a number of specimens of every kind, if possible so as to include the 
young, as well as the adults, males and females.* The number and diversity of species found in our fresh waters espe- 
cially, is much greater than is usually supposed by accidental observers. A variety of little fishes, sometimes belonging 
even to different families, are almost everywhere used for bait by fishermen, and frequently mistaken under one common 
name, Minnows, or supposed to be simply the young of larger kinds. Among these, most valuable discoveries may be 
made. There are still districts in our country where a naturalist may fish half a dozen new species and more of these 
small nondescripts, in a single creek, within a few hours. f A small hand-net is very useful to collect these smallest kinds 
of fishes, and I have generally found that I could more easily obtain this small fry from boys, than from cither fishermen 
or anglers. Again, scores of fishes are indiscriminately called Bass, Perch, Sunfish, Suckers, &c, in different parts of 
the country, which, when compared side by side, prove as different from one another as a robin and a crow. It is, there- 
fore, a matter of great importance for the naturalist to get every species of fish from every water-basin, that he may have 
an opportunity of ascertaining for himself how far they agree, and how far they differ, in different watercourses. Anders 
and professional fishermen generally know the fishes of their own fishing-grounds much better than naturalists, and from 
them most valuable information may be obtained respecting the species inhabiting their neighborhood. There is, on that 
account, no difficulty in ascertaining from them whether a complete collection of all the fishes of any given locality has 
been obtained. But the difficulty begins when it is attempted to identify the fishes of distant places, relying upon their 
names for comparison. Such is the confusion of these names in different sections of the country, arising from the use of 
the same names for different objects, and of different names for the same objects, that nothing short of complete collections 
obtained separately from every important locality will prevent the naturalist from making gross mistakes in his identifica- 
tion of species from remote localities. Few men not trained in the study of Natural History are prepared to believe that 
even the fishes living in the head-waters of a river may differ entirely from those living in its middle and lower course, 

* Tliere are many species of our fishes in which the sexes differ as much as amons our fowl». 

t It actually happened to me last winter, at Mobile, Ala., and at St. Louis, Mo., to discover six and even eight new epeciei of fishes in a single day. 



[Page Tir«] 

and that it may therefore be necessary to make separate collections in different parts of one and the same water-basin. 
This is still more important respecting distinct water-systems. But a complete survey ought to cover the whole ground 
as soon as possible. It would not be too much to have one collection for every hundred miles upon our large streams, and 
one for every fifty and even for every twenty miles upon smaller rivers. 

The preservation of fishes requires but little care and attention. Any vessel, jar, can, keg, or barrel, fit to hold alcohol, 
is also fit for collecting fishes, which may bo heaped up in it like herrings in salt. The alcohol used must be of about the 
strength of that of .88 specific gravity • for most fishes ; for suckers and brook-trouts, however, it ought to be stronger, 
about .80, their flesh being either soft or very fat, and more readily decomposed. In summer or in warm climates it is ad- 
visable to use always strong alcohol to obviate the effects of evaporation. Suppose it is intended to make a complete col- 
lection from one of the larger tributaries of some of our great rivers. All that is wanted will be a few jars, such as are 
used to keep preserves, a barrel of about fifteen or twenty gallons, and a supply of whiskey and alcohol. These may be kept 
in a cool place, a cellar, or a sheltered recess, ready to receive the fishes. The smallest fishes are best kept by themselves 
in jars, and the larger ones in a barrel. The barrel ought to be put upon one head, the other being removed and used as a 
cover. It will be well to see that the fishes are placed in it in as natural a position as possible, that is to say, stretched out 
with the fins closed against the body, or at least not unnaturally bent. It is equally desirable to exclude specimens the fins 
of which are bruited, and the scales rubbed off, unless they be rare species. When the fishes are too long to be stretched 
across the barrel, they may be gently bent upon their flatter side, and if too stiff to allow this, put in, head foremost, in 
an upright or slanting position, and then slightly bent against the sides of the barrel. It is useless at first to pour more 
alcohol over the fishes than is necessary to cover them. While cruising at sea, it will be well to throw some rags over 
the specimens to prevent their jarring, until the vessel in which they are contained is quite full, and headed up. Of the 
smaller land* of fishes, at least a dozen of each would be required for a full and satisfactory examination. Where they may 
easily be caught, more would be very acceptable. Of those of medium size, about half that number ; and of the larger 
ones, as may be most convenient, one, two, or three. It will secure a better state of preservation, and afford fuller means 
of study, if a cut is made into the belly of the larger fishes to allow the alcohol to penetrate the intestines. At all events, 
these ought never to be removed. The knowledge of the local names is very desirable. To rectify the errors of nomen- 
clature now spread over the whole country, the simplest way of recording the name of a fish is to write it with a black 



196 [1853] 

hard pencil upon a piece of stiff paper, or with indelible ink upon clotn, and to place such a label under the gill-cover of 
the specimen to which it belongs. Specimens too small to be labelled in that way may be rolled up in a piece of cotton 
cloth upon which the name is written. Delicate fishes, with very deciduous scales, would keep better if they were wrapped 
up singly in this way in cloth. Any other notice respecting the habits, uses, &c. of such specimens may be preserved in 
the same manner, or referred to a No. inscribed upon the label of the fish. It would be very important to record as far 
as possible the date at which the specimens preserved were caught. This may often enable an anatomist to determine the 
spawning season of the species. Also the depth at which they are known to live. Should any collector be sufficiently 
familiar with painting to draw colored figures of any of these fishes, or so situated as to have some of them drawn by an 
artist, it would be an invaluable contribution to Natural History. 

When collections have to travel over great distances, or to be for many months on a journey, it is desirable that every 
specimen should be wrapped up singly in a piece of cloth ; but this is not necessary, generally speaking, for collections 
which are likely to be taken care of after a short journey. 

Those unaccustomed to making collections may occasionally suppose from their smell that they are spoiling, the mix- 
ture of alcohol with dead animal matter being rather disagreeable ; but unless there is actual putrefaction, no apprehension 
need be had respecting the safety of a collection, and the removal of decayed specimens is all that is required for the pres- 
ervation of the remainder, provided the alcohol has the necessary strength of at least twenty-eight degrees of Beavmi, or ."88 
specific gravity. To avoid losses, it is prudent never to use kegs of more than twenty to twenty-five gallons, save in 
exceptional cases, where very large and highly valuable specimens are to be preserved. As a general rule, a twenty-five- 
gallon keg will contain any desirable specimen collected even in our largest rivers, there being always an opportunity now 
and then to obtain a moderately large specimen of our largest fishes, which when full grown are at any rate too bulky to 
be preserved in alcohol. Upon small watercourses, or small ponds, an ordinary jar may be sufficient to contain complete 
separate collections of all their natural productions. Of very large fishes, especially of sharks and skates, the skin may 
be preserved, leaving the whole head attached to it, and rolled up, preserved like other specimens, in alcohol. A longitu- 
dinal cut upon one side, in preference the right side, will afford sufficient facility lor removing the intestines and all the flesh 
and bones of the body. Skeletons would be also very desirable. To obtain them it is simply necessary to boil the ani- 
mal, either whole or in parts, and to gather and clean all the bones and preserve them together in a sack. A naturalist 
will readily put up the loose parts in their natural connection. 

This method of collecting may apply to almost all animals, it being now very desirable to obtain specimens even of 
quadrupeds and birds in alcohol, for the sake of making anatomical preparations. Such specimens require, however, to be 

• Common whiskey of .90 to .92 specific gravity may be used by adding strong alcohol, in the proportion of one gallon of alcohol to one gallon of whis- 
key. Highly rectified whiskey, a* it is prepared in some parts of the country, may occasionally do by itself, especially if it has nearly the specific gravity of 
.88. Il is, however, always safer to err by using loo strong than too weak spirits. Specimens may be contracted by too strong alcohol, and lose to some 
tzunl their form ; they will certainly spoil entirely in too weak a mixture. 



[Pag© Three] 

injected with alcohol through the mouth and anus, and also into the abdominal cavity. Reptiles may be treated like fishes, 
as also most of the lower animals. I may say here, that insects, and all brittle objects of Natural History, especially 
when small, must be preserved in comparatively small jars ; whilst shell-fishes, crabs and lobsters, sea-urchins, star-fishes, 
corals, &c, protected as they are by their solid envelopes, need no special care after being put into alcohol, except, per- 
haps, to be wrapped up in soft paper or in cloth. All kinds of insects, even butterflies, may be collected in strong alco- 
hol, provided they are divided off into comparatively small jars and not allowed to shake. Such specimens answer best for 
anatomical examination. It requires a peculiar skill to make good collections of dried specimens' of insects, and to pin 
and spread them properly, though specimens preserved in this manner are the most valuable for exhibition. The preserva- 
tion of shells in alcohol, without removing the soft parts of the animal, is particularly desirable. Small shells are better 
packed first in small boxes, and these packed like larger specimens. Geological specimens and fossils require to be 
wrapped up carefully in several layers of soft paper, and packed closely to prevent any friction. 

As soon as a collection is supposed to be complete, it is best to send it off at once, that it may be taken care of prop- 
erly, and examined whilst the specimens are in the best state of preservation. Not to multiply the packages, it is desir- 
able to put every thing in one barrel or in one box ; but to secure their perfect preservation, under such circumstances, a 
few precautions are required. In the first place, assort somewhat the alcoholic specimens, in tubs, before packing them, so 
that the larger ones may be placed side by side and not crush the more delicate ones. After selecting an appropriate keg, 
placing it upon one head, the other being removed, or taking, for packing, the barrel used for collecting, the larger speci- 
mens are first put in, in the manner described above ; smaller tough ones, such as perches, being placed in the empty intervals, 
and so on, until all the larger and coarser specimens are disposed of, and covered with alcohol, which is poured in gradually. 
Upon these, a layer of rags or soft paper is placed, to protect the next layer of smaller fishes, between each of which a layer 
of rags is to be added to prevent the too close contact of such a bulk of flesh, avoiding, however, all pressure upon the speci- 
mens, and allowing them simply to rest upon one another with their natural weight. In this way, a whole barrel of fishes 



197 



[1853-1854] 



may De packed with perfect safety, like sardines, and travel for thousands ol miles, with a comparatively small quantity ot 
alcohol between them. Finally, the smallest specimens, already packed by themselves in small jars, in the same manner as 
the larger ones in the barrel, may be also packed in the barrel, being wrapped up in rags, and in that condition placed among 
the larger specimens; or the small jars containing the small fishes may be packed in a box by themselves. Ueforc closing 
up the barrel, it is necessary to see that no empty space is left ; otherwise, even when full of alcohol, the solid contents 
may move ; and for their preservation nothing is more important than to prevent the specimens from jarring when travel- 
ling. This applies equally to the small jars. However, before heading the barrel, it is necessary to draw, through the 
bunghole, so much of the alcohol as may be necessary to allow the head to be secured without losing any liquid. After 
heading the barrel, it is to be completely filled wiih alcohol either through the bunghole or through a small hole in the 
upper head. The liquor used in collecting may be used again in packing, provided it be strengthened by some additional 
alcohol that may give it at least the strength required, as stated above. In packing dried specimens, the same care must 
be taken to pack first the heavy ones together, and next to protect the delicate ones by packing them beforehand in small 
boxes before allowing them to go among the larger ones. 

After having mentioned all the preparations necessary to obtain perfect collections, I may add, that any rough gather- 
ing of a few specimens, taken up accidentally, may be also quite welcome, and highly valuable as a first indication of 
what might be obtained from a locality the natural productions of which have not yet been studied. A mere catalogue of 
all the fishes known to the anglers and fishermen of your vicinity, giving their vernacular names, would be very ac- 
ceptable. 

A notice of the physical character of the localities where specimens have been collected would be a valuable addition 
to the collection itself. Respecting the land it should mention : the height above the level of the sea, if known, the nature 
of the soil, whether dry, moist or swampy, muddy, sandy or rocky, &c. Respecting the waters : the mean and extreme 
temperatures, if ascertained, whether clear or muddy, and of what color, deep or shallow, stagnant or current; of rivers 
especially, the rapidity of the current, and also whether subject to great rise and fall. 

When despatching such collections to thur final destination, it is important to mark each barrel or box with a conspicuous 
sign, that there should be no possibility of mistaking them ; the chief value of specimens in Natural History arising in our 
days from a correct identification of their origin. 

{gf Any parcel directed to mc, care of Strat/on^s Cambridge Express, Boston, will reach me safely, and be taken 
care of, even in case I should be absent from Cambridge. To save you any further trouble, you may deliver your parcels 
to a commission merchant of your place, and request him when forwarding to send me a bill of lading, mentioning the 
sign marked upon the parcels. Small packages may be sent by express, larger ones by the ordinary freight lines. 



•AMBR1DGE, 



1853. 



[1854, Jan* 7. Though addressed to his father, or to the company, this and other 
letteri to he edited below really were intended for Henry D # Thoreau, who was 
by this time the aetire part of the company and the one responsible for filling 
orders. For a facsimile, see page 111 above. The MS. appears in Thoreau*s "Na- 
ture Notes," page 37, in the Pierpont Morgan Library* It is edited here vith 
permission.] 



Dear 


Sir 








Boston Stereotype Foundry 
Jany 7, 1854. 


Please 
bago 


i send 


us 


by 

& 


first express 5 lbs Plum- 
. Oblige 












Yours 




To 
Mr John 


Thoreau 




C. J. 
Bos. 


Peters, Agt. 
Stereo Foundry 



198 [1854] 

[1854, Jan* 13* The manuscript is found on page 32 of Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" 
in the Pierpent Morgan Library* See the facsimile on page 113 above.] 



New York Jan y 12 th 1854 

Mess John Thoreau & Co 

Gents 

Enclos'd please find $4- for which, please 
forward us two pounds of your best plumbago, 
immediately. Should the artical please, we shall 
probably be wanting a considerable, as we use a 
great deal. Enclosed is our Card, by which you 
Can direct 

Yours &c 

A H Jocelyn 
pr Wm [?] Lockwood 



[1854, Jan* 16? The manuscript is found on page 31 of Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" 

in the Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 113 above* The date 

may be January 11, the "6" being uncertain and the "16" falling on Sunday in 
that year*] 



New York Jan. 16. 1854. 
Messrs J. Thoreau & Co 

I have received five pounds of Black- 
lead as ordered. 

I enclose $10.00, being the amount of 
your bill for the same 

Yours respectfully 
Silas T. Knight 



[1854, March 3* On this date Thoreau wrote to Greeley or the Tribune, complaining 
that he had sent $2 for a year's subscription to the weekly Tribune but had 
failed to receive anything in return* (See below under March 6, 1854* The rates 
vera: Daily Tribune P $5 a year; Semi-weekly Tribune,. $3 a year; weekly Tribune. 
$3*) On March 6, 1854 (see Correspondence,, p* 333), Greeley indicated that 
Thoreau* s first letter with remittance had been robbed or stolen* He, neverthe- 
less, followed up the formal note of his secretary with the promise of a $3 sub- 
scription "on trial"— at no further cost to Henry* Here is another example of 
Greeley* s generosity in dealing with Thoreau and of his friendship*] 



199 [1864] 

[1854, March 6. For commentary, see under March 3, 1854. The manuscript (see 
page 114 above) appears on page 10 of Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" in the Pierpont 
Morgan Library, edited here with its kind permission*] 









Office of the Tribune, 
New York, 6 March 1854 


Mr. 


Henry 


D t Thoreau 










Sir, 












Yours 
us and we will 
money has not : 


rd 
of 3 to Mr Greeley 

send you the Tribune 

reached us. 


is before 
though the 








Very Resp ^ 














Greeley & 


McEliath 












pr S. 


Sinclair 







[1854, March 13. The manuscript (see page 135 above) is found on page 46 of 
Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" in the Pierpont Morgan Library.] 



New York March 13 th 1854 

Mess John Thoreau & Co 
Gents 

Please find enclosed five dollars, 
in payment for its value, in your best plum- 
bago, such as we bought of you in January 
last, which please forward immediately by 
express 

Yours Truly 

A H Jocelyn 
Nos 58 & 60 Fulton St 



[1854, March 24. From Blake in Worcester to Alcott [in Boston?]. The manuscript 
may be found among the Amos Bronson Alcott Papers now in the Houghton Library. 
It is edited here with the kind permission of Prof. William A. Jackson and Mrs. 
Frederic Wolsey Pratt.] 



Worcester, March 
28~, 1854. 



n » 



Mr. Alcott, 
Dear sir, 

What have you received in the way 
of pecuniary compensation, for your conver- 



200 



sa 


tions, in 


towns of 


about the size of 


Wo 


rcester? 


It is in 


contemplation 


to see 


if 


a company cannot b 


e gathered to 


meet 


yoi 


u here. 


Truly 
H. 


yours, 

G. 0. Blake. 





[1864] 



[1854, May 3. Thoreau to Edmund (?) Hosmer. Fragment of a rough draft, now 
clipped to page 423 of Thoreau 1 s manuscript journal, volume XXII, in the Pier- 
pont Morgan Library. See facsimile on page 115 above. The letter might have 
dealt with the temporary use of Hosmer* s old house by an out-of-town guest* 
(During the following year, Thoreau turned to Hosmer for help in accommodating 
Ricketson. See Correspondence. p. 385: M I have not yet conveyed your message 
to Hosmer, but will not fail to do so. That idea of occupying the old house is 
a good one— quite feasible* ••• It is an inn in Concord which I had not thought 
of— a philosophers Inn.")] 



Concord May 5 1854. 



Mr Hosmer 



[1854, June Z2» Harvard*s Librarian, Thaddeus W. Harris, sent Thoreau the fol- 
lowing routine notice, calling in all outstanding books for the annual checking 
period. It was this notice that led Thoreau promptly to return the two books 
then in his possession and to gain the gratitude of Harris. See the Librarians 
letter in The Transcendentalists and Minerva. II, pages 482-483, edited in Cor- 
respondence, page 329.] 



! Library of Harvard Co/leg,, 
Cambridge, June, 185^ 



Sir, 



The approaching examination of the Public 
Library makes it necessary that all books should 
note be returned. 



Librarian. 



/#*«£*} 



201 



[Here were listed the particular 
titles, nov lacking*] 



[186-4] 



[1854, June 25, Thoreau wrote Thaddeus W. Harris, returning the overdue library 
books and accompanying them with specimens of the Cicada ,* Though the manuscript 
seems not to hare survived, the evidence appears in Harris* letter of June 27. 
1854* (See Correspondence, page 329.) Did Thoreau send the letter and books by 
friend or by the express operated by Augustus Adams? (See Correspondence, pages 
173 and 509,) According to the Charging List (see Emerson the Essayist, II, 
196), the two volumes returned at this time were among the following: 

John Heckewelder, Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren 
among the Delaware and Mo h eg an Indians. Phlla, , 1820* 

Robert Chambers, Ancient Sea-margins , as memorials of Changes in 
the Relative Level of Sea and Land. Edinburgh, 1848, 

John Tanner, A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures,.. among 
the Indians. N.Y., 1830,] 



[1864, Sept* 26. The manuscript (see page 116) is found on page 36 of Thoreau* s 
"Nature Notes" in the Pierpont Morgan Library* It is edited here with permis- 
sion.] 



Boston Sept 26 1854 



Mr Thoreau 
Dr sir 



A Week ago or better I was passing thorough 
your place Saw a Man at the Depot Who Said 

that he was the Expressmans Employe I gave 

him an Order to get 6 lb Blk Lead of the Best 
Quality I have heard Nothing from it I 

presume that he did not attend to it if you 

can Send the Same do so on the Receipt of this 
if you cannot please write on [?] the returning 

Mail Yours Resp 

J W Wilcox 
152 Washington St 



[1864, Oct, 8? On this date, Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian, Thaddeus W. 
Harris, asking him to deliver Wilkins* edition of the Bharrat Geeta to the 
bearer of the note. The Charging Book of 1854-1866 (a facsimile of which ap- 
pears below under the date of Oct, 23, 1884) indicates that the transaction 
was made "To order,"] 



202 



[1864] 



[1864, Oct. 23* Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian, Thaddeus W. Harris, return- 
ing the Bhagrat Geeta and asking for the Vishnu Pur an a. a single volume transla- 
ted by Wilson* The letter survives and has been edited in Correspondence, page 
346, an excellent example of Thoreau* s borrowing books through the courtesy of 
others* Instead of "To order" in the Charging Book, the name of the agent is 
given— J* S* Baker* (See page 203*) He was probably the "James Baker" frequent- 
ly mentioned in Thoreau* s Journal : "Saw at James Baker* s a buttonvood tree...." 
(ill, 4). "Minott •••tells me that Jacob Baker.. .gives all the corn of his ovn 
raising to his stock, and buys the flat yellow corn of the South for bread." (ill, 
67). "Therien says James Baker sold his wood-lot south of Fair Haven Pond. ..for 
one hundred and twenty dollars an acre**.*" ivil, 299)* Mrs* Dorothy Nyren, Li- 
brarian of the Concord Free Public Library, writes that in 1868 Concord had a J. 
Edward Baker (married to Phinney Baker), a laborer, his birthplace listed as Ells- 
f or, Nova Scotia* ] 



[1854, Nor* 13* Thoreau to the Rev. Adrian Rouquette* See Correspondence, page 
349. The editors found only the upper half of this rough draft in the box of 
Thoreau fragments in the Houghton Library at Harrard (MS. Am 278.5). The bottom 
half I have recently discovered in the same box and here reproduce (page 204) 
the whole, correcting the spelling of Fr* Rouquette* s given name and supplying a 
certain reading of a word which offered the editors trouble. That Thoreau at- 
tempted carefully to weigh his remarks is evidenced by the two versions dis- 
cernible in the manuscript* which I here edit with permission*] 



[First 
draft 
of the 
ending* 
See p. 
206 

for the 
final 
version. 



] 



Rev- Adrian Rouquette 
with thi Concord Mass. Nov. 

Dear Sir 



13 th 18S4. 



I have just received your letter and the 3 
works which accompanied it — and I make haste to 
send you a copy of "A Week on the Concord & Merri- 
mack Rivers" — by the same mail with this — I thank 
you heartily for the interest which you express in 
jp^'pefig. "Walden" — and also for the gift of your works 

I have not had time to preruse [ sic ] the last atten- 
tively — but I am glad to be convinced that there are 
more than I supposed in your section of our broad 
country devoted to something better than trade. I 
am particularly pleased to receive so hearty a greet- 
ing in French — which was the language of my paternal 
Grandfather — 

Altogether it is affecting to be thus reminded of 
the breadth & the destiny of our common country — 

I am sir yours sincerely 

Henry D Thoreau 



203 



** 




Q>\ * 



r 







f A j 



(V 



Sophia E. Thoreau 




ft? -f*i- * > 









f 






/ 










204 




f S%rr./J/m 7 , 



<> 




^^/^zr-^ <r^^ 




i^_ y^zv^zr 










^^c^^ 







C&Z^&Z* 















<^\ 



^? ^^ 



305 



[1864-1866] 



[Pinal 
draft 
of the 
ending.] 



I am especially pleased to receive so cordial a 
greeting in French — which was the language of my 
paternal Grandfather — Though I have not had 
time to preruse [ sic ] your books attentively — 
I have looked far enough to to be convinced that 
not all in your section of the union any more 
than in my own are devoted to trade alone. 
The very locality assigned to some of your poems 
jlUgjXflg^^j^jjJJ^y-*' appeals to the muse in me 

I assure you it is not a little affecting to 
be thus reminded of the breadth & the destiny 
of our common country — 

I am sir yours sincerely 

Henry D Thoreau 



[1854, Dec, 4. Fragment of the rough draft of the letter Thoreau mailed to 
Charles Sumner, dated December 5, 1854. See Correspondence , page 353* Or is 
this an earlier letter to Sumner? See the facsimile on page 133 above. It is 
found in the Thoreau Indian manuscripts in the Pierpont Morgan Library, vol* 
711, and edited here with permission*] 




[1855, Jan* 6, A fragment of the rough draft of Thoreau* s letter to Daniel 
Ricketson, given in the Correspondence on page 362* (See the facsimile on page 
107*) It is used as a bookmark in Thoreau's MS. Journal, vol. XXIII, in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library* In it we note that Thoreau first gave January 4 as 
Cholmondeley's sailing date and originally placed the message for Arthur Ricket- 
son at the end of the letter*] 



[1855, Feb. 2* Thoreau to F* B. Sanborn. See Correspondence, pp. 369-370. ' 
This rough draft (see page 106) survives in Thoreau* s MS* Journal, vol* XXII, 
in the Pierpont Morgan Library* It contains an interesting cancellation: "A 
long & brilliant career to the Harvard Magazine*"] 



[1855, Feb* 20* The manuscript is in Thoreau*s "Nature Notes" (page 10) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 117 above. One should note 
the absence of an attractive letterhead on Harper A Brothers' stationery of 
this period.] 



206 



[1856] 



New York, Feb 7 20, 1855. 



Dear Sir: 



Enclosed please find our check for 
One Hundred Dollars, to pay your bill of 
plumbago due 3. inst., receipt of which 
please acknowledge by return mail, and 
oblige 

Yours, truly, 



Harper & Brothers, 
per W m H. Demarest. 



M. John Thoreau, 
Concord, 
Mass* 



•} 



[1855, Mar, 12. The manuscript will be found on page 38 of Thoreau*s "Nature 
Notes" in the Pierpont Morgan Library, For the facsimile, turn to page 118 above,] 



New York March 12^ / 55 

Mr J. Thoreau will please send by Rinsleys & 
Cos. Express 1 pound of "Plumbago" besst quality 
such as used by the "Harper's" for Electrotyping 

Enclosed you will receive $2,00 that being 
the price I believe, if not you can inform me as 
to price &c I shall require considerable from 
time to time 

Vincent Dill 
Stereotyper & Electrotyper 
29 & 31 Beekman St 



[1855, April 13, From Thoreau in Concord to George William Curtis, Associate 
Editor of Putnam's Monthly , Magazine. New York City, The letter refers to the 
portion of Thoreau* s later book, which appeared as "Cape Cod, The Plains of Nau- 
set," Putnam* s Monthly Magazine. VI, no, 31 (July, 1865), pp. 59-66, especially 
pages 64 and 66, Curtis did not follow Thoreau* s instructions, which were ful- 
filled only when Cape Cod was published as a complete work. The "biographer" re- 
ferred to was James Freeman, whose "A Description and History of Eastham, in the 
County ef Barnstable, September. 1802" ( Massachusetts Historical Society Collec- 
tions. VIII [for 1801], pp, 154-186) Thoreau drew heavily upon for his chapter. 
Biographical data concerning the Rev. Samuel Treat appear on pp, 170-183, Free- 
man's passage, which Thoreau summarizes, appears on page 177: "Mr, Treat, as 
may be supposed from the period in which he lived, was a Calvinist: but his Cal- 
vinism was of the strictest kind; not that moderate Calvinism, which is so com- 
mon at the present time, and which, by giving up, or explaining away the peculiar 
doctrines of the party, like a porcupine disarmed of its quills, is unable to re- 



207 



[1866] 



sist the feeblest attack; but consistent Calvinism, with all its hard and sharp 
points, by which it can courageously defend itself; in fine, such Calvinism, as 
the adamantine author of this system would himself have avowed* " 

Compare the Putnam's version with that 
of the 1864 edition of Cane Cod . (See pages 208 and 209.) The following is 
reprinted from William White, "Three Unpublished Thoreau Letters," N E ft. XXXIII, 
no. 3 (Sept., I960), pp. 372-374— -with permission. MS. owned by Charles E. 
Feinberg, Esq.., of Detroit.] 



Concord Mass. Ap 13 th 

55 
Mr Editor, 

I used the expressions of Mr Treat's biographe[r] 8c to some ex- 
tent eulogist, merely condescending then, being mysell a wholly 
indifferent party; but I see that I was not careful enough to preserve 
the past tense. I suppose that your objection will be avoided by 
writing the passage thus,— 

"Not one of those moderate Calvinists, said to be common in 
the writers' day, who 'by giving up or explaining away the peculiar 
doctrines of the party,' became 'like a porcupine disarmed of its 
quills,' but a consistent Calvinist, who could dart his quills to a 
distance and courageously defend himself." 



"So common at the present time" are the historian's words. You 

perceive that 1 omit one of the porcupines, but I prefer to leave 
something to be explained away. 

By "Scripture" I mean the bible. I suspected that the line was 
derived from Elliot's Indian bible. It will be better if it is printed 
"the Scriptures," and so save me from the suspicion of weakness. 
If this is obscure, I do not see any help for it, but must consent to 
be understood by the few. 

In the remaining clause I should like to substitute "probably" for 
"may be." 

Henry D. Thoreau 



[1856, April 24. Manuscript (see page 119 above) is on page 30 of Thoreau's "Ni 
ture Notes" in the Pierpont Morgan Library.] 



Be 


>ston 


April 


24 


1855 




Mr Thoreau 












Dr Sir 












Please Send me 6 


lb Best 


Blk 


Lead 


of 


finest quality and 


Obli 


^ e Yours Resp 




Send immediately 






J W 


Wilcox 



64 



Cape Cod. 



[July 



•08 



on a spring morning, till bo was con- 
strained to confess that the Scriptures 
were true ! ** It was also voted by the 
town that all persons who should stand 
out of the mecting-houso during the 
time of divine service, should be set in 
the stocks." It behoved such a town 
to see that sitting in the meeting-house 
was nothing akin to sitting in the stocks, 
lest the penalty of obedience to the law 
might be greater than that of disobe- 
dience. This was the Eastham famous 
of late years for its camp-meetings, held 
in a grove near by, to which thousands 
flock from all parts of tho Bay. We 
conjectured that the reason for the per- 
haps unusual, if not unhealthful devel- 
opment of the religious sentiment here, 
was the fact that a large portion of tho 
population are women whose husbands 
and sons are either abroad on the sea, 
or else drowned, and there is nobody 
but they and the ministers left behind. 
The old account says that , "hysteric 
fits are very common in Orleans, East- 
ham, and the towns below, particularly 
on Sunday, in the times of divine ser- 
vice. When one woman is affected, five 
or six others generally sympathize with 
her; and the congregation is thrown 
into the utmost confusion. Several old 
men suppose, unphilosophically and 
uncharitably, perhaps, that tho will is 
partly concerned, and that ridicule and 
threats would have a tendency to pre- 
vent the evil." How this is now we did 
not learn. We saw one singularly mas- 
culine woman, however, in a bouse on' 
this very plain, who did not look as if 
she was ever troubled with hysterics, or 
sympathized with those that were ; or, 
peronance, life itself was to her a hys- 
teric fit — Nanset woman, of a hardness 
and coarseness such as no man ever 
possesses or suggests. It was enough 
to see the vertebrae and sinews of her 
neck, and her set jaws of iron, which 
would have bitten a board-nail in two 
in their ordinary action — braced against 
the world, talking like a mau-of-war's- 
man in petticoats, or as if shouting to 
you through a breaker ; who looked as 
if it made her head ache to live ; hard 
enough for any enormity. I looked 
upon her as one who had committed in- 
fanticide; who never had a brother, un- 
less it were some wee thing that died in 
infancy — for, what need of him ? — and 
whose father must have died before she 
was born. This woman told us that the 
oomp-meetings were not hold the pre- 



vious summer for fear of introducing th€ 
cholera, and that they would have been 
held earlier this summer, but the ryo 
was so backward that straw would not 
have been ready for them ; for they lie 
in straw. There are sometimes one 
hundred and fifty ministers, and five 
thousand hearers, assembled. The 
ground, which is called Millennium 
Grove, is owned by a company in Bos- 
ton, and is the most suitable, or rather 
unsuitable, for this purpose, of any that 
I saw on the Cape. It is fenced, and 
the frames of tho tents are, at all 
times, to be seen interspersed among 
the oaks. They have an oven and a 
pump, and keep all their kitchen uten- 
sils and tent coverings and furniture in 
a permanent building on the spot. They 
select a time for their meetings when 
the moon is full. A man is appointed 
to clear out the pump a week before- 
hand, while tho ministers are clearing 
their throats ; but, perhaps, the latter do 
not always deliver as pure a stream as 
the former. I saw the heaps of clam- 
shells left under the tables, where they 
had feasted in previous summers, and 
supposed, of course, that that was the 
work of the unconverted, or tho back- 
sliders and scoffers. It looked as if a 
camp-meeting must bo a singular com- 
bination of a prayer-meeting and a 
pic-nic. 

The first minister settled here was the 
Rev. Samuel Treat, in 1672, a gentleman 
who is said to be " entitled to a dis- 
tinguished rank among the evangelists 
of New England." He converted many 
Indians, as well as white men, in his 
day, and translated the Confession of 
Faith into the Nanset language These 
were tho Indians concerning whom their 
first teacher, Richard Bourne, wrote to 
Gookin in 1674, that he had been to see 
one who was sick, " and there came from 
him very savory and heavenly expres- 
sions," but, with regard to the mass of 
them, ho lays, " the truth is, that many 
of them are very loose in their course, to 
my heart-breaking sorrow." Mr. Treat 
is described as a Calvinist of tho strictest 
kind, not one of those who, by giving 
up or explaining away, become like a 
porcupine disarmed of its quills, but a 
consistent Calvinist, who can dart his 
quills to a distance and courageously 
defend himself. There exists a volumo 
of his sermons in manuscript, " which," 
says a commentator, *' appear to have 
been designed for publication." I quote 



66 



209 

Cape Cod. 



[1866] 



[July. 



4 "A man of wisdom aud virtue,' and taught 
his people the use of peat, and the art of 
drying and preparing it, which, as they had 
scarcely any other fuel, was a great blessing 
to them. He also introduced improvements 
in agriculture. But, notwithstanding his many 
services, as he embraced the religion of Ar- 
minius, some of his tiock became dissatisfied. 
At length, an ecclesiasiical council, consisting 
often ministers, with their churches, sat upon 
hiin. and they, naturally enough, spoiled his 
usefulness. The council convened at the 
desire of two divine philosophers, Joseph 
Doane and Nathaniel Freeman. In their re- 
port they say, 'it appears to the council that 
the Rev. Mr. Osborn hath, in his preaching to 
this people, said, that what Christ did and 
suffered, doth nothing abate or diminish our 
obligation to obey the law of God, and that 
Christ's suffering and obedience were for him- 
self; both parts of which, we think, contain 
dangerous error.' 

"Also — 'It hath been said, and doth appear 
to this council, that the Rev. Mr. Osborn, both 
in public and private, asserted that there are 
no promises in the Bible but what are condi- 
tional, which we think, also, to be an error, 
and do say that there are promises which are 
absolute and without any conditions, — such 
as the promise of a new heart, and thut he will 
write his law in our hearts.' 

"Also, they Bay, 'it hath been alleged, and 
doth appear to us, that Mr. Osborn hath de- 
clared, that obedience is a considerable cause 
of a person's justification, which, we think, 
contains very dangerous error.' " 

And many the like distinctions they 
made, such as some of my readers, 
probably, arc more familiar with than I 
am. So, far in the East, among the 
Yezidis, or Worshipers of the Devil, 
so-called, the Chaldeans and others, 
according to the testimony of travelers, 
you may still hear these remarkable 
disputations on doctrinal points going 
on. Osborn was, accordingly, dis- 
missed, und ho removed to Boston, 
where he kept school for many years. 
But he was fully justified, methinks, by 
his works in the peat meadow; ono 
proof of which is, that he lived to be 
between ninety and one hundred years 
old. 

The next minister was the Rev. Ben- 

J'amin Webb, of whom, though a neigh- 
»oring clergyman pronounced him "the 
best man and the best minister whom 
he ever knew." yet the historian say-, 
that— 

" \a he spent his days in the uniform dis- 
cha ge of his duty, [it reminds one of a country 
muster,] and there were no shades to give 
relief to his character, not much can be said 
of him. [1'ity the devil did not plant a few 
aha<!u trees along his avenues.] His heart 
woe as pure as the new-fallen snow, which 



completely covers every dark spot in afield; 
bis mind was as serene" as the sky in a mild 
evening in June, when the moon shines with- 
out a cloud. Name any virtue, and that vir- 
tue he practiced; name any vice, and that 
vice he shunned. But if peculiar qualities 
marked his character, they were his humility, 
his gentleness, and his love of (Jod. The 
people had long been taught by a son of 
thunder: [Mr. Treat,] in hiin they were in- 
structed by a son of consolation, who sweetly 
allured them to virtue by soft persuasion, and 
by exhibiting the mercy ot the Supreme 
Being; for his thoughts were so much in 
heaven, that they seldom descended to the 
dismal regions below; and though of the 
same religious sentiments as Mr. Treat, yet 
his attention was turned to those glad tidings 
of great joy, which a Savior came to publish." 

We were interested to hear that such 
a man had trodden the plains of Nanset. 

Turning over further in our book, our 
eyes fell on the name of the Rev. 
Jonathan Boscom, of Orleans: " Senex 
emunctae naris, doctus, et auctor ele- 
gantium verborum, fucetus, et dulcis 
festique sermonis." And, again, on 
that of the Rev. Nathan Stone, of 
Dennis : " Vir humilis, mitis, blandus, 
advenarum hospes; [there was need 
of him there] ; suis commodis in terra 
non studens, reconditis thesauris in 
ccelo." An easy virtue that, there, for, 
methinks, no inhabitant of Dennis could 
be very studious about his earthly com- 
modity, but must regard the bulk of his 
treasures as in heaven. But, probably, 
the most just and pertinent character 
of all, is that which appears to be given 
to the Rev. Ephraim Briggs, of Chat- 
ham, in tho language of the later 
Romans : " Seip, sepoese, sepoemese, 
weehekum — " which, not being inter- 
preted, we know not what it means, 
though we have no doubt it occurs, 
* * may-be, in the Apostle Elliot's 
Epistle to the Nipmucks. 

Let no ono think that I do not love 
the old ministers. They were, proba- 
bly, the best men of their generation, 
and they deserve that their biographies 
should fill the pages of the town histo- 
ries. If I could but hear the "glad 
tidings" of which they tell, and which, 
perchance, they heard, I might write in 
a worthier strain than this. 

There was no better way to make 
the reader realize how wide and peculiar 
that plain was, and how long it took to 
traverse it, than by inserting these long 
extracts in the midst of my narrative. 



210 [1866] 

[1866, June 21. The manuscript of the following letter (see page 120) appear* 
as page 31 of Thoreau' s "Nature Notes" in the Pierpont Morgan Library and is 
edited here with permission.] 



New York June 21-^ / 55 

Mr J. Thoreau 
Dear Sir 

Enclosed is Two dollars for which 
you will please send me 1 lb of "prepared 
plumbago, and Express it immediately being 
entirely out 

Vincent Dill 
Electrotyper & 
Sterotyper 
29 & 51 Beekman St 
N. Y. City 



[1855, Aug. 8. From Thoreau, in Concord, to George William Curtis, Associate 
Editor of Putnam's Monthly Magazine. New York City, The chapter of Cape Cod 
referred to herein never appeared in Putnam's * Curtis objected to Thoreau's sub« 
stituting pages just as he had refused to make changes in printing an earlier 
chapter. "The Beach Again" did not appear in print until 1864. See Francis H. 
Allen, A Bibliography of Henry David Thoreau. Boston & N.Y., 1908, p. 20. The 
following is reprinted with permission from William White's "Three Unpublished 
Thoreau Letters," N 1! {[. XXXIII, no. 3 (Sept., I960), pp. 372-374.] 



Mr. Editor, Concord Mass " A ^ 8th 

Will you allow me to trouble you once more about my Cape Cod ^ 

paper. I would like to substitute the accompanying sheets for about 
ten pages of my MS, in the Chapter called "The Beach Again," 
that is, for the pages between the words "heaped & then scraped" 
(which I think occur at the end of a paragraph about a dozen pages 
from the beginning of the chapter,) and the words "It was a poetic 
recreation 8cc," as you will see. 

Yours respectfully 
Henry D. Thoreau 



[1855, Sept. 5. The MS. is in Thoreau' s "Nature Notes" (page 32) in the Pierpont 
Morgan Library, See the facsimile on page 121 above.] 



Boston Stereotype Foundry 
Dear Sir September 5 1855 

Please forward to our address 5 lbs. of 

Plumbago and oblige 

Yours &c 

T . m, r Chas I Peters 

John Thoreau Esq 



211 [1866-1856] 

[1855, Oct. 20. The manuscript is in Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" (p. 37) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library* See the facsimile on page 135 above*] 



142 Centre Street, N.Y 
Oct. 20. 1855 



M. John Thoreau ~~~~ 

Dear Sir 

Have the Kindness to Send us by Ex- 
press, One dollars worth of Your finest 
Black Lead for Electrotype purposes. Wee 
[ sic ] would enclose the Money were wee 
Sure this would reach You, and will do So 
on the next occasion, if this finds You as 
Usual 

Respectfully Yours 

Jackson & McDermott 



[1856, Jan. 31. The manuscript is in Thoreau 1 s "Nature Notes" (p. 49) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 134 above.] 



N.Y. Jany 31 st / 56 

Mr John Thoreau 
Dear Sir 

Enclosed I send Twenty Dollars for 
which send Prepared Black Lead as usual 

Yrs Resp y 

Tho B Smith 
pr P. H. S. 



[1856, Feb. 7. The manuscript is in Thoreau , s "Nature Notes" (p. 30) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library* See the facsimile on page 122 above.] 



L. Johnson & Co. Type Founders 
No. 6 SANSOM STREET, ABOVE SIXTH STREET. 
...Philadelphia, Feb^ 7th 1856 
M. M. Thoreau 

Lead Pencil Manufacturer 
Concord Mass 
Dr sir 

Please send us by Express with a bill 
5 lbs Plumbago same as last sent 

Yours &c L. Johnson & Co 

^ per Geo. Wm. Witham 



212 



[1866] 



[1856, March 4. The manuscript is in Thoreau's "Nature Notes" (p. 34) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library* See the facsimile on page 123 above*] 



Albany March 4 th 1856 

To the Express Agent 
Concord N. H. 
D r Sir 

Will you do us the favor to procure 
from the Black Lead Works in your place, One 
pound of their best quality of Black Lead for 
Electro typing. We do not know their price but 
will pay the bill on presentation with the pack- 
age by Express. An early answer will oblige 

Yours 4 C Miller & Gilchrist 



Please send us their address- 



M & G 



[1856. Aug* 8. The manuscript is in the Pierpont Morgan Library* See the fac- 
simile on page 124 above*] 



G/L 



//, 



£ 






To METCALF & CO., 

<G>ltrtnitqpcr0, ^ritttera, nnb %\mtix$m. 



Dr. 



C. K. METCALF, 



C. P. THAYF.n, 



M. T. RTGEI.OW. 



A. K. F. WELCH. 



Mr Thoreau will please to send us 
five pounds black Lead 

Respfy 

Metcalf & Co — 

Cambridge Aug 8, lese*-^ 



213 



[1860] 



[1856, Aug. 11. The manuscript is in Thoreau's "Nature Notes" (p. 36) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 125.] 



Albany Aug 11. 1856. 

Mr. John Thoreau <" 
Concord <^ 

D r Sir ^ 

On my return from Buffalo I find your 
Invoice of prepared Black lead under date of 
Aug 1, which my clerk omitted sending you the 
amt. 

Enclosed please find $10. being amt. 
of Inv. and Excuse the unintentional delay in 
forwarding the money 

Respectfully yours &c. 

Chas. Van Benthuy Sen. 



[1856, Sept. 4. Alcott , s reply to Thoreau* s letter of Sept. 1, 1856, is found 
in his manuscript diary, vol. XXXI, now in the Houghton Library, which I am here 
permitted to quote through the courtesy of William A. Jackson, Esq., and Mrs. 
Frederic Wolsey Pratt. See pages 811-813 (for a copy of Thoreau* s letter and 
the envelope ( supra page 107), but more especially pages 817-818.] 

M. [George P.] Bradford takes the morning train 

for Concord, and I send by him a note with my Circular 

to Thoreau, also a copy of the same to Emerson. To 
Thoreau, I say,— 



"I am so unfortunate, I find, as to be about leaving 
home for Vermont on Friday next, the day you propose 
coming to Walpole. I may return Wednesday the 10 — to 
leave on Saturday following for Fitchburg — thence I go 
to Worcester, Wolcott, New York City; and much fear I 
shall miss seeing you here unless you will come up on 
Thursday instead, and give me Friday the 12. th. You will 
find my house and household right glad to receive and en- 
tertain their wise guest j our hills too and streams all 
well pleased to second this hospitality. So come if 
you can. M? Bradford, who slept here last night, will 
vouch for all, and my tour of talk will borrow riches 
from the traveller's contributions. 2 

But whether I see you here, or in Concord, or do not 
see, there remains a country for me — an America — while 
my friends survive to think and write of England, old 
or new.— 5 Very truly vours>[ „] 



214 



[1866] 



[See The Journals of Brongpn Alcott . 
ed. Odell Shepard, Boston, 1938, pp. 
384-285, for an account of Thoreau 1 s 
visit. 

The following notations come from 
the manuscript diary, vol, XXXI, 
pages 851, 852, and 854.] 

[Wed., Sept. 10, 1856] This 
afternoon comes Thoreau, hav- 
ing been at Brattleboro, at 
Bellows Falls; climbed Fall 
mountain with his pack from 
the river, and came down on 
the Cold Stream side, walking 
from thence to our house, 
where he spends the evening 
and sleeps. — , 

Thursday 11 

We discuss. . . . 

Friday 12. 

Thoreau takes the morning 
train for Concord. And I pre- 
pare, and pack my trunk for 
Fitchburg, and the Connecti- 
cut and New York journey. — 



1 He was teaching school in Salem, Mass* 

2 He had just spent a year in England, 
France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy* 
At that moment, he was returning to Sa- 
lem, Mass*, from a sojourn in the Green 
Mountains* 

3 Emerson completed the manuscript of 
English Traits in late June* The book appeared in print on August 6, 1856* 
Thoreau 1 s Walden had appeared in August, 1854* 




COW E 11 S A T I O N S. 



Mu. Alcott wishes tu converse on hi* favorite themes, 
during the current Lecture season, in some of the Xew- 
England cities and towns; also in New York and l'hilu- 
ilclphia, if practicable, lie promises live (Conversations mi 



'mi%& 7 m mifie 



ITS liKMUS, OP TO II II' \ I'll ES. \NI> I N V 1. 1 ENil- 



Coiiiitlcrctl iimlir tin •.'literal html* ut 



CONVERSATION 1 . 


Descent. 


CONVERSATION II. 


. . Home. 


CONVERSATION III . . 


. . Health 


Conversation IV . . 


Pcrsiits 


Conversation V . . 


. . . Victories 



The discussions, it will lie perceived, are suited to select 
companies, and invite the protection of the jwrlour, and 
the presence of ladies particularly. 

Ti.ums accommodated to the interest and ability of the 
portion. 



Wiu-oli. NIL, Aug. 20, I8M, 



[1856, Sept* ZZ* The manuscript is in Thoreau* s "Nature Notes" (p* 35) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library* See the facsimile on page 126*] 



Mr. 


J. 


Philadf 
Thoreau 


Sept. 22— 1856 




Dear Sir— please send me 
for Electrotyping purposes, 
dollars, in payment for the 


two pounds, 
Enclosed you 
same 


Black 
have 


Lead, 
five 








Yours &c 


Geo 
No 


. Charles 
9 Sansom St. 


Philada. 



215 [1856-1857] 

[1856, Sept. 23. The manuscript is among Thoreau's "Nature Notes" (p. 33) in the 
Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 127 above.] 



New York Sept. 23? d / 56 
Mr. Thoreauj 
Dear Sir: 

I have had two or three orders for plumbago 
which I have not been able to supply, but have 
put them off with the assurance that I should 
have it in a few days. 

By sending the amount ordered by me a few 
days since you will greatly oblige 

Yours Truly 

L. L. Smith. 

P.S. Please inform me by mail when you send it. 



[1856, Dec. 12. Rough draft of the last paragraph of Thoreau , s letter to Benja- 
min B. Wiley. The verbal changes between this and the published version (Cor- 
respondence, pp. 446-447) are interesting. The fragment is laid in Thoreau*s 
manuscript journal in the Pierpont Morgan Library. See the facsimile on page 
132.] 



[Original Version] 

other. He had a wonderful kn[owledge] of our 
interior & spiritual life — though his illumina- 
tions are blurred with singular trivialities. He 
come[s] nearer to answering, or attempting an an- 
swer, to your question[s] concerning mans origin, 
purpose & destiny — than any of the others I have 
referred to — But I think that this is not alto- 
gether a recommendation — since an answer to these 
questions can not be discovered any more than per- 
petual motion. The noblest man it is that knows 
& suggests the most about our destiny. 

Crack away at these nuts however as long as you 
can — The very exercise will ennoble ennoble [ sic J 
you. 



[1857, har. 16. For tht- 1 'agmant of a letter to Thomas Cholmondely, located 
among the loose sheets in Thoreau*s Canadian Notebook (M.A.595) in the Pierpont 
Morgan Library, see above page 76.] 

[1857, April 28. Fragment of a certificate found as a marker in the manuscript 
journal in the Pierpont Morgan Library. (See the facsimile on p. 133 above.) 
For the survey referred to, see my transcendental Climate. II, 522, as well as 
Journal r IX, pp. 346-347. Half the restored letter is obviously conjectural.] 



216 

[Conc]ord April 28" 
1857 

[This is to] certify 

[that I hav]e this day 

[surveyed] the area 

[of that por]tion of 

[Willard] T. Farrar«s 

[woodlot,] which lies 

[in the town of] Lincoln 

[compri]sing minutes 

[of the plan by] Cyrus Hub- 

[bard and al]so by myself — 

[which tract] contains 

[ ? -thr]ee acres 

[and ? ] rods. 

[Henry] D. Thoreau 

Surveyor • 



[1887] 



[1857, Mar,, Apr,, May, or June? Thoreau to Mr, [Augustus?] Adams of [Adams * 
Concord Express?]— -in faded pencil superimposed on a lettersheet addressed to 
the "Librarian of Harvard University," beginning "Please leave...." or "Please 
take,,.," (See facsimile on page 108 supra . ) Since Thoreau borrowed books 
from Harvard in January and March, 1857, and returned one in the late spring be- 
fore receiving the routine notice from the Librarian (see page 200 supra ) f I date 
the note tentatively from March through early June, when he might have employed 
the local express service, or intended to do so. At the bottom of the manuscript 
is a rough draft of Thoreau' s letter to Blake of June 23, 1857, (This last 
seems to establish the year,) This manuscript page is laid* into Thoreau's 
journal XXIX (July-Nov,, 1857) and may have been used as a bookmark,] 



[Put?] 
[Paid?] 


some thing the 


stage 


this 


week 




Mr 


Adams 












Please take 









[A few other words are legible but are not 
sufficiently consecutive to convey meaning. 
The top line is conjectural,] 



217 [1867-1868] 

[1857, June, or earlier] Ending of a Thoreau letter to a business concern, at- 
tached to page 170 of the manuscript journal (XXVIIl) in the Pierpont Morgan Li- 
brary. The context is ca> June 31, 1857, the Journal covering the period from 
April 2 through July 31* It must have been written prior to the date of the 
page to which attached, John Thoreau, Sr*, was a very sick man by November, 
continuing infirm until his death on February 3, 1859.] 





My father is absent on a 


journey but 


he told me distinctly that 


he depended 


on your notes being paid now. 


The express 


man has already called twice 


with it but 


you were out — He will call 


again 






Yours 




Henry D Thoreau 




for John Thoreau 



[1857, Sept* 9. Rough draft of Thoreau* s letter to Ricketson (see Correspon- 
dence, pp. 493-494) showing the usual technique he employed of writing and re- 
vising* (See the facsimile on page 109 above*) It does not vary significantly 
from the form published by the Ricketson family* At the bottom— apparently net 
a part of the letter—, are notes suggesting observations in Maine* The manu- 
script is in two parts, one attached to page 283 and the other to page 302 of 
Thoreau* s manuscript journal (vol* XXTIIl) in the Pierpont Morgan Library*] 

Ap. like those that rain about our heads 
in Mass woods — both kinds were called moose 
flies & I saw many of the last on the moose — 
These did not trouble us much 

4 the No see 'ems above mentioned. 

[1858, April 24? Thoreau wrote the Harvard Librarian, returning a book by 
F* B* Sanborn and asking that Sanborn be permitted to bring back to Concord 
volumes of the Jesuit Relations , See evidence under "April 23, 1858" in the 
"Corrections for Thoreau* s Correspondence. " infra , Sanborn's signature appears 
in the Harvard College Library Charging Book opposite volumes 28, 29 and 30* 
Thoreau*s note seems not to have survived, having been stolen, doubtless, 
from the "Library Correspondence" before it was deposited in the Harvard Archives 
for protection*] 

[1858, May 18* Manuscript in the Charles E. Feinberg Collection. The follow- 
ing is reprinted from Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862.,, A Centennial Exhibition ; 
Wayne State University Libraries: October 1962, pp* 9-10.] 

26. Single leaf of manuscript. One side shows a list of common animals, 
with references to journal entries and to data on other worksheets. On 



218 

the other side is the following letter from a man who several times 
employed Thoreau as a surveyor: 



[1858] 



Boston May 18 1858 
Mr J Thorro 

Dear Sir 

I want you to meet me at Concord 
Depot tomorrow morning (Wednesday on the arrival of the 
first trains, I want to see you, & I want you to be prepared to 
measure a piece of land for me in the forenoon with out fail 

yours truly 

R Warner 



Thoreau met Warner as requested. His manuscript "Field Notes of 
Surveys" includes this entry: "R. Warner Went to his pond & made 
plan for (copy of J. Hosmer's) May 19th 58." He also recorded this 
job in his journal. 



[1858, late Nov* or early December* When Henry Thoreau presented specimens of 
Pomotis and Esox , to the Boston Society of Natural History he may have sent a 
covering letter, now lost* On the other hand, he might have carried the speci- 
mens vith him when he visited the Society's library on December 10* See my "Em- 
erson; Thoreau, and the Society of Natural History, " A. L. XXIV, no* 1 (March, 
1952), pp. 21-30, especially pp* 2B and 26* These animals had been caught as 
early as November 27* (See Journals. XI, pp* 348-349*) Thoreau pasted into his 
manuscript journal, vol. XXXIII, now in the Pierpont Morgan Library, on an unnum- 
bered page dated Nov* 27, 1858, the following strip of newsprint consisting of 
three joined clippings from a Boston paper, dated in pencil: Dec* 15, 1858; 
Jan* 5, 1859; and Mar* 16, 1859*] 



Specimens ol Pomotis and £*«/, and of amphibians 

were presented by Mr. H. D. Thoreau, from Concord, 

Mass. Mr. Putnam was ot opinion that one of the 

%Pvmotis would prove a new species. There are with 

wue two varieties of piokerel commonly known as the 

Jjong or 6hovel-noscd, and the ihort or trout-nosed; 

"Ttbese specimens were of the latter. Mr. Putnam was 

•inclined to think these were distinct species, unless 

\!the differences should prove to be sexual. Drs. D. H. 

£end H. It. Storer considered them varieties of the 

same species; Messrs. Baird and Girard think them 

(Esojt rttirutatus and E. ornatus) distinct. 

Dr. Kneelaud presented the skull ot a young black 
bear from Lake Superior; and placed on the table the 
skulls oi a young grisly bear and a large beaver from 
California, presented by Mr. Holden of Stockton. 

Mr. Stodder presented, m the name otMessra. Brad- 
ford & Co. of Boston t several specimens ot photo- 
lithography, representing natural bhjects. botn mag- 
nified and ot natural size. The thanks of the Society 
were presented to the donors. 

Dr. Bryant made a communication on the habits 
Of 2 flycatchers, Musicapa acadica and M. /Ia*ivt+tris. 
The former is represented by writers on ornithology 
as exceedingly wild.and as inhabiting the moat retired 



rV 



/ 



219 

and solitary places; he had found It, on the contrary. 
generally quite familiar, breeding near his house, , and 
becoming so domesticated as to fly up to his hand to 
receive a moth. He also mentioned that he had seen, 
lat-t June, two males of the white-crowned sparrow, a 
rare bird here eTen in the winter. 

Mr. A. E. Agassiz exhibited colored drawing* of the 
Haima trusu. Linn , recently taken in the Marnaaac 
Mr. l'utnam exhibited specimens oi the young of 
Pomotis vulgaris, P. appendix, and P, rubricaula, and 
frtiowedjhat tbe specimenn presented afthelast meet- 
ing were not the young of any of these; but, from 
having tetth on the palatines, belonged to the genua 
Hryttvsi Val.; they might possibly be the P. obesus, 
. diiard. He also exhibited specimens of youug and 
Ofldult pickerel, to show that tue short-nosed pickerel 
^fcwas tpecihcally distinct from the long-nosed, Esox 
rtticvlatus and was the E. fasciatus, Dekay; and that 
the E. omatvs, Girard, is synonymous with J?, fascia- 
?m.v. and would have to be giv«*n up. Specimens of 
■*tlie .-iiort-nosed species about 2 feet long, in the Mu 
^euiu at Cambridge, show that it is not the young of 
; tlie E. rtueulatvs ; the same differences exist in the 
4youngand the older specimens. In conclusion, he 
^mentioned that our fresh water fishes were as yet but 
H»tiie known, and tnat there were in the waters of the 
United States at iea*t 46 species of the old genus Po- 
tnuiis, acd„10 or 16 oi the genus Esoz. of which very 
lew l<ave>fen defcribed. ^ 

r JSfi i .. 1 utDam at a P^vious meeting stated that 
£25 1 WP 3 ; oun « foiDGtto printed by far. Thoreau 
S™?n,H V ti' u> ol ^ ,rard He »ad since then ex- 
amined Girard s original specimens, and he finds that 
hey are tbe same, lhe P. guuatvs recently described 
in tbe 1/octe dings of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences at Philadelphia is identical with IV obesus. Hav- 
ing teeth en tbe palatines, and consequently belong- 
mg to the gf-nus Bryttus. the proper name for the epe- 
C!e * \\ \ ;L '?? 'Putnam). He had also satisfied him- 
et-ii that the Esor vrnatvs of Girard is the same a? the 

lie menlicnea that he should soon present a cum- 
bei ol fishes from tbe Potomac river, among tfiem 
La tax inua'us, l rvfus, and specimens ol Pr a, Po- 
nt oh s and Pnn^lodus. 



[1858-1859] 






[1859, Feb. 18. Sophia Bradford Ripley to Henry Thoreau. The following is re- 
printed photographically from the Thoreau Society Bulletin, no. 84 (Summer, 1963) 
with the kind permission of its editor, Prof. Walter Harding, and of the author, 
Prof. Joseph J. Moldenhauer, of the University of Texas.] 



A RECENTLY-DISCOVERED ADDITION TO THE THOREAU 
CORRESPONDENCE by Joseph J. Moldenhauer (University 
of Texas) 

The letter transcribed below is mounted in a 
blank leaf at the beginning of Volume I of the 
University of Texas set of the 20-volume Walden 
Edition Writings . A special presentation leaf in 
the same volume identifies the set as one of 200 
copies of the first impression, the purchaser as 
Miss Anna Craig, and the supply date as March 10, 
1910. It seems likely that the manuscript was 
mounted after the books were delivered to the 
purchaser. All 20 volumes are presently located 



in the "Z" or limited access area of the University 
of Texas Library stacks. 

The letter is written on a sheet of white 
paper bearing the partial watermark "JOY ..." 
and measuring approximately L, l/8 by 6 J>/U inches. 
On the reverse side, in Thoreau 1 s hand, is a pas- 
sage about the Concord elms which I am preparing 
for publication. 

I would like to acknowledge the assistance 
and cooperation of Mr. Alexander Moffit, University 
Librarian at the University of Texas, who has given 
his approval to this publication; of Mrs. Marcia E. 
Moss of the Concord Free Public Library and Mr. 
James B. Thayer of Dedham, Mass., for biographical 
data on Sophia Ripley; of Mr. Walter Harding, who 



220 



[1859] 



directed me to Alvah Low's transcripts of the 
Concord Lyceum records; and of Mr. James B. Thayer, 
Mr. John W. Ames, Mrs. Sophia Ripley Boyer, Mr. 
William Thayer Ames, and Mrs. Ethel Randolph Starr, 
descendants of Sophia Bradford Ripley, for their 
kind permission. 



My dear Mr Thoreau 

Mr Johnson 1 will spend the night at our 
house 2 tomorrow, and Mr Emerson and a few others 
are coming at six to take tea with him, and 
Mother 3 wants you to come very much. We hope 
you will be able to. 

Irs respectfully 
Sophy Ripley^ 
February 16 th-> 



Annotations ; 

1 Tne Reverend Samuel Johnson (1822-1882) of Salem, 
Mass. Johnson, an independent liberal minister, 
graduated from the Harvard Divinity School in 
18^6, left the Dorchester Unitarian church after 
a brief and controversial pastorate, and held a 
parish in Lynn from 1853 to 1870. He was a 
radical, a Transcendentaliet, a writer of hymns, 
a lecturer, and the author of three books on 
Oriental religions ( DAB . I, 119-120). On February 
17, 1859, he lectured before the Concord Lyceum on 
an unspecified topic (Alvah H. Low, The Concord 
Lyceum , unpublished University of Virginia M. A. 
thesis, 1955, p. 100). 

^he Old Manse. 



3 Sarah Alden Bradford Ripley (1793-1867), the 
wife of the Rev. Samuel Ripley, who died in 
1847, the year after he returned to Concord with 
his family from Waltham. Samuel was the son of 
Ezra Ripley and a half -uncle of Ralph Waldo 
Emerson. Mrs. Ripley, one of the intellectual 
luminaries of the town (she had been tutor to 
Emerson) , resided in the Old Manse until her 
death (Rusk, The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson . 
passim ; The Story of Concord Told by Concord 
Writers , ed. J. L. Swavne /Boston. 19067. p. 1*521 . 

^Sophia Bradford Ripley, the youngest child of 
Samuel and Sarah Ripley, was born in Waltham on 
July 13, 1833. She married James Bradley Thayer 
of Boston in 18$1 and died on January 24, 1914. 
Of Thoreau she said, according to Mr. John W. 
Ames via Mr. James B. Thayer, "that, though he 
lived on Walden Pond, he surely never bathed in 
it." 

^Neither Emerson nor Thoreau, in journal entries 
and letters at this time, mentions Johnson or 
his lecture. Thoreau' s father had died two 
weeks before Johnson's visit, and on the 22nd, 
five days afterward, Thoreau went "to Worcester 
to lecture in a parlor" on "Autumnal Tints" 
( Journal . Vol. XI, pp. 435, 453; Harding, "A 
Check List of Thoreau' s Lectures," BNYPL, LII 
/jFeb., 1948/, p.86). 



[1859, March 1* Henry Thoreau urote letters to the Judge of Probate for his 
mother and sister to sign* For these and other materials concerning the admin- 
istration of his father* s estate, see the E S fit, no* 11 (il Quarter 1958), pp. 
18-20. They are all to be found in the Probate Court of Middlesex County, East 
Cambridge. Mass*, in file 43113 of the first series. See facsimiles on page 
221*] 



Concord Mass Mar. 1 H 1859 


Concord Mar 1" 1859 


To the Judge of Probate; 


To the Judge of Probate 


This may certify, that I 


This may certify that it is 


delegate to my son. Henry D. 


my desire that my brother 


Thoreau, the right to adminis- 


Henry D. Thoreau be the admin- 


ter the estate of my husband 


istrator of my deceased 


John Thoreau deceased. 


father's estate. 


Cynthia D Thoreau 


Sophia £. Thoreau. 







6< TZl <?e^ 



^"^k^?~ - 



\ 







\) fc 



\ 



1> <\ =i; t v^ 




221 









i!\ 









ZM [1859] 

[1859, April 16. Thoreau to Jonathan Buffum, of Lynn, Mass. (See other deal- 
ings with him in Correspondence, page 503.) This fragment (see the facsimile 
on page 128 above) is found in Thoreau* s manuscript journal in the Pierpont 
Morgan Library and edited here with permission.] 



Concord Ap. 16 '59 
Mr Buf fum 

Dear sir . 

giving 

Will you excuse me for-pulliiig-you -fee- some 
troubleC?] Ap. 6 * ~ I received from Mr Shack- 

ford an invitation to lecture in Lynn - & I ac- 
cordingly wrote another to him also [?] on 

the subject — directing to "C C Shackford Lynn 

it must seem that 
Mass" • but apparently both of my letters 

have miscarried — As Mr Emerson thinks it worth 

■till 
the. while - I A wish to say to Mr S., through — 



you , that I will come to Lynn on the 



the 



28^29^—26 of this month— If he wishes it — 

me at once 
& if ho -will inform jwrof his decision ao ooon 



be so kind as to 
Will you pl e as e forward this or com- 



a s may b e* 

municate its contents to Mr S. 



[1859, April 22* The manuscript of the following was found in Thoreau* s journal 
for July 23— Nov. 22, 1860 (see the facsimile on page 129 above). It is edited 
here vith the permission of the Pierpont Morgan Library.] 



Boston 22„ 
M^ Henry D. Thoreaux 
Concord, Mass. 


April 1859. 


' Enclosed, please find 
to pay for the Plumbago 

Receipt bill & return 


twelve dollars 
by mail 


One $5.00 bill The Maverick Bank, 
One 5.00 '» " Maiden do, 
One 2.00 " " Lechmere do, 


(No. 800) 
(" 1678.) 
(" 9570.) 


Yr's Truly Robart 


& Robbins. 



323 [1860] 

[1860, Sept. 24. Thoreau to Dr. Robert Montgomery Smith Jackson, at Cresson, 

Pa., thanking him for a copy of The Mountain, published at Philadelphia by J. B. 
Lippincott in I860. For permission to reprint this letter from the Thoreau So- 
ciety Bulletin, no, 75 (Spring, 1961), pp. 2-3, I am indebted to its editor, 
Prof. Walter Harding, and to the author of the article in which it appeared, 
Prof. Emil A. Freniere, of the University of South Florida. For complete back- 
ground, see the latter 1 s "The Mountain Comes to Concords T*o New Letters from 
Alcott and Thoreau," T S B. as above.] 



Concord Sep 24 1860 

Dr R. M. S. Jackson 

Dear Sir 

I wish to thank you for your book called 
"The Mountain," which owing to many engagements, 
I have but lately read through. I relished es- 
pecially the Prolegomenon, which struck me as 
the best specimen of the Carlyle style, which I 
have met with out of Carlyle 's books. I was also 
attracted and detained whenever the idea of "The 
Mountain" shone through. I think that I use the 
expression "The Wild" with a similar meaning. 
It is a fine theme. 

I have been quite a mountain climber myself — 
indeed am pretty familiar with the mts. of New 
England. 

Some two months ago, I took my hatchet, 
blanket, and provisions and squatted for six days 
and nights on the summit of Monadnock in N.H., 
in order that the mt with its rocks & its fauna & 
flora, might have time to make their due impression 
on me. 

I have also read in this connexion, an in- 
teresting paper, (which you may not have seen) in 
the Revue des Deux Mondes for last May. It is 
by Alfred Maury, and gives the last results of 
Science as applied to mts. I should like well to 
see also "Das Thierleben (vie des animaux) der 
Alpenwelt" by Frederick Tschudi,* which is one of 
the books he reviews. Yours tpuly 

Henry D. Thoreau 



1 The T S B gives this word as "Prolegonenom" and puts no sic after it. I as- 
sume, therefore, it is an editorial error. I regret not having had the oppor- 
tunity to examine the manuscript itself* 

2 Alfred Maury, "Le Monde Alpestre et Les Hautes Regions du Globe," Revue des 
Deux Mondes. XXVTI, pp. 121-147 (May, I860). [Freniere 1 s note]. 

3 Frederie de Tschudi, La Vie des Animau* dans les Aloes ( Das Thierleben der 
Al-penwelt ) . 5 e edition, Leipzig, 1860. [Freniere 1 s note]. 



224 [1861] 

[1861, Jan. 7. To Thoreau from L. L. and C. H. Smith: Electrotypers, 844 
Canal St., New- York— which is the superscription impressed on the letter. (For 
a letter from Thoreau to this company, see Correspondence, page 629.) The manu- 
script is in the Houghton Library (MS. Am 278.5) and is edited here with per- 
mission. J 













Newyork Jany 7 


1861 




Mr 


H. D. The 


ireau 










D 


ear Sir. 


We 


enclo 


se 


herein our note 


s for 


$100 


(£3 


months, 


for 


last 
Resp^ 


IOC 


i lbs Plumbago 














L. 


L. & C. H. Smith 





/ 




^yr^y 



y&O^ ' /U* <#&( j^ ^f/f* a~^&**ug£. 




// 




r y 



CORRECTIONS FOR THOREAU'S CORRESPONDENCE 

[1837, Not, 11, Thoreau* s Indian letter to John Thoreau, his brother. See 
Correspondence , pp, 16-18, "Sachimausan" (line 3) should be "Sachimaupan. " 
For full commentary on its significance, see "Thoreau* s Early Compositions in 
the Ancient Languages," E S Q. no, 8 (ill Quarter 1957), pp, 20-29, especially 
pages 20 and 22» In his epitaph on Tahatawan, printed therein, Thoreau defines 
the word in a footnote, quoting from Roger Williams 1 "A Key into the Language of 
America," reprinted in the Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections for the 
Year 1794. Ill (1810), pp. 203-239, See pages 237-238 of chapter XXXII: "Sachi- 
maupan; he that was prince here . These expressions they use, because they abhor 
to mention the dead by name: and therefore, if any man bear the name of the dead, 
he changeth his name; and if any stranger accidentally name him, he is checked; 
and if any wilfully name him he is fined: and amongst states, the naming of 
their dead Sachims is one ground of their wars," 



[1840, Dec, 1, Correction of two misreadings of the Pierpont Morgan manuscript 
of Margaret Fuller's letter to H, D, T, See Correspondence, pp, 41-42, The 
date should be "1 st DecT" instead of "1st Dec," The word should be "those" 
rather than "these" in the line: "But then those are more unassuming in their 
tone,,,," For a facsimile of the manuscript, see The Transcendentalists and 
Minerra. HI* 957-958, Margaret Fuller's e's are usually independent; her o's 
require the succeeding letter to complete them,] 

[1843, March 1, Thoreau* s letter to Emerson, given in the Correspondence on page 
89 and headed "Wednesday Evening" can be accurately dated from the records of the 
Concord Lyceum, (See Transcendental Climate . Ill, 697,) Edwin Hubbell Chapin, 
referred to as lecturing "this evening," delivered his address on March 1, 1843 
(Ash Wednesday), Sanborn's guess (February 16, 1843) is typical of his careless- 
ness and inaccuracy,] 



[1845, late fall? Emerson's note to Henry Thoreau advising that Mrs, Brown 

wished to see him "at her house" on Saturday evening to meet Mr, Alcott ( Cor- 
respondence, page 33) belongs logically to the period following the completion 
of her house in September, 1845. (She had no house before that datej ) Both 
Professor Rusk and the editors of the Correspondence wrongly, I think, assign it 
to 1839— six years too early. See page 226,] 



[1847, March 1, The editors of the Correspondence (pages 176-177) state that 
their source of Henry Williams' letter to H, D, T, was a "MS,, Harvard." No 
such manuscript exists. They took their text from page 30 of "The Solitary Thor- 
eau of the Alumni Notes," E S flL. no, 7 (il Quarter 1957), pp, 2-37, where I give 
a facsimile of a unique questionnaire.] 

225 



236 



V V*v 



a v. 



« \ \j 



\ 






<? 



if 



r 



\ 



■\- 






: TIN 



^ 



v. 



<*X 



f \J o> v ^" X\ 



Ni 



5 V^ 






x 



I* : . 



V * 



- . 3 " X 



) ~. 



«1. 






* x> 



-.. ^ 



4 



\ 








1 



H 



rr^ J 



227 



[1849, Feb. 20, The circular which Bronson Alcott enclosed in his letter to 
Thoreau under this date (see Correspondence , p. 239) and which is needed to give 
complete meaning to the letter is given in facsimile herewith. For further back 
ground, see my "Emerson, Thoreau, and the Town and Country Club," ESQ,, no. 8 
(ill Quarter 1957), pp. 2-17. "• 




[1849, Sept. 17. This letter of Thor- 
eau* s to Jared Sparks was first pub- 
lished in The Transcend entalists and 
Minerva. II, 476-477, together with a 
facsimile. Copying the text as 
printed in Perry Miller's Conscious- 
ness in Concord and failing to ex- 
amine the manuscript itself, the 
editors have given us a slightly in- 
exact date line and departed from 
Thoreau* s punctuation and italici- 
zation. Compare their text (Co r- 
respondence, pp. 849-260) with the 
reproduction in T A M. ut supra . 1 



[1850, August 9. Thoreau* s letter to 
Blake, of this date, happily survives 
and was owned, two years ago, by 
Warren H. Colson, Esq., of Proctors- 
ville, Vermont. The photostat which 
he sent me then indicates that San- 
born, in Familiar Letters, took 
liberties with phrases, punctuation 
and paragraphing* The editors in 
the Correspondence (pages 264-266) 
had to use Sanborn's text. I give 
the outside cover on p. 226.] 



X A 


M K S. 


K. Waldo Emerson 


( 'alcb Stetson 


William Lloyd Garrison 


1 George P. Bradford 


Theodore Parker 


Adin Ballon 


William Henry Chauning 


Jones Very 


A. Bronson Alcott 


William F. Channing 


Wendell Phillips 


Elizur Wright 


Thomas T. Stone 


Stephen S. Foster 


F. Henry Hedge 


Charles C. Shaekford 


Samuel O. Howe 


Emmanuel Scherb 


J. Freeman Clarke 


E. P. Clark 


Edmund Quinry 


Samuel D. Robbins 


John W. Browne 


Joshua Melroy 


J. Elliot Cabot 


J. T. Fisher 


T. Starr King 


( )liver Johnson 


J. Russell Lowell 


0. B. Frothingham 


Samuel G. Ward 


C. K. 'Whipple 


John L. Weiss 


Samuel Johnson 


Edwin P. Whipple 


James N. Buifum 


T. Wentworth Higginsou 


William II. Knapp 


Parker Pillsbury 


Samuel May, jun. 


Henry D. Thoreau 


Otis Clapp 


Henry I. Bowditch 


J. M. Spear 


Henry C. Wright 


Charles Spear 


John 8. Dwight 


W. R. Alger 


Francis Jackson 


Edward Bangs 


W. Ellery Channing 


R. F. Walcott 


William B. Greene 


A. D. Mayo 



[1861, March 7. The editors of the Correspondence (pp. 272-274) offer as their 
source a non-existent manuscript at Harvard. What appears to be the only sur- 
viving printed CIRCULAR was reproduced in "The Solitary Thoreau of the Alumni 
Notes, " g S a. no. 7 (ll Quarter 1957), pp. 2-37. See especially page 32. The 
Editors did not preserve the capitalization of the original.] 



228 

[1852, April 3, Thoreau* s note to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, which the editors 
took from a partial facsimile, was owned by the late Warren H. Colson, E sq, , of 
Proctorsville, Vermont, T na t manuscript is slightly more complete than the 
text given' in Correspondence, page 280, It is accompanied by a Higginson letter 
of Feb. 18, 1907, and a dealer's communication to Stephen H, Wakeman.] 



29 Buckingham St 
Cambridge 

Feb. 18. 1907 

Dear Mr. Foley 

I send the Thoreau letter 
which I should not sell but that I have 
another framed, to keep. 

It has a biographical in- 
terest, as relating to his first appearance 
before a Boston audience and held in a small 
cheap room in Tremont Row. It was in a very 
sudden & severe snowstorm & there were not 
ten people there, except that it was a read- 
ing room of some kind and half a dozen young 
clerks or apprentices were there, reading 
newspapers. Mr. Alcott tried to get them to 
the other end of the room, saying to them 
"This is his book which he is reading; this 
is his life. We ought all to be interested 
in a man's life, ought we not?" But they 
generally clung to their evening papers. 

You may put this letter 
with that autograph if you please 

Cordially yours 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson 



P. K, Foley, Bookseller and Importer, of 14 Beacon Street, Boston, wrote Mr* 
Wakeman under date of February 19, 1907: "... This Thoreau letter, with its 
companion, danced in this morning— it strikes me as an interesting document — 
when supported by the note of our dear old Col, Newcome [Col, Higginson]— by 
the way he is no baby at estimates, but one is hungry to view more and more of 
his belongings of the literary sort— and he has been and is very friendly so I 
give him better figures than I should give elsewhere." 

[1853, April 10. The editors (Correspondence , pp. 302-304) were obliged to re- 
print this important letter of Thoreau* s to Blake from the inaccurate Familiar 
Letters prepared by Sanborn in 1894, Scholars will be glad to know that the 
original manuscript is extant and now owned by the Pierpont Morgan Library, 
which intends soon to issue a facsimile. It is not yet available to editors 
outside that institution,] 



229 

[1854, Jan. 18 Summons to Thoreau from the Massachusetts Court of Common Pleas 
in Cambridge ( Correspondence , p. 318), Corrections: the name of the Justice of 
the Peace has two r's : "L. Marrett." The plaintiffs should be "Leonard Spauld- 
ing A al" instead of "Lots," which the editors give conjecturally. The "et al." 
stood for an interesting clan: "Leonard Spalding, Physician, 4 Louisa Spalding A 
Lydia Spalding, Spin- 
ster—all of Milbury 
in the County of Wor- 
cester, Albert G # 
Spalding & Warren 
Spalding, yeomen of 
Lincoln 4 Harriett 
Spalding of Lexing- 
ton, Spinster, of the 
County of Middle- 
s ex. " 

For full details, 
see the facsimile 
given herewith and 
consult "Thoreau 
in the Court of 
Common Pleas (1854)," 
ESa. no. 14 
(I Quarter 1959), 
pp. 86-89. Thoreau 
frugally used the 
back of the sum- 
mons, as he used his 
business letters, 
for nature jottings.] 



[1854, Nov. 13. 
Thoreau to Adrian 
Rouquette. For 
the editors* 
misspelling, 
misreadings, 
and omissions, 
compare Corre- 
spondence , page 
349 bottom, with 
pages 202 and 
204 in the fore- 
going.] 




[1854, November 20. 
352. The fragment 
Harvard in MS. Am 
transcription. Th 
please state both) 
caret suggests the 
that week (or befo 
"Es<i r " instead of 
the date line, and 



230 

Thoreau to C. B. Bernard. Correction of Correspondence, p. 
ary rough draft of a letter now in the Houghton Library at 
278.5 has an interlineation which the editors ignored in their 
e text should read: "In that case, how soon after (or before, 
that week will you hear me in Akron?" The presence of the 
following possible reading: "In that case, how soon after 
re, please state both) will you hear me in Akron?" I read 
"Es<i" in the salutation. There is a period after "Nov" in 
the "th" after the day is superior: "20 th " or "20 h ". 





&*ff, ^^ ^^ mw y^ mm ^ r^-^s^j 




[1855, Mar. 12. Thoreau to Charles Sumner ( Correspond ence , p. 374). The editors 
give "Merc. Lit. Association" instead of the correct "Merc. Lib. Association." 
For details concerning Sumner's address before the Mercantile Library Association 
of Boston, see above— note on 374.7. (i am grateful to Prof. William A. Jackson 
of the Houghton Library for permission to give the following facsimile.)] 



231 

[1855, Sept. 26. 
Thoreau to Blake 
(see Correspon- 
dence. 383-385), 
which the editors 
reprinted from 
Sanborn's edition 
of Thoreau* s 
Familiar Letters . 
Discrepancies ex- 
ist between their 
text and the 
original manu- 
script, which sur- 
vives in the Clif- 
ton Waller Barrett 
collection, slow- 
ly being moved 
from New York to 
the Barrett Library 
of American Liter- 
ature at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia 
at Charlottes- 
ville.] 








[1858, April 23 
(Friday). Thoreau 
to F. B. Sanborn, 
conjecturally 
assigned to 1856 
by the editors 
(Correspondence. 
p. 429) belongs, 
I believe, two 
years later* Thor- 
eau apparently 
wrote the note on 

Friday (Shakespeare* s birthday). Sanborn left for Cambridge for the week end of 
April 23-25, probably at the conclusion of school duties, carrying with him a 
volume which Thoreau considered too valuable to entrust to the local express 
operated by Augustus Adams : Sagard-Theodat*s Histoire du Canada (Paris, 1636) • 
Sunday, Apr. 25, Sanborn signed und»r Thoreau's name in the Library Charging 
Book for three volumes of the Jesuit Relations . (See Emerson the Essayist. II, 
p. 197, fn. 5.)] 



C^l&^t^, 



[1859, Feb., 10.^ Thoreau to Henry G. Denny. The editors took their text from an 
auction catalogue. Facsimiles of the original manuscript and the covering en- 
velope were available to them, however, in The Transcendentallsts and Minerva, 
II, 488-489. The (postmark is "Concord Feb 10." N apostrophe appears in "Yrs 
respectfully." The address: Henry G. Denny Esq 1 * / 42 Court Street / Boston Mass. 



\ 






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232 

[1859, Sept. 26. From Thoreau, in Concord, to Blake, in Worcester. The editors 
drew their text from Sanborn's Familiar Letters and from the catalogue of the 
Stephen H. Wakeman Sale* The lines which they quote from the latter belong 
just before "I am off— barberry ing" in their main text. The photostat of the 
original letter, supplied to me by Warren H. Colson, Esq*, late of Proctorsville, 
Vermont, indicates that Sanborn was faithful in his transcription in the matter 
of word order. He, of course, modified the spelling and punctuation* The date 
line of the original reads: "Concord Sep* 26" 1359" and the signature is merely 
W H. D. T." (Compare Correspondence, pp. 557-559.)] 



[1859, Oct* 31* Thoreau to Blake. The editors drew upon a copy in the hand of 
Blake or another* The original letter, supplied to me in facsimile by its owner, 
Warren H* Colson, Esq*, of Proctorsrille, since deceased, varies only in punctua- 
tion* Thoreau originally wrote "Concord Oct 30**' and then changed it to "31* tM . 
Accompanying the original letter is the following by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 
which I edit with permission. For the Thoreau note, see Correspondence, p* 563*] 



Glimpsewood 
Dublin, N. H 
July 25. 1902 

My dear Powers 

The "a Mr. Blake" in Worcester 
was a retired Unitarian minister, highly culti- 
vated & thoughtful, but extremely modest, who was 
one of Thoreau 1 s most intimate friends & editor 
of his posthumous books. Thoreau left him all 
his MSS. by will, much to Sanborn's disappointment. 
He has since died. 

Thoreau 1 s plan of the meeting in Worcester 
failed, I suspect, I was at the date you name 
(Oct. 30, 1859) absent in N. H. bringing down Mrs. 
Brown, in the hope that she would induce her hus- 
band to consent to being rescued. I describe 
the visit to Mrs. Brown in my "Contemporaries" 
& also refer to it in "Cheerful Yesterdays." 

As you kindly interest yourself 
in my books, you may like to know that my life 
of Longfellow is all in type (Houghton) & that 
of Whittier (Macmillan) half finished. A trans- 
lation of M™, Blano's paper about me in the Revue 
des deux Mondes is to appear about Oct. 1, I un- 
derstand, in London & N.Y. and finally a transla- 
tion of my juvenile child's story "A Birthday in 
Fairy Land" written when I was 10, with illustra- 
tions is to appear this Autumn I believe 



Excuse bad ink 



Cordially yours 

T. W. Higginson 



833 

[1860, Jan. 19, A rough draft in Houghton Library (MS. Am 278.5) of Thoreau's 
letter to Samuel Ripley Bartlett ( Correspondence, p. 572) illustrates once 
again the care with which Thoreau. seems to have composed most of his private 
letters. This manuscript corrects a misreading by the editors of the Corre- 
spondence . On the reverse side Thoreau copied twelve verses from the prophet 
Joel, from which he eventually selected the most appropriate to include in 
"Wild Apples," the proof of which was corrected on his deathbed. (That essay 
appeared in the Atlantic Monthly. X, pp. 513ff. (Nov., 1882). See next page.] 



... I have found that the precept "Write with 
fury & correct with phlegm" required me to print 
only the hundredth part of what I had written 

If you print at first in newspapers and maga- 
zines — you can afterward collect what survives — 
what your readers demand — That I should say is 
the simplest and safest, as it is the commonest, 
way .... 



[1860, Feb. 9. Henry Williams to Thoreau. See Correspondence, p. 576. There 
is no manuscript at Harvard, as the editors claim. The rare printed form of 
this letter was published in facsimile in "The Solitary Thoreau of the Alumni 
Notes," E S ft. no. 7 (il CLuarter 1957, pp. 2-37, esp. page 5. In copying this 
the editors inadvertently wrote "date" for "day." The rare original I reproduce 
once more.] 



BOSTON, Fehbvaby U, 1860. 

My De.yb Sik : 

At the last annual meeting of the Class of '37, a 
vote was passed, that the members of the Class be requested to 
furnish the Secretary with their photographs, to be placed in the 
Class Book. Sow ral fellows, in accordance with the above vote, 
have already sr-ni me their pictures, and I trust that you will feel 
disposed, at an iarl\ day. to follow their example. You can send 
to me through the I'o-t Office . at 18 Concord Square. 

Vcrv truly vours. 



[1860, April 20. L. Johnson 4 Co. to Thoreau. Compare Correspondence, page 677, 
with the facsimile on page 134 supra. The editors abbreviate and omit without 
explanation. The closing phrase is almost certainly "Yours RespY" and a signa- 
ture follows the name of the company at the end. The word "Street" is spelled 
out in the heading* A comma is required after "Philadelphia. H See the fac- 
simile of a similar letter on page 130 supra. The agent* s name: "JorDan" (?) 



834 



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235 

[1860, May 2. Another letter from L. Johnson & Co* Compare the hasty and in- 
accurate transcription by the editors ( Correspondence, page 578) with the fac- 
simile on page 130 above. They abbreviate, omit punctuation, miscopy the date 
of Thoreau's bill, omit the capital of "Truly" and once more omit the signature 
of "JorDan." Why?] 



[1861, Nor* 13« Letter from Thoreau to Messrs. L # L. and C. H. Smith," who 
were eleetrotypers in business at 244 Canal Street, New York* Cf # the new 
letter, edited and reproduced in facsimile on page 224 above. The editors of 
the Abernethy pencilled transcript give "W & C # H. Smith" in Correspondence. 
page 629.] 




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236 



INDEX OF PRINCIPAL WORDS. PHRASES AND TOPICS 



ABERCROMBIE, JOHN: The Philosophy of 
the Moral Feelings , 15. 

ABOLITION QUESTION, 14, 98. 

ABOLITIONISM, 25. 

ABOLITIONISTS, 70, 178. 

ABRAHAM: receives a visit from his 
gods, 19. 

ABRAM, 96. 

ABROAD: when it goes a. it is poverty 
itself, 15. 

ABU MUSA, 174. 

ABYSSINIA, 84. 

ACADEMIC: money -get ting vs. a. class, 
39. 

ACCOUNT: for deeds done in the body, 
67. 

ACCOUNT OF SIX YEARS T RESIDENCE IN 
HUDSON'S BAY , AN (ROBSON) 

ACHILLES, 637 7 9, 84. 

ACQUAINTANCE: with whom I've made a. 
on this earth, 45. 

ACTION: an old orator prescribed a. , 
28; no longer any right course of a., 
39; what we would know, we must do, 39. 

ACTIONS: in a multitude of a., 191. 

ACTIVE: a paralysis of the a. facul- 
ties, 39. 

ACTIVITY: we wish to be provoked to 
the best a., 38; new a. given to the 
perceptive power, 39. 

ACTOR, 65, 79. 

ACTUALITY: Nature, a spectre of a., 
40. 

ACTUM , AIUNT , NE AGAS , 36. 

ADAM : in Paradise, 104 . 

ADAM, ALEXANDER: Adam's Latin Gram - 
mar , 15; Roman Antiquities , 7~. 

ADAM, WILLIAM, 172. 

ADAMS, AUGUSTUS, 216, 231; his Con- 
cord Express, 201. 

ADAMS' CONCORD EXPRESS, 201, 216. 

ADAMS, RAYMOND: "Hawthorne and a 
Glimpse of Walden", 184-185. 

ADDISON, JOSEPH, 49; Cato, 105. 

ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE SENIOR 
CLASS IN DIVINITY COLLEGE , AN (EJMERSON) 

ADDRESS OF THE DEMOCRATIC STATE CON - 
VENTION OF MASSACHUSETTS , "T4~! 

ADIEU, 23. 

ADMETUS, KING, 18-19, 25, 61, 97, 
171. 

ADMETUSES, 25. 

ADO: much a. about nothing, 59. 

ADONIS, 83, 103; metamorphosed into 
an anemone, 84. 

ADVANTAGE: extract a. from depres- 
sion of spirits, 87. 

ADVERSITIE, 23. 

ADVERSITIES: of our commerce, 39. 



ADVICE: to those buying farms, 91. 

/EACUS, 65. 

AEDES , 59. 

AENEAS, 35. 

AENEAS SYLVIUS, 66. 

AESCHYLUS: The Seven Against Thebes , 
27. 

AESTHETICS: of the Infinite, 87. 

AFFAIRS: a tide in the a. of men, 
26; relating to a. of the present world, 
46, 60. 

AFFECTIONS, 82. 

AFLOAT : on such a full sea are we 
now a. , 26. 

AFRICA, 102; loss of the brig Commerce 
in A. , 63. 

AFTER-NATURE: the a-n. does not be- 
tray its resources, 38. 

AFTER-POETS: knew their first-born 
brother as a god, 20. 

AGASSIZ, LOUIS: circular letter to 
Thoreau, 194; Natural History of Fishes 
of the United States , 194~l 

AGE OF THE EARTH CONSIDERED GEOLOGI - 
CALLY AND HISTORICALLY (RHIND) 

AGED, 14. 

AGRICULTURE: reports on, 101. 

AGRICULTURIST . See American Agri - 
culturist . 

AGRIPPA, 25. 

AHAB : Micaiah prophesies against A., 
82. 

AHEAD : Be sure you are right and 
then go a. , 71. 

AID: its very nakedness has power to 
a. the hour, 73. 

AIM: you must not only a. aright, 
61. 

AINSWORTH, MR. , 86. 

AIR: a tide which pierces the pores 
in the a., 26; free as the birds in the 
a., 58; notes of music in the a., 171; 
the horizontal misty a., 67; the spirit 
of a purer a. , 22. 

AIRPLANES, 38. 

AIR- ROADS, 38. 

AKIN, J. , 164. 

"ALBERT HOBART NELSON" (KEYES) 

ALCAEUS, 27. 

ALCHEMY, 41. 

ALC IB LADES, 50. 

ALCOTT, ABBY MAY, 192. 

ALCOTT, AMOS BRONSON, 22, 25, 223, 
225; his "martyrdom", 25 ; called "Winkel- 
ried", 25; circular concerning the Town 
and Country Club, 227; at Thoreau 's first 
Boston lecture, 228; on a genealogical 
expedition to Connecticut, 191; Blake 
asks him about cost of a Conversation, 
199; letters from Blake to him, 188, 
191, 193, 199; his letter to Thoreau of 



237 



Sept. 4, 1856, 213; sends a circular to 
Thoreau and Emerson, 213; circular con- 
cerning "Conversations", 214; refused to 
pay his taxes and was imprisoned, 173; 
Elizabeth Peabody's "Explanatory Preface" 
concerning, 21; "The Forester", 103; 
"Psyche", 44; Conversations on the Gos - 
pels , 26; The Doctrine and Discipline - 
of Human Culture , 21; The Journals , Tl4; 
Record of a School , 21~ 26; Spiritual 
Culture , 26. 

ALCOTT, WILLIAM A., 14; conducts 
Annals of Education , 15; House I Live 
In, 15; The Young Man's Guide , 15; Young 
Mother , 15; Young Wife , T5~. 

ALDER: the swimming a. in days of 
yore, 7; then did rivers feel the hol- 
lowed a., 7; delights in moist places, 
9. 

ALEXANDER POPE'S PRESTIGE IN AMERICA 

(siBirn 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 41, 76. 

ALEXANDRIA: Platonism of A., 53. 

ALFIERI, VITTORIO: The Autobiography , 
83; Memoirs, 83; Vita scritta da esso , 
83. 

ALGER, WILLIAM ROUNSEVILLE, 227. 

ALI, 174. 

ALIVE: writing is a. --hath hands and 
feet, 35. 

ALLAGASH, 88. 

ALLEGORIE OF VERTUE AND DELYTE , 23. 

ALLEN, BARBARA, 44. 

ALLEN, ETHAN, 98. 

ALLEN, FRANCIS H. : A Bibliography of 
Henry David Thoreau , 210~T 

ALLOPATHY, 69. 

ALMIRA, 55. 

ALMS: when thou doest a., 59. 

ALNUS : used poetically for "boat", 
7. 

ALPHA: I am A. and Omega, 24. 

AM: grateful for what I a. and have, 
73. 

AMAZON, 96. 

AMBROSIA, 18. 

AMERICA, 213; in French eyes, 47; 
books relating to A., 76. 

AMERICAN: an A. disease, 39. 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST , 37. 

American ant i- slavery committee, 98. 

AMERICAN DICTIONARY , AN (WEBSTER) 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE, 34T 

AMERICAN LITERATURE , 103. 

AMERICAN LITERATURE: an absentee, 
39. 

AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY (BIGELOW) 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGY (WILSON ) 

"AMERICAN REVOLT AGAINST POPE, THE" 
(HOWARD) 

AMERICAN SCHOLAR, THE (EMERSON) 

AMERICAN! SM? ~tTiE VEKE) 

AMERICANS: their culture is the tra- 
dition of Europe, 39; their work is im- 



posed by the soil and the sea, 39. 

AMES, JOHN W., 220. 

AMES, WILLIAM THAYER, 220. 

AMPHION: "Song of Eurydice", 11. 

A-MUSEMENT, 191. 

•ANCHORED: I keep a mountain a. off 
eastward, 87. 

ANCIENT HISTORY , THE (ROLLIN) 

ANCIENT SEA-MARGINS (CHAMBERS) 

ANDROSCOGGIN RIVER, 87. 

ANEMONE: Adonis metamorphosed into 
an a. , 84. 

ANGEL: emotions which an a. might 
share, 91; every man is an a. in dis- 
guise, 19; a. of light pondering over 
deeds of darkness, 101; see Gabriel. 

ANGELO, 104. 

ANGELS: heaven sends its insane a. 
into our world, 19. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH, 34. 

ANIMAL: a poor, bare, forked a. as 
thou art, 13. 

ANIMALS: naming the a., 104. 

ANIMUM: Coelum, non a., mutant, 174. 

ANNALS OF EDUC ATION , 15. 

ANNIJAL REGISTER , 54~. 

ANTAGONISM: between the money-getting 
and the academic class, 39. 

ANTHOLOGIA LYRICA , 180. 

ANTIQUE: that a. and fishlike office, 
13. 

ANTI-SLAVERY, 70, 172. 

ANT I -SLAVERY STANDARD , 68. 

ANTS, 66. 

ANXIOUS: be not a. to avoid poverty, 
57. 

APATHY, 39. 

APOCRYPHA, 84. 

APOCRYPHA OF THE BOOK OF DANIEL , THE, 
84. 

APOLLO, 19, 53; who served King Ad- 
metus, 171; sympathize with the God A., 
18 ; his banishment from heaven and serv- 
ing Admetus , 18ff.; spare diet and clear 
skies are A. and the Muses, 71. 

APOLLOS, 25. 

APOSTLE, 20. 

APOSTLES: wasn't one of the a. a 
tanner? 44. 

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION, 34. 

APOTHEGMS (BACON) 

APPEARANCES: Prudence is the science 
of a., 55. 

"APPENDIX" (SILLIMAN) 

APPETITE: for novelty is insatiable, 
11; a ravenous a. to boot, 7. 

APPLICABILITY: power without a., 39. 

APPREHENSION: without talent, 39. 

APRONS: of fig leaves, 63. 

ARABS, 63. 

ARAT0R, 16. 

ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM 
(LOUDON) 

ARBUTUS. See Trailing Arbutus. 



238 



ARCANA COELESTIA (SWEDENBORG) 

ARDlAEuS, 171. — 

ARGOS, 35. 

ARIADNE: her thread used in the 
labyrinth, 58. 

ARISTOPHANES, 69, 103. 

ARISTOTLE, 51, 171; Meteorics , 174. 

ARK: the Great Eastern is larger 
than the A., 84. 

ARM: only his bended a. to support 
his head, 74. 

ARMSTRONG, MR., 164. 

ARNIM, BETTINA VON, 40. 

ART, 55. 

ARTICLE XXIV, 84. 

ARTICLES OF RELIGION, 84. 

ARTIFICIAL: sports of the more a. 
nations, 57. 

ARTIST: degraded in Germany, 39; 
defined by Emerson, 55; where the a. is 
crushed, 39. 

"ARTIST'S EXCURSION, THE", 28. 

ARTS: Master of No A., 71; sciences 
applied to useful a., 14; conformity 
deemed one of the best a. of life, 13. 

ASDRUBAL, 50. 

ASH WEDNESDAY, 225. 

ASHBY, WILLIAM, JR., 172. 

ASHTABULA COUNTY, 178. 

ASIA: are there not the cities of 
A.? 35. 

ASK: we know not what we a., 56. 

ASLEEP: I arise a., 13. 

ASPECTS: a. of misery predominate, 
60. 

ASPIRE: youth ceases to a., 32. 

ASSABET RIVER, 16, 71. 

ASSASSINATOR: their a. Poe lies in 
the Potter's Field, 72. 

ASSEZ EST BON , LESSEZ ESTER , 36. 

ASSYRIANS, 17. 

ASTROLOGY, 41. 

ASYLUM: angels enter our world as 
an a. , 19. 

ATHENAE, 35. 

ATHENIANS: first Greeks to make use 
of ships, 7; Americans like young A., 
39. 

ATHENS, 21. 

ATLANTIC: telegraph cables in the 
A., 85. 

ATLANTIC MONTHLY , 103, 233. 

ATLAS AND BEE , 97, 99. 

ATMOSPHERE: a universal soul breathes 
in the a. , 39. 

ATROPOS, 35. 

AUDIENCE: fit a. though few, 43. 

AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES: A Synopsis of 
the Birds of North America , 58; Birds'of 
America , 58; Ornithological Biography , 
58; Quadrupeds of North Ameri ca" 101. 

AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, SAINT : De 
Civitate Dei , 96. 

"AULD LANG SYNE", 165. 



AUNTS: confined to a particular vil- 
lage, 38. 

AURORA, 53. 

AUSTIN, E. G., 163. 

AUSTRIA, 85. 

AUTHENTIC NARRATIVE , AN (RILEY) 

AUTHOR: the travelling a. lands on 
our shores, 93. 

AUTHORITY: impatience with a., 47. 

AUTOBIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES (DE QUINCEY) 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY , THE (ALFI ERI ) 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY (CELLINI) 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM - 
EATER , 83. 

AUTO -BIOGRAPHY OF GOETHE , 82. 

AWAKE: I go to bed a. , 13. 

AZARIAH, 84. 

AZURE: with the pure a. of the gen- 
eral day, 45. 



BABER, EMPEROR: Memoirs , 75. 

BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY, 15. 

BABYLONIANS, 17. 

BACCHUS, 71. 

BACHMAN, JOHN, 101. 

BACKWOODSMAN: conversation of, 91. 

BACON, FRANCIS: Apothegms , 76; "Of 
Boldness", 28; Essays , 28 ; Novum Organum , 
73; Of the Prof lcience and Advancement 
of Learning , 37. 

BACON, WILLIAM THOMPSON: Poems , 14. 

BAEHR, 101. 

BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES: Festus , 23. 

BAILLIE, JOANNA, 47. 

BAIRD, SPENCER FULLERTON: Catalogue 
of North American Mammals , 101. 

BAKER, H. F., 164. 

BAKER, J. E., 202. 

BAKER, J. EDWARD, 202. 

BAKER, JACOB, 202. 

BAKER, JAMES, 202. 

BAKER, PHINNEY, 202. 

"BAKER FARM" (CHANNING) 

BAKEWELL, ROBERT: An Introduction to 
Geology , 174. 

BALAKLAVA, 99. 

BALANCE: of mind and body, 39. 

BALLAD, 26. 

BALLADS: "Barbara Allen's Cruelty", 
44. 

BALLADS AND OTHER POEMS (LONGFELLOW) 

BALL0U, ADIN, 172, 227. 

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, 72. 

BANCROFT, GEORGE: "William Ellery 
Channing", 35. 

BANGS, EDWARD, 227. 

BANKS: are reeds shaken by the wind, 
87. 

"BARBARA ALLEN'S CRUELTY", 44. 

BARBARISM OF SLAVERY , THE (SUMNER) 

BARDOLF, 13. 



239 



59. 



BARK: build a b. out of that wreck, 



BARKS: tempting the main in such 



fire in my b., 91; will much knowledge 
create thee a double b.? 62. 

BEMJS, CHARLES V., 86. 

BENET, STEPHEN VINCENT: "The Devil 
and Daniel Webster", 60. 

BENEVOLENCE: Yogee purifies his mind 
by b., 61. 

BENNET, NEHEMIAH: "Description of 
the Town of Middleborough", 70. 

BENZONI, GIROLAMO: Historia Indiae 
"Thoreau, Flagg, and Occidentalis , 35. 

SERGK, THEODORUS, 180. 

BERLIN, GERMANY, 40. 

BERNARD, C. B. , 230. 

BERNERA, 69. 

BEWICK, THOMAS: History of British 
Birds , 69. 

BHAGVAT-GEETA , 201-202. 

BIBLE, 207; the old Bobbin woman was 
steady to her B., 73; this comes of 
reading the New Testament, 44; King James 
version, 13; see New Testament. 

BIBLE (QUOTATIONS AND ALLUSIONS): 



frail b. , 11, 

BARNSTABLE, 206. 

BARRETT, CLIFTON WALLER, 231. 

BARRETT LIBRARY OF AMERICAN LITERA- 
TURE, 231. 

BARTLETT, SAMUEL RIPLEY, 105, 233; 
Dr. B's lecture, 15. 

BARTON, W. G, 
Burroughs", 87. 

BASHAN: kine of B., 74. 

BASSETT, WILLIAM, 172. 

BATAVIA, 28. 

BATTLE: he that is in b . slain, 69. 

BATTLE GROUND, 35. 

BATTLEFIELD, 39. 

BAUCIS, 178. 

BAUER, BRUNO, 40. 

BAWN, 11. 

BAY HORSE, 45. 

BEACH, T. P. , 172. 

BEAMS : the shanty is shorn of its 
b., 67. 

BEANS, 78. 

BEAR: he must b. being powerless to 41:1-4 (74) 
redress, 60; b. and forbear, 101. 

BEAST: thou owest the b. no hide, 
13. 

BEASTS, 187. 

BEATITUDES: parodied, 101. 

BEATNIKS: in Emerson's day, 39. 

BEAUMONT, JAMES & JOHN FLETCHER: 
Love ' s Cure , 38. 

BEAUTIFUL: lovers of the B., 39. 

BEAUTY : every trait purchased by 
hecatombs of private tragedy, 39. 

BED, 14; I go to b. awake, 13; the 
clock sends to b. at ten, 13. 

BEDFELLOWS: business like misery 
makes strange b., 63. 

BEECHER, HENRY WARD, 64. 

BEEF, 12. 

BEFORE: those things which are b., 
43. 

BEGGAR: Ulysses in the guise of a 
b., 39. 

BEHIND: things which are b. , 43. 

BEHMEN, JAKOB, 53. 

BEING: thou little bud of b., 45. 

BEL THE DRAGON, 84. 

BELIEF: no wisdom equal unto the b. 
in God, 62. 

BELKNAP, JEREMY, 70. 

BELL: to b. the cat, 60. 

BELLENDEN, JOHN: Allegory of Vertue 
and Delyte , 23. 

BELLS: smooth prophets bear away the 
b., 82; b. ringing for Victoria's birth- Hosea 8:7 (66). 
day, 84. 

BELOW: I should not want to go b. Joel l:lff. (233-234); 3:10 (25) 
again, 91. 

BELLY: a thousand men in his b., 178; Amos 4:1 (74). 



Genesis 3:19 (56); 6:7 (85); 8:6-12(26); 
8:9 (20); 13:12-15 (96); 25:29-34 (24); 



Exodus 20:1-17 (57); 20:7 (70). 

Numbers 13:20 (67). 

Deuteronomy 31:6-7 (67). 

Joshua 1:6-18 (67); 10:25 (67). 

II Samuel 10:12 (67). 

I Kings 22:12 (82). 

I Chronicles 19:13 (67); 22:13 (67); 
28:20 (67). 

Ezra 10:4 (67). 

Job 38:7 (24). 

Psalms 27:14 (.67); 31:24 (67); 97:1 
(87); 137:2-5 (15); 147:10 (71). 

Ecclesiastes, 72; 12:1-4 (22). 

Isaiah 1:18 (57); 2:4 (25); 30:33 (100); 
41:6 (67). 

Jeremiah 19:6 (100). 

Daniel 8:16 (72); 9:21 (72). 



240 



Micah 4:3 (25). 



Matthew 2 : 2 and 9 (20, 36); 5:1-12 (101); 
5:13 (104); 5:22 (100); 6:3 (59); 6:24 
(43, 190); 6:25-34 (57); 6:26 (24); 6:30 
(57); 6:33 (57); 7:7 (97); 7:9 (60); 
7:12 (73); 7:19 (44); 8:26 (57); 10:6 
(87); 10:29 (104); 10:29-31 (24); 11:7 
(87); 12:25-26 (99); 12:36 (67); 14:31 
(57); 15:24 (87); 16:8 (57); 16:16 (60); 
16:18 (43); 16:26 (188); 20:22 (56); 
23:13 (43). 

Mark 4:40 (57); 6:8 (43); 7:27 (60); 
8:35-37 (96); 10:38 (56). 

Luke 1:19 (72); 1:26 (72); 6:31 (73); 
6:39 (59); 7:24 (87); 9:25 (60); 10:4 
(43); 11:9 (97); 11:11 (60); 11:17 (99); 
12:6-7 (24); 12:19 (102); 12:22-31 (57); 
12:28 (57); 12:31 (57); 14:34 (104); 
15:23-30 (101); 16:8 (101); 16:13 (43, 
190); 22:35-36 (43). 

John 4:10-14 (72); 6:35-58 (56); 9:4 
(87); 12:36 (101); 14:2-4 (84). 

Acts, 20; 5:34-39 (88); 9:43 (44); 10:6 
(44); 10:32 (44); 22:3 (88); 26:28 (25). 

Romans 8:28 (29); 9:22 (91). 

I Corinthians, 21; 1:9 (13); 4:2 (57); 
9:25 (84); 15 (21); 15:8-9 (72). 

II Corinthians 5:1 (105); 5:10 (67); 
6:2 (73); 11:14 (101); 11:26 (69). 

Galatians 6:9 (13, 97). 

Ephesians 1:5 (44); 3:8 (72); 4:25 (82); 
5:8 (101). 

Philippians 2:13 (44); 3:13-14 (43). 

Colossians 3:1 (57). 

I Timothy 5:5 (101); 6:12 (67). 

II Timothy 2:3-4 (46); 4:7 (67); 4:8 
(84). 

Hebrews 11:9 (101); 12:22-23 (101). 

James 1:12 (84). 

I Peter 5:4 (84). 

Revelation 1:10-11 (24); 2:10 (84); 
3:11 (84); 4:4 (84); 4:10 (84); 15:7 
(91); 16:1 (91); 22:5 (23). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU , 
A (ALLEN) 



BIBLIOTHECA AMERICANA NOVA (RICH) 

BIGELOW, JACOB: Americah~Medical 
Botany , 188; Elements of Technology ," 14. 

BILLOWS : Death rides the b. of the 
western gale, 97. 

BI0N, 43. 

BIRDS, 43, 69, 85; of the United 
States, 58; free as the b. in the air, 
58; health of b. , 14. 

BIRDS OF AMERICA (AUDUBON) 

"BIRDS OF KEWEENAW POINT" (KNEELAND) 

BIRTHDAY: of Queen Victoria, 84. 

"BIRTHDAY IN FAIRY LAND, A" (HIGGIN- 
SON) 

"BIRTH-MARK, THE" (HAWTHORNE) 

BIRTHRIGHT: sell our b. for a mess 
of pottage, 24. 

BISHOP: the boy to the b., 70. 

BISHOP, N. H., 86. 

BLACK LEAD, 198, 201, 207, 211-214. 

BLACK MAN, 61. 

BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM, 96. 

BLADE: a b. too sharp for the scab- 
bard, 39. 

BLAIR, FRANK, 178. 

BLAIR, MONTGOMERY, 178. 

BLAKE, GEORGE B., 190. 

BLAKE, HARRISON GRAY OTIS, 71, 82, 
96, 216, 227-228, 231-232; abandons Mil- 
ton, Mass., for Worcester, 187; charac- 
terized by Higginson, 232; urged to work 
at some task, 61; his letters to Bronson 
Alcott, 188, 191, 193, 199; letter from 
him to Thoreau, 186; what happened to 
the bulk of his letters? 186; Thoreau' s 
letters to him were often carved from 
his current journal , 187 ; rough draft of 
a Thoreau letter to him, 187 ; engaged to 
a student thirteen years younger than 
himself, 193; announcement of his school 
for young ladies, 190; borrows one of 
Alcott ' s books containing Pythagorean 
sentences, 191; his letters to Thoreau 
more numerous than Thoreau 's to him, 186; 
his reaction to Ricketson, 95. 

BLANC HARD , CAPT . , 34 . 

BLANO, MADAME: her paper on Higgin- 
son, 232. 

BLEECKER, ANTHONY, 63. 

BLEEDING, 15. 

"BLESSED CITY, HEAVENLY SALEM", 96. 

BLESSEDNESS: blindly with thy b. at 
strife, 45. 

BLEST: a spot of earth supremely b., 
22 ; man never is , but always to be , b . , 
72. 

BLIND: thou Eye among the b., 73. 

BLOATED: between the ribs of the b. 
pest, 178. 

BLODGET, LORIN: Climatology of the 
United States , 102. 

BLOOD : Setter drink wine than b., 14. 

BLOODY: an anemone of b. hue, 84. 

BOARDMAN, W. L. P. , 98. 



241 



BOAT, 7. 

BOAT-BUILDING: in Roman times, 7. 

BOBBIN: the old B. woman was steady 
to her Bible, 73. 

BODE, CARL, 61. 

BODLEIAN LIBRARY, 84. 

BODY: answer with thy uncovered b. 
the extremity of the skies, 13; balance 
of mind and b., 39; this forked carrot 
of a b. must be fed, 13; resurrection of 
the b., 21; things not respecting the 
soul but the b., 60; deeds done in the 
b., 67; things done in his b., 67; his 
b. only is epigaea repens , 83. 

BOG, 87. 

BOHEMIAN CASTLES, 38. 

BOHN LIBRARY, 101-102. 

BOLSTER ISLAND, 57. 

BOLT: where the b. hits, 17. 

BONAPARTE, CHARLES LUCIAN: American 
Ornithology , 58. 

BONAPARTE, NAPOLEON: sent out his 
horsemen, 66. 

BONES: why grope among the dry b. of 
the past, 22. 

BONUS LIBER OPUS EST, 17. 

BOOK: an honest b. is the noblest 
work of man, 17; the b. has passed away, 
9; what thou seest, write in a b. , 24. 

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER , 71, 84. 

BOOK OF ENOCH THE PROPHET , THE, 84. 

BOOKS , 185 ; in the running brooks , 
185. 

BOOKSELLERS: limbo of falso b., 37. 

BOOKSHOP: old volume from a London 
b., 27. 

BOOTS: carried Scottish ground in 
his b., 28. 

BORDEN, NATHANIEL B., 172. 

BORGIA, CAESAR, 50. 

BORN: as soon as the child is b., 
74; single is each man b., 21. 

BORRADAILE, W. , 17. 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS: its history, 
76. 

BOSTON ALMAN AC, 57. 

BOSTON ATHENAEUM, 57, 70, 82, 91, 
101. 

BOSTON ATLAS AND BEE , 97, 99. 

BOSTON COURIER , 85, 163. 

BOSTON DAILY TRAVELLER , 85. 

BOSTON DIRECTORY , 94. 

BOSTON EVENING POST , 94. 

BOSTON GAZETTE , 94. 

BOSTON HOME JOURNAL , 72. 

BOSTON JOURNAL , 97. 

BOSTON MISCELLANY , 18. 

BOSTON MUSEUM, 97. 

BOSTON NEWS LETTER , 94. 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, 178-179. 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY QUARTERLY , 26. 

BOSTON QUARTERLY REVIEW , ~TT. 

BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY, 
85, 218. 



BOSTON STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY, 197, 210. 

BOSTON THEATRE, 97. 

BOSTON TRAVELLER , 97. 

B0SWELL, JAMES: Life of Samuel John - 
son , 26 , 71 . 

BOTANY, 67. 

BOUGH: an ozier b. were vessel safe 
enough, 11. 

BOURN: the undiscovered country from 
whose b. no traveller returns, 24. 

BOW: draw the b. with all your might, 
61. 

BOWDITCH, HENRY I., 227. 

BOWL: in b. did venture out to sea, 
10; out to sea in a b., 11. 

BOWLING, TOM: became the trailing 
arbutus , 84 . 

BOXER: the finest man and the best 
b., 74. 

BOY: quoted proverb to the bishop, 
70. 

B0YER, SOPHIA RIPLEY, 220. 

BOYLE, 10. 

BOYLE'S COURT GUIDE , 84. 

BRADBURN, GEORGE, 172. 

BRADBURY , SODEN & CO . , 36 . 

BRADFORD, GEORGE: "Fenelon", 28. 

BRADFORD, GEORGE PARTRIDGE, 28, 213, 
227. 

BRADSHAW, JOHN: A Concordance to the 
Poetical Works of John Milton , 20. 

BRADSHAW' S MONT HLY RAILWAY. . .GUIDE, 
46. 

BRADSHAW 'S RAILWAY COMPANION , 46. 

BRAHMA, 58. 

BRAHMINS: only some B. can work on 
their navels, 61. 

BRAIN: shallow draughts intoxicate 
the b. , 59. 

BRAMHALL, CORNELIUS, 172. 

BRAN: the bread of life compared to 
b., 70. 

BRANCHES: as a tree puts forth new 
b., 18. 

BRANDRETH'S PILLS, 14. 

BREAD: of life, 56; if they ask for 
b., 60; man must earn b. by sweat of 
brow, 56; the b. of life compared to 
bran, 70. 

BREAD -TROUGH, 7. 

BREADTH: rippling stream's vast b., 
7. 

BREAST: hope springs eternal in the 
human b., 72; let hope rule triumphant 
in the b. , 72. 

BREATH: my b. is sweet to me, 73. 

BREED: no good b. from lean kine , 74. 

BREWER, E. COBHAM: Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable , 171. 

"BRIAN'S BATTLE", 102. 

BRICK: carried a piece of b. in his 
pocket, 29; see a b. for a specimen, 29. 

BRIGGS, GEORGE NIXON, 164. 

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HOMOEOPATHY, 69. 



242 



BRITONS, 7. 

BROADSIDE: issued by rebelling Har- 
vard students in 1834, 166. 

BRODERICK, JOHN C: "Thoreau and My 
Prisons ", 26. 

BRODIR, 102. 

BRONTE, EMILY: "A Death-Scene", 86. 

BROOK: partly to a ruddy b., 72. 

BROOKS: books in the running b.,185 

BROW: by sweat of the b., 56; man 
need not live by the sweat of his b., 
57, 175. 

BROWN, JAMES WRIGHT, 174. 

BROWN, JOHN, 71, 178-179, 232; his 
early life, 98; his execution, 98. 

BROWN, LUCY (JACKSON), 225; her cot- 
tage near Emerson's house, 183; Thoreau 
to direct the carpenter building her 
fence, 184. 

BROWN, OWEN, 178. 

BROWN, THEOPHILUS, 96, 186, 190, 192. 

BROWN, THOMAS, 47. 

BROWNE, JOHN W. , 227. 

BROWNE, SIR THOMAS: Religio Medici , 
59. CABLES: 

BROWNSON, ORESTES AUGUSTUS, 35; Letter Atlantic, 85 
from, 33; "Christianity Not an Original 
Revelation with Jesus", 13; "Introductory 
Remarks", 13; "A Letter", 30. 

BROWS: Heaven's noblest b 



BURN: I do not b. with high hopes, 
23; b. to be great, 23. 

BURNS, ROBERT, 96; "The Cotter's 
Saturday Night", 72. 

BURR, CHARLES CHAUNCEY, 

BURROUGHS, JOHN, 87. 

BURTON, RICHARD FRANCIS 
Narrative of a Pilgrimage , 

BUSINESS: a man about his b. 
every man to his b. , 70; not 
"seeking the spirit", 57; b. like misery 
makes strange bedfellows, 63. 

BUTT-END: of a horn, 26. 

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON NOEL, LORD: and 
the North American Review , 24; on the 
finest man, 74; his influence in America, 



174. 

Personal 

75: 

66; 
"my b. to be 



24; Childe Harold's 
Don Juan, 24. 



Pilgrimage , 22-23; 



CABIN: I 
passage, 91. 



did not wish to take a c 
telegraph c. laid in the 



97 



72; 



are vain, 

BRUNEL, MR., 34. 

BRUSSELLS, 38. 

BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN, 32; "March", 

"Thanatopsis", 20. 
BUCKLAND, WILLIAM: 



Mineralogy , 28. 

BUCKLE: of a horn, 
BUD: thou little b 



Geology and 

26. 
of being, 45. 



'BUDDHISM: MYTHICAL AND HISTORICAL" 



76. 

BUDDHIST : 
tarian, 38. 
BUDS : the 
BUFFALO, N 



is a practical Necessi- 

were swellin, 44, 



green b. 
, Y. , 20. 

BUFFALO PUBLIC LIBRARY, 37. 

BUFFUM, JAMES N. , 172, 227. 

BUFORD RUFFIANS, 99. 

BULLETS: have no penetration for 
such a contest, 97. 

BULWER-LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE EARLE 
LYTT0N: England and the English , 17, 
92 ; Eugene Aram , 16; Last Days~of Pom - 
peii , 17; PelTTam , 16 ; Rienzi , 17 . 

BUMSTEAD PLACE, BOSTON, 190. 

BUNYAN, JOHN, 70; Pilgrim's Progress , 
57, 59-60, 66. 

BURDEN: of the song, 73. 

BURGH, JAMES: The Dignity of Human 
Nature , 36 . 

BURKE, EDMUND: on pride, 55. 

BURLEIGH, CM., 172. 

BURLEIGH, CHARLES C, 98. 

BURLEIGH, CYRUS M. , 172. 



CABOT, JAMES ELLIOT, 46, 183, 227. 

CADI: letter of a Turkish c, 61. 

CAESAR: De Bello Gallico , 7. 

CAESAR BORGIA, 50. 

CALAMITY: enlargement of the intel- 
lect would be a c . , 39; in c . Goethe 
finds new materials, 57. 

CALCHAS, 35. 

CALCULATION, 38. 

CALF, 10; the fatted c, 101. 

CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL, 33. 

CALHOUN, WILLIAM BARRON, 164. 

CALLED: come when you are c, 59; 
c. according to his purpose, 29. 

CALLING: high c. of God in Christ 
Jesus, 43. 

CALVINISM, 206-207. 

CAMERON, KENNETH WALTER: "Coleridge 
and the 'First Philosophy'", 83; "Emer- 
son and Swedenborgism: A Study Outline 
and Analysis", 100; Emerson the Essayist , 
18-19, 23, 25, 43, 45, 58, 60-61, 67, 
69, 73, 83, 97, 100, 175, 201, 231; Emer - 
son , Thoreau and Concord in Early News - 
papers , 103; "Emerson, Thoreau, and the 
Society of Natural History", 218; "Emer- 
son, Thoreau, and the Town and Country 
Club", 57, 227; "Four Uncollected Thoreau 
Poems", 72; "A Further Note on Emerson's 
'Second Merlin Song'", 61; "A New Thoreau 
Poem-- 'To Edith'", 36; "The Potent Song 
in Emerson's Merlin Poems", 97; "A Sheaf 
of Emerson Letters", 103; "The Signifi- 
cance of Emerson's Second Merlin Song", 
61; "The Solitary Thoreau of the Alumni 
Notes", 181, 225, 227, 233; "Thoreau and 
Emerson in Channing ' s Letters to the 
Watsons", 97; Thoreau Discovers Emerson, 



24; "Thoreau in Search of the Pictur- 
esque", 67; "Thoreau in the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas (1854)", 229; "Thoreau, Parker, 
and Emerson's 'Mousetrap' in The Monitor 
(1862)", 105; "Thoreau' s Diploma Again", 
44; "Thoreau 's Early Compositions in the 
Ancient Languages", 225 ; "Thoreau ' s Three 
Months out of Harvard and his First Pub- 
lication", 13; Transcendental Climate , 
92, 215; The Transcendental is ts and M i- 
nerva , 15, 20-21, 23-24, 29, 35-36, 40, 
42-43, 59-61, 74, 82-83, 92, 171, 174, 
200, 227, 231; "Young Henry Thoreau in 
the Annals of the Concord Academy", 42. 

CAMPAIGN: of the Class of 1837, 166. 

CANAAN: Land of C, 101. 

CANADA, 79, 178. 

CANADIAN NOTEBOOK , 76. 

CANBY, HENRY SEIDEL: Thoreau , 63. 

CANDIDE (VOLTAIRE) 

16. 

23. 



243 

Rustica, 91. 

CATO (ADDISON), 105. 

CATS, 60. 

CAUGHT: Nature refuses to be c, 



74. 



Autobiography , 



of man set 
60. 



to be 



stet nive c 



CANDIDUM: 

CANDLE: and they need no c, 

CANEREM CUM HORATIO, 16. 

CANNAE , 7. 

CANOES, 7. 

CAPRON, EFFINGHAM L., 172. 

"CAPTAIN JOHN BROWN OF OSSAWOTOMIE" , 
98. 

CAPTIVITY, 15. 

CARCASE: where the c. is, 17. 

CARE, 11. 

CARGO: of spices, 12; safely in port 
with a valuable c, 12. 

CARLETON, WILL: Over the Hill to the 
Poorhouse , 95 . 

CARLYLE, THOMAS, 19, 47, 49; on Emer- 
son's essays, 49; Critical and Miscel - 
laneous Essays , 19; "Dr. Francia", 37; 
"Goethe", 19; On Heroes , Hero -Worship , 
and the Heroic in History , 21, 29; Past 
and Present , 29-30, 34; Sartor Resartus , 
95, 100. 

"CARMEN SAECULARE", 165. 

CARRY: a man must c. knowledge with 
him, 71; he must c. the wealth of the 
Indies with him, 71. 

CARTHAGINIANS, 17. 

CARVELS: c. licht 
the sea, 23. 

CARY, HENRY, 101. 

CARYATIDES, 39. 

CASTALIAN SPRING: 

CASTLES : Bohemian 

CAT: bell the c, 
c . no perfume , 13 . 

CAT-STICKS: my metaphysical c, 13. 

CATALOGUE OF NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS 
(BAIRDj 

CATES : sugared c . , 93 . 

CATHARTIC, 93. 

CATHOLICISM: C. and Fourierism, 33. 

CATILINE, 50. 

CATO, MARCUS PORCIUS (THE ELDER): 
advice to those buying farms in De Re 



where is the country's c? 



CAUSE: who cares for numbers in a 
just c. , 71. 

"CELESTIAL RAILROAD, THE" (HAWTHORNE) 

CELL: jerked the philosopher out of 
his c. , 42. 

CELLINI, BENVENUTO: 
83. 

CENSUS, 70. 

CENTAUR, 63. 

CENTER: the heart 
the c. of this world, 

CERTIFICATE, 215. 

CEYLON, 102. 

CHAGRIN: Goethe made a poem out of 
every c . , 57 . 

CHAINS : disengaged from every kind 
of c. , 58. 

CHAMBERS, ROBERT: Ancient Sea-mar- 
gins, 201. 

CHAMPION: 
178. 

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE : his map, 92; 
Voyages de la Nouvelle France , 186-187; 
Voyages du sieur de Champlam , 186. 

CHANGES : in level of sea and land, 
201. 

CHANNING, EDWARD TYRREL , 58, 93; as- 
signed theme on travellers, 92; his as- 
signment of themes, 11; assigned topic 
for Thoreau ' s class at Harvard, 13. 

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (DR.), 34, 
227; Poe's criticism of, 72; The Works , 
30. 

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (THE YOUNGER), 
97, 182; "Baker Farm", 72; Near Home : 
A Poem , 91. 

CHANNING, WILLIAM F. , 227. 

CHANNING, WILLIAM HENRY, 227; The 
Present, 36-37. 

CHAOS: and old night, 39. 

CHAPIN, EDWIN HUBBELL, 64, 225. 

CHAPMAN, GEORGE: Eastward Ho J 26. 

CHAPMAN, MARIA W. , 172. 



fast tending throw CHAPMAN, MATTHEW JAMES: The Greek 



is never dry, 11. 

C, 38. 

60; thou owest the 



Pastoral Poets , 42-43, 

CHAPTAL, JEAN ANTOINE CLAUDE: Chem - 
istry Applied to Arts and Manufactures , 
36; Elements of Chemistry , 36~! 

CHARACTER: the highest seen as c . , 
31. 

"CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE, THE" 
(TENNYSON) 



at home, 15. 
214. 



CHARITY: begins 

CHARLES II, 50. 

CHARLES, GEORGE, 

CHARLES BAY, 60. 

CHARM: though the lay may have lost 
its c . , 11. 

CHARMING: how c. is divine philoso- 
phy , 36 . 



CHARON, 7. 

CHARRON, PIERRE, 48. 
CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE', 47 
CHAUCER, GEOFFREY: "The Clerk's 
Tale", 28; The Romaunt of the Rose , 
CHAUNCY , CHARLES, 164. 



244 



36 



CHURCH, THOMAS: The Entertaining 
History of King Philip's War , 8T. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND: Book of Common 
Prayer , 71, 84. 

CICADA , 201. 

CIRCLE: lonely man in a c . of 



'CHECK LIST OF THOREAU ' S LECTURES, A" friends, 38, 



(HARDING) 

CHEERFUL YESTERDAYS (HIGGINSON) 

CHEERFULNESS : genius brings c . , 39 . 

CHEESE: poisoned c, 14. 

CHEESE-PARING: made after supper of 
a c-p. , 13. 

CHEM ISTRY APPLIED TO ARTS AND MANU- 
FACTURES (CHAPTAL) 

CHICKADEE: whistle of, 105. 

CHILD: till it (the star) stood over 
where the young c. was, 20, 36; as soon 
as the c. is born, 74; Thou little C, 
yet glorious in the might of heaven-born 
freedom, 45; Shakespeare was fancy's c, 
59. 

CHILD, LYDIA MARIA: "What Is Beauty?" 
36; Letters from New York , 36 ; Philothea , 
36-37: 

CHILDE HAROLD'S PILGRIMAGE (BYRON) 

CHILDHOOD : true to the dreams of c, 
22. 

CHILDREN: when c. come into the 
library, 38; hymn of the three c, 84. 

CHINA, 34, 44, 58; The Four Books , 73. 

CHINK: some small c . of the broad 
sky, 45. 

CHIOS, 35. 

CHIVERIN, 43. 

CHOATE, RUFUS, 190. 

CHOIRMASTER, 17. 

CHOLMONDELEY , THOMAS, 75, 84, 92, 95, 
215; Thoreau's letter to C . , 76; his 



images of c, 171. 

an old English prophecy 



CIRCULAR, 227 

CIRCULARITY: 

CIRCULATION: 
now in c . , 74. 

CITIES: are there not the c. of 
Asia, 35; seven c. contended for Homer 
dead, 35; fair c. of the plain, 96. 

CITY OF GOD, 96. 

CIVIL: c. forms offensive, 

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, 173. 

CLANS, 69 

CLAPP 

P., 

CLARKE 



39 



sailing date, 205; Ultima Thule , 67. 

CHRIST: Thor challenged C. to single body must be c 



, OTIS, 227. 

CLARK or CLARKE, E. 

, JAMES FREEMAN, 227. 

CLASS DAY: Thoreau invited to, 181. 

CLASS OF 1837, 181, 233. 

CLASSICAL DICTIONARY , A (LEMPRIERE) 

CLAY, 105. 

CLEMENT'S INN, 13. 

"CLERK'S TALE" (CHAUCER) 

CLEVELAND, A. B., 190. 

CLEVELAND, CHARLES DEXTER: A Com - 
pendium of Grecian Antiquities , 7; First 
Lessons in Latin , 15. 

CLIMBED: mounts you have dreamed of 
but never c. , 70. 

CLIME: in every c. the magnet of his 
soul, 22. 

CLOCK: has been a time-server, 13; 
the c. sends to bed at ten, 13; amongst 
the old furniture not to forget the c, 
13. 

CLOTHED: this forked carrot of a 
13. 



combat, 102 

CHRISTIAN: 0, C, will you send me 
back, 81; saint of some C. order, 45; 
Lidian almost persuades me to be a C, 
25. 

CHRISTIAN EXAMINER , 25. 

CHRISTIAN HISTORY (PRINCE) 

CHRISTIANITY, 53; false and forced, 
173; not an original revelation with 
Jesus, 13; not a system of theological 
doctrines, 13; modern C. is lifeless, 
99. 

CHRISTIERN II, 66. 

CHRISTY, ARTHUR, 58. 

CHRONICLE (ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER) 

CHRONICLES OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS 
(Y0UNG1 

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF N EW ENGLAND 
(PRltfCE) 

CHURCH: on this rock he has built 
his c, 43; see Primitive Church. 

CHURCH, BENJAMIN, 82. 

CHURCH, JEFFERSON, 172. 



CLOTHES, 175. 

CLOTHES PHILOSOPHY, 100. 

CLOTHING, 63. 

CLOTHO, 35. 

CLOUD: as the floating c. which 
passes, 74; when gloom like a thick c, 
20; the fatted c. , 101. 

CLOUDS : thick c . , 20 . 

CLOVE: deep quiet of the C, 37. 

CLOVE ROAD, 37. 

CLUB: Hercules with his c, 95, 178; 
organizing a c, 57. 

CNIHTEN: three hundred c, 20, 171. 

COAL: a glowing c. at my heart, 59. 

COALS: carrying c. to Newcastle, 87. 

COAST: stranger on their c, 12. 

COAT: stript of its smooth c, 7. 

COAT OF ARMS, 18. 

COATS: they take off their c. and go 
to work, 39. 

CODES: moral c. like the Decalogue, 
57. 

COELUM, NON ANIMUN, MUTANT, QUI: 



245 



Com- 



trans mare currant , 35, 174. 

COFFEE: a poison? 14. 

COGGS VS. BERNARD, 97. 

COKE, SIR EDWARD: Institutes : 
mentary upon Littleton" 9b . 

COLDS, Lb. 

COLEMAN'S HOTEL, WASHINGTON, D. C, 
174. 

COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR, 18, 51; read 
C. skipping all his theology, 83; The 
Friend , 60; De Quincey's reminiscences, 

83: 

COLLECTOR OF TAXES, 173. 
COLLEGE: organizing a c, 57. 
COLLINS, JAMES, 64, 77. 
COLLINS, JOHN A., 172. 
COLLINS, PATRICK, 77. 
COLOPHON, 35. 



COL SON, WARREN H. 



COLTON, DELIA M. : "Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son", 103. 

COLTON, JOSEPH H. 



18; Senior Pastor of the First Church, 
182; If I forget thee, C, 15; music 
master of, 17; Social Circle, 17-18; 
singing in, 17; Lyceum, 25. 

CONCORD ACADEMY, 18, 29; Thoreau a 
student in, 42. 

CONCORD BRIDGE, 98. 

CONCORD FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 85, 202. 

CONCORD LYCEUM, 179, 220. 

CONCORD LYCEUM , THE (LOW) 

CONCORD RIVER, 331 - circling nine times 
round, 18; running nine times round, 18. 

CONCORD TOWN LIBRARY, 87. 

CONCORDANCE. JOHN MILTON (BRADSHAW) 

CONDITION: his c. determines his lo- 
cality, 100; the principal thing a man 
makes is his c. or fate, 100. 

CONDUCT: c. yourself suitably toward 
183, 227-228, 232. the persons of your family, 73. 

CONFECTIONERY, 15. 

CONFESSION, 15. 

CONFESSIONS OF AN OPIUM EATER (DE 



88. 
COLTON' S RAILROAD AND TOWNSHIP MAP OF QUINCEY) 



MAINE, 88. 

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, 50. 

COMBAT: Thor challenged Christ to 
single c. , 102. 

COMBE, ANDREW, 64. 

COMBE, GEORGE, 64. 

COMER, MR. , 163. 

COMES : hope never c . that c . to all , 
73. 

COMIC, 42. 

"COMIC, THE" (EMERSON) 

COMMERCE: adversities of our c, 39. 

COMMERCE : loss of the American brig 
C. ,~6TI 

COMMON: being content with c. rea- 
sons, 58. 

COMMON MEN: mingle with the herd of 
c-m. , 44. 

COMMUNITIES, 38. 

COMMUNITY SYSTEM, 33. 

COMPARE: to c. great things with 
small, 43. 

COMPASS: Bishop asked if he could 
say his c. , 70. 

COMPASSES: conceit of the twin c, 
60. 

COMPENDIUM OF GRECIAN ANTIQUITIES , A 
(CLEVELAND) ~~ 

COMPENDIUM OF THE UNITED STATES CEN - 
SUS, 70. 

COMPENSATION, 55. 

COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE REBELLION , A 
(RAYT ~ 

COMPLIMENT: the Fates pay a c . to 
those whom they make sick, 35. 

COMPOSITION: art of c. in Emerson, 
49. 

CONCEIT: of the twin compasses, 60. 

CONCISENESS: want of c, 12. 

CONCORD, MASSACHUSETTS, 77; recom- 
mended coat of arms, 18; Sabbath School, 



CONFORMITY: deemed one of the best 
arts of life, 13; c. in things unessen- 
tial, 13. 

"CONFORMITY IN THINGS UNESSENTIAL", 
13. 

CONFUCIUS, 58; substance of his 
teaching, 73. 

CONFUCIUS ET MENCIUS , 58, 73. 

CONGREGATION: of speaking in the c, 
84. 

CONNECTED: the English traveler is 
always highly c . , 92 . 

CONNECTICUT: birthplace of John 
Brown, 98. 

CONQUEROR: not as the c. comes, 71. 

CONSCIENCE: the state has the same 
c. as the Christ, 40; c. hanging about 
the neck of my heart, 29. 

CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONCORD (MILLER) 

CONSTANT, BENJAMIN, 4/. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, 38. 

CONSTITUTION: teacher on the human 
c, 14. 

CONSUMPTION, 39. 

CONSUMPTIVE, 14. 

CONTACT: daily c. with the things I 
loath, 23. 

CONTEMPLATION, 22; the yogin absorbed 
in c. , 58. 

CONTEMPORARIES: desperation of our 
c, 39. 

CONTEMPORARIES (HIGGINS0N) 

CONTENT: flatness of being c. with 
common reasons, 58. 

CONTEST: swords have no edges for 
such a c . , 97 . 

CONTINENTAL MONTHLY , THE, 103. 

CONTRADICTIONS, 48. 

CONVENTIONS: to uphold the temple of 
c, 39. 

CONVERSATION: degenerates into mere 



246 



gossip, 187; inadequacy of, 187; c. of 
farmer or backwoodsman, 91; ordinary c. 
is hollow and ineffectual, 187; in c. 
Goethe finds new materials, 57. 

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON , 14. 

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL: The Dial , 
103; "Walden Water", 103; "Walden Woods", 
103. 

COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE, 47. 

COOS COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 87. 

COPERNICUS, NICOLAUS, 52. 

COPPER, 85. 

CORN: ready to acknowledge the c, 
91. 

CORN-LAWS, 34. 

CORRECTIONS: for Thoreau's Corre - 
spondence , 225. 

COTTAGE : soul's dark c, battered, 
and decayed, 105. 

"COTTER'S SATURDAY NIGHT , THE" (BURNS) 

COTTON, SIR ARTHUR THOMAS: Public 
Works in India , 75. 

COTTON, CHARLES, 42. 

COTTON KINGDOM , THE (OLMSTED) 

COUGHING : drowns the parson's saw, 
69. 

"COUNTESS SURVILLIERS", 28. 

COUNTRY: love of c, 22; in such a 
strange c. as this, 15; educated above 
the work of their c, 39; a pure un- 
tarnished c. ground, 45; where is the 
c's champion? 178; that undiscovered c, 
24. 

COURAGE: be of good c, 67. 

COURIER , 85. 

COURIERS: despatches c. to the other 
side of the globe, 188. 

COURS D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE (HENNEBERT 
ET DE BEAUrIEU) 

COURS ELEMENTAIRE D'HISTOIRE NATU - 
RELLE 1 (MULSANT) 

COURSE: no longer any right c. of 
action, 39. 

COURT GUIDE , 84. 

COURT OF COMMON PLEAS, 229. 

COUSIN, VICTOR, 33, 47. 

CO VENT GARDEN, 34. 



varied c . , 87 . 

CRIMEA: evacuation of the C, 75. 

CRIMEAN WAR, 67, 75. 

CRIMSON: sins red. like c, 57. 

CRITICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS 
(CARLYLE) 

CRITICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS WRITINGS 
(PARKER) 

CROCKETT, DAVID: his motto, 71. 

CROMWELL, OLIVER, 99. 

CROSS PATCH, 11. 

CROWD: the c. of common men, 44. 

CROWN: a c. that would fit no other 
head, 84. 

CROWNS: No sun with plenty c. the 
uncultured vale, 97. 

CUFAH, 174. 

CULTIVATION: of the land, 39. 

CULTIVATOR, 91. 

CULTURE, 38; our c. is the tradition 
of Europe, 39; see Spiritual Culture. 

CUMBERLAND: Countess of C, 60. 

CUNNING: let my right hand forget 
her c . , 15 . 

"CUPID AND DEATH" (SHIRLEY) 

CURE: by cold water, 14; for social 
disease, 39. 

CURRENT: we must take the c. when it 
serves, 26. 



CURTIS, B 



R., 163 



93. 



COVERDALE, MYLES : his version of the d. thing, 59. 



CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM, 64, 206, 210. 
CUSTOM: is the best cure to passion, 

CUSTOMHOUSE, 38. 

CUSTOMS: criticizing American c, 93. 

CUTLER, MR. , 183. 

CYNOSURE: of all eyes, 66. 

CYTHEREA, 16. 



DALHOUSIE, LORD: his last state 
papers, 75; Farewell Minute , 75; Papers 
Relating to Oude , 73"! 

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, 32. 

DANGEROUS: a little learning is a 



Psalms, 71 

COWDREY, HARRIS, 172. 

COWLEY, ABRAHAM, 40. 

COWPER, WILLIAM: The Task , 67. 

CRAEUSA, 10. 

CRAIG, ANNA, 219. 

CRAIGHEAD, R., 76. 

CRANCH, CHRISTOPHER PEARSE, 70. 

CRAYON, GEOFFREY, 60. 

CREAM: pan of unwrinkled c, 82. 

CREATION, 55; the yogin contributes 
to c . , 58. 

CREATOR: remember thy C. in the days 
of thy youth, 22. 

CRETE, 58. 

CRIES: tries their echoes with un- 



DANGERS: of strong medicine, 15. 

DANGLERS: Let us not be d. upon God, 
but vessels of God, 31. 

DANIEL: poems of D., 84. 

DANIEL, SAMUEL: "To the Lady Marga- 
ret", 60. 

DANIEL RICKETSON AND HIS FRIENDS 
(RICKETSON) 

DANIELS: unto the least of all D., 
72. 

DARKEST: always d. just before day, 
69. 

DARKNESS: d. , ye are wondrous 
strong, 22. 

DARTMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS, 92. 

DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT: On the Origin 



247 



of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 
102. 

DASENT, GEORGE WEBBE, 102. 

DAUGHTER: some fair d. of the earth, 
83. 

DAUGHTERS: d. of music are brought 
low, 22. 

DAVENANT, SIR WILLIAM, 40. 

DAVID, 47; friendship with Jonathan, 
20. 

DAVIS, JUDGE, 164. 

DAVIS. CHARLES AUGUSTUS: Letters of 
91. 
. 172. 



J. Downing, Major , 



190. 

just before 
d., 171. 



DAVIS, GEORGE T 

DAVIS, JOHN, 95, 164, 

DAVIS, M. , 163. 

DAWN: always darkest 
69; when we awake in the 

DAY: live to come another d., 69; 
always darkest just before d. , 69; labor 
at a dollar ad., 17 5; now is the d. of 
salvation, 73; the hardest d. fighting 
men with snow on their helmets, 74; the 
pure azure of the general d. , 45; while 
it is d., 87. 

DAY -LABOR: the true way is by d-1., 
175. 

DAYS: remember thy Creator in the d. 
of thy youth, 22; signs of evil d. are 
come, 39; while the evil d. come not, 
22; in d. of yore, 7; ere the evil d. 
come, 72; who in these latter d. appeared 
unto the least of all Daniels, 72. 

Dg RE RUSTICA (CATO) 

DEAD: Indians avoid mentioning the 
names of the d. , 225. 

DEAF: that d. and silent read'st the 
eternal deep, 73. 

DEATH, 100; rides the billows of the 
western gale, 97; calls ye to the crowd 
of common men, 44; River of D. , 59; fear 
neither man nor d. , 62; in d. we "mingle 
with the herd of common men", 44. 

"DEATH-SCENE" (BRONTE) 

DECALOGUE, 57, 70. 

DECK: am I once fairly on d. , 91; 
the d. of the world, 91. 

DECLAMATION, 29. 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 100. 

DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 
(GIBBON) 

DEDHAM, MASSACHUSETTS, 86. 

DEED: then there is a soul in his d., 
39; before the owner gave me ad. of it, 
83; for good d. done through praiere , 36. 

DEEDS: account for d. done in the 
body, 67. 

DEEP: that deaf and silent read'st 
the eternal d. , 73. 

DEEPLY: I could drink d. enough of 
it, 72. 

DEFENCE: storms without d., 24; her 
d. more than the strength of millions, 
44. 



74, 



DEFINITIONS: if you value precise 
, 83. 

DEFOE, DANIEL: Robinson Crusoe , 60, 
DEFORMITY: offspring of positive d, 



DEJANIRA, 63. 
DELAWARE INDIANS, 201 
DELECTABLE MOUNTAINS, 



60, 



DELIGHTS: God d. in the strength of 
a man ' s legs , 71 . 

DEMAREST, WILLIAM H. , 206. 

DEMOCRACY: in Emerson's works, 48. 

"DEMOCRACY", 14. 

DEMOCRATIC REVIEW , 27, 32-33, 35. 

DEMOCRATS : Massachusetts State Con- 
vention of, 14. 

DEMOSTHENES, 69; on the essentials of 
good oratory, 28. 

DENNIS, HIRAM BARRETT, 18. 

DENNY, HENRY G. , 231. 

DEPRESSION: advantage from d. of 
spirits, 87. 

DE QUINCEY, THOMAS: reminiscences 
of Coleridge and Wordsworth, 83; Auto - 
biographic Sketches , 83; Confessions of 
an Opium Eater^ 83 ; Literary Reminis - 
cences ^ 83; Note-book of an English 
Opium-eater , 83. ~ 

DESCARTES , RENE, 48, 52. 

DESCENSUS AVERNO , 91. 

"DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY OF EASTHAM" 
(FREEMAN) 

"DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWN OF MIDDLE- 
BOROUGH" (BENNET) 

DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF THE GLUCK 
COLLECTION OF MANUSCRIPTS , 37. 

DESERT : amid thy d. walks , 87 . 

"DESERTED VILLAGE" (GOLDSMITH) 

DESPAIR, 39. 

DESPAIRS. See Giant Despairs. 

DESPERATION: of our contemporaries, 
39; lives of quiet d. , 38. 

DESTINY, 215; labor is every man's 
d. , 175; we must abide our d., 24; fol- 
lowed the star of my d. , 20; impatient 
on of the tedious introductions of D., 38. 

DEUTSCHE SCHNELLPOST , 40. 

DE VERE, MAXIMILIAN SCHELE: Ameri- 
canisms; the English of the New World , 



9T7 

DEVIL, 32; under obligations to the 
d., 60. 

"DEVIL AND TOM WALKER, THE" (IRVING) 

DEWEY, CHESTER, 101. 

DHARUNU , 61. 

DIAL , THE, 26-28, 36, 41-42, 47, 70, 
103"TT8~2. 

DIBDIN, THOMAS JOHN, 83. 

DICKSON, WILLIAM, 36. 

DICTIONARY OF AMERICANISMS , A, 37. 

DICTI ONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRA- 
PHY AND MYTHOLOGY (SMTTTD 

DICTIONARY OF PHRASE AND FABLE (BREW- 
ER) 



DIDEROT, DENIS, 49-50. 

DIE: Gods love those who d. young, 
35; John Brown's men teach us how to d., 
100; not yet begun to d., 45. 

DIET: spare d. and clear skies, 71. 

DIFFICULT : the way seems steep and 
d., 23. 

DIGNITY O F HUMAN NATURE, THE (BURGH) 

DILL, VINCENT, 206, 210. 

DIODORUS SICULUS, 7, 70. 

DIOGENES: Thoreau called a Yankee 
D., 68. 

DIOTA, 16. 

DIPLOMA: the old joke of ad., 44 . 

DIRECT: how to instruct and d. a 
nation of men, 73. 

DIRECTION: young men looking for d. , 
39. 

DIRECTIONS: for collecting fishes 
etc., 195. 

DISCONTENT, 38; the more d. the bet- 
ter we like it, 38. 

DISCOVERIES.. .RUINS OF NINEVAH AND 
BABYLON" (LAYARD) 

DISEASE: of the State, 40 ; cure for 
the d., 39; hereditary d. , 14; an Ameri- 
can d., 39; to take the name of any d. 
in vain, 70. 

DISGUISE: every man is an angel in 
d., 19. 

DISHES, 11. 

DISOBEDIENCE: civil d. , 173. 

DISSOLVE: liquor which will d. the 
world, 97. 



248 



DISTANCE: between us and our nearest Boston, 7o" 



DOCTRINES: Christianity not a system 
of theological d. , 13. 

DOG: with tin kettle tied to its 
tale, 60; pretence to whip ad., 60. 

DOGMATISM: no d. in modern sages, 48. 

DOGMATISMS, 40. 

DOGS: mope and wallow like d., 19. 

DOLLAR: labor at a d. a day, 175. 

DOLLARS: swapping "wood-notes wild" 
for d., 59; ten d. offered to release 
him, 83. 

DONE : what ' s d . may be undone , 14 . 

DONNE, JOHN: "A Valediction: For- 
bidding Mourning", 60. 

DOOM: such is the sovereign d. , 24. 

DOORS: shall be shut in the streets, 
22. 

DORCAS, 41. 

DORCHESTER UNITARIAN CHURCH, 220. 

DOUBT: of the existence of matter, 
58. 

DOUGH: put in one pan, 38. 

DOUGLAS, FREDERICK, 98. 

DOVE: Noah and his d. , 26; found no 
rest for the sole of her foot, 20; see 
Turtle-dove . 

DOWNING, JACK, 91. 

DOWNINGVTLLE , MAINE, 91. 

DRAGON, 55, 84; the d. did drub, 178; 
of Want ley, 95, 178. 

"DRAGON OF WANTLEY , THE", 95. 

DRAINAGE, 96. 

DRAKE, SAMUEL GARDNER: on the Indi- 
ans , 76; The History and Antiquities of 



neighbors, 99. 

"DISTANT CORRESPONDENTS" (LAMB) 

DISTEMPER: superf icialness is the 
real d., 39. 

DISTURBANCES: revolutions of d. 
still roll, 60. 

DITCH: scholar should work in the d, 
occasionally, 175. 

DIVINE: d. forms traverse the yogin 
without tearing him, 58. 

DIVINE NATURE: where the D-N. is 
crushed, 39. 

DIVINITY: there is a d. that shapes 
our ends, 24. 

DIXON, JAMES, 174. 

DIXWELL, EPES S., 163. 

DO: what we would know we must d., 
39; d. as you would be done by, 73. 

DOB ELL, SYDNEY, 75. 

D0BS0N: perhaps a real or fictional 
surname for a Concord ne'erdowell, 95. 

DR. FAUSTUS (MARLOWE) 

"DR. FRANCIA" (CARLYLE) 



DRAMA, 34. 

DRAPIER'S LETTERS , THE (SWIFT) 

DRAUGHTS : shallow dT~ intoxicate the 
brain, 59. 

DRAYTON, MICHAEL, 40. 

DREAM: of Pharaoh, 74; if the truth 
is only a poetic d. , 40. 

DREAMED: mounts you have d. of but 
never climbed, 70. 

DREAMS : a mountain which I ascend in 
my d. , 87; as the trumpet and drum sound 
in d. , 71; true to the d. of childhood, 
22. 

DRINK: I could d. deeply enough of 
it, 72; d. deep or taste not, 59. 

DRINKING, 70; without thirst, 15; d. 
largely sobers us again, 59. 

DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA , 87. 

DRUM: the trumpet and the d. will 
sound, 71. 

DRUMS: roll of the stirring d., 71. 

DRURY LANE, 34. 

DU CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI : Explora - 



DOCTRINE: Pythagorean d. of harmoni- tions and Adventures in Equatorial Afri 
cal relations, 171. ca , 102. 

DOCTRINE AND DISCIPLINE OF HUMAN CUL - DUCHESS OF PORTLAND, 13. 
TURK , THE (ALCOTT) DUM0NT , HENRIETTA: The Language of 

^DOCTRINE OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE Flowers , 67. 
DEAD" (RUCKERT) DUNSTER, HENRY, 164. 



DUN VEGAN, 69. 

DURANCE: while Winkelried lay in d. , 
25. 

DURKEE, SILAS: exhibited specimens 
of the glow worm, 86. 

DUST: unto d. shalt thou return, 56. 

DUTY, 22; England expects every man 
to do his d., 71; labor is every man's 
d., 175; the old D. is the old God, 39. 

CUYCKINCK, EVERT AUGUSTUS: Cyclo - 
paedia of American Literature , 64. 

DWELL: where peace and rest can nev- 
er d. , 73. 

DWTGHT, MR., 91. 

DWIGHT, JOHN SULLIVAN, 227. 

DWIGHT, THOMAS, 163. 

DYING: the race never d., the indi- 
vidual never spared, 39. 



EAR: though they give no sound to 
the e., 59; nor has the e. heard, 13. 

EARLE, WILLIAM B., 17 2. 

EARNEST: not always e., 12. 

EARS: dying away on the e. of modern 
men, 27; melody inaudible to human e., 24. 

EARTH: on e. all is imperfect, 39; 
every other planet better than the e., 
39; a spot of e. supremely blest, 22; 
grass and e. to sit on, 24; the laws of 
the e. are for the feet, 58; with whom 
I've made acquaintance on this e., 45; 
to maintain oneself on this e., 57; some 
fair daughter of the e., 83; drop to the 
e. a mere amorphous squab, 63; let the 
e. rejoice, 87. 

EAST: star in the e. , 20, 36. 

EASTERN: E. philosophy, 62. 

EASTERN WAR, 67. 

EASTWARD HO I 26. 

EATING: e. the sick, 15. 

EATON, GEORGE, 190. 

EBY, EDWIN HAROLD: A Concordance of 
Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass , 73. 

ECHOES: catch its e. dying away, 171; 
tires their e. with unvaried cries, 87. 

ECLECTICISM, 47. 

ECLOGUES (VIRGIL) 

"ECONOMY", 57. 

EDGAR: in King Lear , 13. 

EDGARD, 55. 

EDGES : swords have no e . for such a 
contest, 97. 

EDINBURGH REVIEW , 25, 37. 

EDUCATED : e. above the work of their 
times and country, 39. 

EDUCATION, 22, 55, 94; theory of e., 
48; denied by Emerson, 53; see Progres- 
sive Education. 

EDWARDS, BELA BATES & AMASA PARK ED- 
WARDS : Selections from German Litera - 
ture, 20. 



249 



EDWARDS, JONATHAN, 94. 

EELS: pickled e., 101. 

EGOTISM, 48. 

EGYPT, 103. 

EGYPTIANS, 17. 

EIGHT: the clock calls me again at 
e. , 13. 

EL DORADO, 96. 

EL-MEDINAH, 74. 

ELECTROTYPE, 211. 

ELECTROTYPING, 212, 214. 

ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY (CHAPTAL) 

ELEMENTS OF DRAWING (RUSKIN) 

ELEMENTS OF GE0L0"GY , THE (LEE) 

ELEMENTS OF TECHN0L0GY~ TB I GELO W ) 

ELIOT, JOHN: Indian Bible , 207. 

ELIZABETH I . , 74"! 

ELLIOT, EBENEZER: Poems , 96. 

ELLIOTT, MR. , 164. 

ELOQUENCE, 49. 

ELSSLER, FANNY, 34. 

ELY: Jongleur d' Ely, 36. 

EMANCIPATION IN THE BRITISH WEST 
INDIES (EMERSON) 

EMBLEM, 26. 

EMERSON, EDITH, 26, 36-37, 44-45. 

EMERSON, EDWARD, 45. 

EMERSON, ELLEN, 45. 

EMERSON, FRANKLIN, 172. 

EMERSON, JOHN F., 172. 

EMERSON, LIDIAN (JACKSON), 25, 36, 
45, 179, 183; keeps Thoreau's breakfast 
warm, 184. 

EMERSON, MARY MOODY: lent book to 
Sanborn and Thoreau, 56. 

EMERSON, RALPH WALDO, 64, 97, 220, 
225, 227; his criticism of Thoreau's 
style, 12; his New York lectures cited, 
29; recited an old Indian proverb, 30; 
mentioned in the New York Pathfinder , 
29-30; on Jesus Christ, 31 ; on airplanes , 
38; his "Lectures" in New York described, 
31; wrote Thoreau from Concord, 45; E. 
in an early French review, 47; said to 
resemble Wordsworth, 47; as prophet, 47; 
called a Puritan Montaigne, 47; is a 
seeker, 48; has given us the Table Talk 
of sages, 49; his Puritanism, 49; E~. and 
Puritanism, 52; his position regarding 
American religion, politics, etc., 52; 
denies external education, 53; on the 
"mousetrap", 105; Redpath's book dedi- 
cated to E. , 179; letter of recommenda- 
tion for Thoreau, 182; wrote to Thoreau 
at Walden Pond, 183; admired the London 
Times, 187; in Worcester, Mass., with 
his Anti-Fugitive-Slave-Law Lecture, 190; 
Alcott sends him a circular regarding 
conversations, 213; style of his Nature 
praised, 50; An Address... in Divinity 
College , 21; Address on the Anniversary 
of Emancipation in the British West InT 
dies , 47 ; The American Scholar , 14; "The 
Comic", 42; English Traits , 214; The 



250 



Early Lectures , 83; Essays , 20; Journals , 
18; Letters , 20; Nature , 18 , 20-22, 25, 
44, 58, 74, 91; Representative Men , 57; 
"A Letter [to Readers of The DlaT T", 38; 
"Goethe", 57; "Modern Aspects of Letters", 
83; "Ode to Beauty", 41, 182; "Rhodora", 
235; "Second Merlin Song", 61; "State- 
ment of the First Philosophy", 19; "The 
Problem", 32; "The Titmouse", 105. 

EMERSON, WILLIAM, 45, 182-183. 

"EMERSON AND SWEDENBORGISM" (CAMERON) 

EMERSON SOCIETY QUARTERLY, 13, 36, 
42, 57, 61, 72, 87, 97, 100, 105, 171, 
181, 183, 186, 225, 227, 229, 233. 

EMERSON THE ESSAYIST (CAMERON) 

EMERSON , THOREAU AND CONCORD IN EARLY 
NEWSPAPERS (CAMERON) 

"EMERSON, THOREAU, AND THE SOCIETY OF 
NATURAL HISTORY" (CAMERON) 

"EMERSON, THOREAU, AND THE TOWN AND 
COUNTRY CLUB" (CAMERON) 

EMMONS, EBENEZER, 101. 

EMOTIONS: e. which an angel might 
share, 91. 

EMPLOYMENTS: effects of e., 14. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA AMERICANA , 14, 59. 

END: the little e. of the horn, 26; 
true e. of human existence, 36. 

ENDS : there is a divinity that shapes 
our e., 24; man's e. are shaped for him, 
24. 

ENDURANCE: passive e., 173. 

ENGLAND: old or new, 213; expects 
every man to do his duty, 71; farewell 
to E., 23; Thoreau characterizes E.,78. 

ENGLAND AND THE ENGLISH (BULWER- 
LYTTON) 

ENGLISH: an old E. prophecy now in 
circulation, 74; man forbidden to tread 
on E. ground, 28; a tongue not under- 
stated of the E. people, 84; the E. 
traveler is always "highly connected", 
92. 

ENGLISH PROVERBS (HOWELL) 

ENGLISH PROVERBS (RAY) 

ENGLISH TRAIT ST EMERSON) 

ENGLISHMEN: welcome, E., 81; Whitman 
does not speak in a tongue E. can under- 
stand, 84. 

ENNUI, 38. 

ENOCH, 84. 

ENTERPRISE: to fare badly in an e., 
26. 

"ENTRETIENS PHILOSOPHIQUES", 58, 74. 

ENTRY: thy e . is a pleasant field, 
72. 

EPICS: having weathered so many e. 
of late, 40. 

EPICTETUS: on "bear and forbear", 
101. 

EPICUREAN, 102. 

EPIGAEA REPENS , 83-84. 

EPIGEUS, 84. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 34, 84; Book of 



Common Prayer , 71 . 

EPIST0LAE~ ( HORACE) 

EPISTOLARY: e. matter comprises three 
topics, 12. 

EPITAPH: on Tahatowan, 225. 

EQUINOX, 15. 

ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS: Adogia , 69. 

ERECT: unless above himself he can 
e. himself, 60. 

ERROR, 38, 48. 

ESAU, 24. 

ESLING, CATHARINE HARBESON (WATER- 
MAN): Flora ' s Lexicon , 67. 

ESOX , 218. 

ESQUIMAUX, 7. 

ESSAY: as a genre, 49. 

ESSAY ON CRITICISM (POPE) 

ESSAY ON MAN (POPE) 

ESSAYS (BACON) 

ESSEX INSTITUTE HISTORICAL COLLEC - 
TIONS , 184. 

ET VERA INCESSU PATUIT PEA , 74. 

ETERNAL : the universe is e. , 174; 
haunted forever by the e. mind, 72; hope 
springs e. in the human breast, 72; that 
deaf and silent read'st the e. deep, 73. 

ETERNITY: in the present, 53. 

ETHER: realms of e., 63. 

ETHIOPIAN: cannot change his skin, 
44. 

ETIQUETTE, 182. 

ETZLER, JOHN ADELPHUS : The Paradise 
within the Reach of all Men , 27. 

£&- 7rp4rr&r, 28. 

EUGENE ARAM (BULWER-LYTTON) 

EUGENIUS IV., 66. 

EUPHRATES: willows in the midst of 
the E., 15. 

EURIPIDES: Iphigeneia in Tauris , 69. 

EUROPE: our culture is the tradition 
of E., 39; prejudices of E., 93. 

EURYDICE: song of E., 11. 

EUSSELMON NEA, 7. 

EUSTIS, MR., 192. 

EVANESCENT, 12. 

EVERETT, EDWARD, 164. 

EVERETT, JOSHUA T., 172. 

EVERYTHING: good in e., 185. 

EVIL: while the e. days come not, 
22; signs of e. days are come, 39; do no 
e. and fear neither man nor death, 62; 
meet ere the e. days, 72. 

EXAGGERATE: I e. when I have an op- 
portunity, 61. 

"EXCELSIOR" (LONGFELLOW) 

EXISTENCE: true end of e., 36; doubt 
of the e. of matter, 58. 

EXISTENTIALISM, 53. 

EXPECT: we find what we e. , 97. 

EXPENSE: living at the e. of life, 
14. 

EXPERIENCE, 23. 

EXPERIMENT: full tide of successful 
e., 29. 



"EXPLANATORY PREFACE" (PEABODY) 
EXPLORATIONS AND ADVENTURES (DU 
CHAILLU) 

EXPRESSION: solitude without e. 



251 



38 



EXTREMITY: of the skies, 13. 

EXULTING: hope springs e. on tri- 
umphant wing, 72. 

EYE: light of a dark e. in woman, 22; 
thou E. among the blind, 73; thy sage 
reserved e., 45; e. hath not seen, 13; 



e. 



of 



of the law, 60, 

EYES: cynosure of all e., 66; horn 

suretyship ever before my e., 26. 



56. 



97 



FABLE: of Apollo and Admetus , 19 
FABRIC: baseless f . of a vision, 
FACILIS DESCENSUS AVERNO , 91. 
FACULTIES : a paralysis of the active 
, 39; respect the child's f., 74. 
FAILS: time never f., 174. 
FAINT: we shall reap if we f. not, 



"FAIR HARVARD' 

FAIRHAVEN 

FAITH: 



163, 



57. 



, MASSACHUSETTS, 92. 
that we have but little f., 



FAITHFUL: if a soul be f . enough, 21 

FAITHFULNESS: we have little f., 57. 

FALCO AESALON , 63. 

FALCO COLUMBARIUS , 63. 

FALCON, 63. 

FALCONER, WILLIAM, 102. 

FAL STAFF, 13. 

FAME: the trumpet that sings of f., 
71. 

FAMILY: conduct yourself suitably 
toward the persons of your f., 73. 

FAMILY LIBRARY, 66. 

FANCY: Shakespeare, F's child, 59. 

FAREWELL: to England, 23. 

FAREW EL L MINUTE (DALHOUSIE) 

bought m Illinois, 39; I let 



FARM: 
this f. alone, 91 

FARMER: conversation of f., 91. 

FARMS: advice to those buying f 
91. 

FARNSWORTH, AMOS, 

FARQUHAR, GEORGE: 
Officer, 70. 



172. 
The Recruiting 



FARRAR, WILLARD T., 216. 

FATE, 37; and darkly hints their 
awful f., 10-11; polygamy is the f. of 
all men, 83; the principal thing a man 
makes is his condition or f . , 100. 

FATES: pay compliment to those whom 
they make sick, 35. 

FATHERS: the law of the £., 88; land- 
ing of the Pilgrim f., 71. 

FAUCIBUS: si vox non f. haeserit, 
16. 

FAULTS : Thoreau ' s 



FAUST, 48. 

FAUST (GOETHE) 

FAUSTUS , 100. 

FEAR: effects of f., 15; do what you 
f. doing, 49; do no evil and f. neither 
man nor death, 62. 

FECHTER, CHARLES ALBERT, 102. 

FED: we shall be f . as the sparrows 
are, 24. 

FEELINGS : See Moral Feelings . 

FEET: projects without f. or hands, 
35; sit at the f. of Gamaliel, 88; the 
laws of the earth are for the f., 58; 
water to wash the f., 24. 

FEINBERG, CHARLES E., 182, 207, 217. 

FfiNELON, FRANCOIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA 
MOTHE: "Thoughts on Spiritual Subjects", 
28. 

"FENELON" (BRADFORD) 

FESTUS, 7. 

FESTUS (BAILEY) 

FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, 54; on the 
creation of the world, 55. 

FIDELITY: superior to taste or im- 
agination, 39. 

FIELD: a f. verdant, 18; thy entry 
is a pleasant f., 72; see Potter ' s Field. 

FIELD, C. C, 18. 

FIG: aprons of f. leaves, 63. 

FIGHT: f. the good f. of faith, 67; 
have you fought the good f.? 67; yours 
ever in a good f., 70. 

"FIGHT THE GOOD FIGHT" (MONSELL) 

FIGHTING: f . men with snow on their 
helmets, 74. 

FIGHTS: he who f. and runs away, 69. 

FIND: we f. what we expect, 97. 

FINE: whilst he dwells in the old 
sin he will pay the old f., 39. 

FIRE: hewn down and cast into the 
f., 44; f. in my belly, 91. 

FIRST: I am the f. and the last, 24. 

FIRST LESSONS IN LATIN (CLEVELAND) 

"FIRST LOVE", 28. 

FISH, 85. 

FISHER, JAMES T., 227. 

FISHES, 43; directions for collecting 
f., 195. 

FISHLIKE: that antique and f. of- 
fice, 13. 

FISKE, JOHN M. , 172. 

FIT: the only salutation f. for the 
wise, 28; then the mad f. returns, 19. 

FIX: Nature will not 
74. 

FIXED: Nature is not 
74. 

FLAGG, THOMAS WILSON: Studies in the 
Field & 



let you f. her, 
f. but fluid, 



FLAGON, 
FLATNESS : 
mon reasons, 
FLETCHER, 
list of his f . , 12. 26. 



Forest , 87 



of being content with com- 
58. 
JOHN: A Wife for a Month, 



252 



FLETCHER PHINEAS , 40. 

FLIES: in the Maine Woods, 217. 

FLINT, 14. 

FLOCK: fed the same f., 72. 

FLOCKS: so to keep the f . of Admetus , 
18, 61, 171. 

FLODE: comen mid than f., 20, 171. 

FLOOD: taken at the f . leads on to 
fortune, 26; perils by land and by f., 
69. 

FLORA'S INTERPRETER (HALE) 

FLORA'S LEXICON (E5LI NG ) 

FLOS BACCHl, 71. 

FLOUR, 12. 

FLOWER: state f. of Massachusetts, 
83. 

FLOWER-GARDEN, 42. 

FLOWERS: as f. know the winds, 45; 
language and sentiment of f., 67; put 
forth f . and fruit, 178; put forth leaves 
and f . , 73. 

FLOWING: Nature is always f., 74. 

FLUID: Nature is not fixed but f., 
74. 

FLYING-MACHINES, 38. 

FOIBLES, 92. 

FOLEY, P. K., 228. 

FOLKS: some f. are wise, 37. 

FOOD, 175. 

FOOL: every man is a god playing the 
f., 19; how otherwise know he was not a 
f.? 175. 

FOOLS: paradise of f., 48. 

FOOT: rest for the soul of my f. ? 
20; the slave who sets f. on British 
ground, 70. 

FOOTNOTES FROM THE PAGE OF NATURE 
(MACMTLLAN) 

FORBES, EDWARD WALDO, 45. 

FORBES, PHILIP J., 37. 

FORCE: a prodigality of life and f., 
39; no f. can bend me, 24; the recuper- 
ative f. in every man may be relied on, 
38. 

FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW , 37. 

FOREIGN REVIEW , 19~ 

FOREKNOWLEDGE , 37. 

"FORESTER, THE" (ALCOTT) 

FORESTS: waving f. of Pelion, 61; 
dark and virgin f. of Michigan, 85. 

FORGET: if I f. thee, Jerusalem, 
15. 

FORKED: a poor, bare, f . animal as 
thou art, 13; when naked he was like a 
f. radish, 13; f. carrot of a body must 
be fed, 13. 

FORMS: religious, civil and judi- 
cial, 39; divine f. traverse the yogin 
without tearing him, 58. 

FORTUNATE: how the f . life is pre- 
pared for, 39. 

FORTUNE: taken at the flood leads 
on to f . , 26. 

FOSSILS, 85. 



FOSTER, STEPHEN S., 227. 

FOUNTAIN: by f., shade, and rill, 72. 

"FOUR UNCOLLECTED THOREAU POEMS" 
(CAMERON) 

FOURIERISM, 33-34, 48. 

FOX, GEORGE, 53. 

FRANCE: horse that died in the south 
of F. ? 72; Republic of Letters in F., 82; 
its view of the United States, 47. 

FRANCIS, CONVERS, 42. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN: Poor Richard , 37; 
The Life , 83. 

FRATERNITY : held by some masonic 
tie, 38. 

FRATERNITY LECTURES, 98. 179. 

FRAU RATH, 40. 

FREE: f . as the birds in the air, 58; 
the slave becomes that instant f., 70. 

FREE STATE PARTY, 98. 

FREE TRADE, 25, 43. 

FREE WILL, 37. 

FREEDOM: in the might of heaven-born 
f., 45; constitutes the truest being of 
man , 40 . 

FREEMAN, JAMES: "A Description and 
History of Eastham", 206. 

FREIGHT: thy soul shall have her 
earthly f . , 45. 

FRENCH, 12. 

FRENIERE, EMIL A.: "The Mountain 
Comes to Concord", 223. 

FRIEND: is a man with whom I can be 
sincere, 49. 

FRIENDS: lonely man in a circle of 
f., 38. 

FRIENDSHIP, 36, 55; offices of f., 
38. 

"FRIENDSHIP OF TWO OLD-TIME NATURAL- 
ISTS, THE" (WADE) 

FROTHINGHAM, OCTAVTUS BROOKS, 227. 

FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY: History of 
England , 74. 

FRUIT : I should not care if I put 
forth leaves and flowers and have f., 
73, 178; the certain f. of their works, 
58; tree that bringeth not forth good 
f., 44; which some mossy f. trees yield, 
72. 

FRUITLANDS, 27. 

FRYING-PAN: he eat up the f-p., 60. 

FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW, 190. 

FULLER, MARGARET: letter to Thoreau, 
182, 225; Papers on Literature and Art , 
47. 

FULLER, RICHARD, 24. 

FULLER, SARAH MARGARET. See Margaret 
Fuller. 

FULLER, THOMAS: Gnomologia , 59-60, 
70; A Pisgah-Sight of Palestine. 69. 

fUNEraE SERMCN", 94. 

FURNITURE: amongst the old f. not to 
forget the clock, 13. 

FURY: write with f. and correct with 
phlegm, 233. 



253 



73, 



GABRIEL, 72. 

GAIETY: where wit and g. never come, 



GAIT: of a high-mettled horse, 74; 
revealed a goddess truly in her g. , 74. 

GALE: Death rides the billows of the 
western g. , 97. 

GALILEO, 52. 

GALL, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, 64. 

GALLIPOLI, 75. 

GAMALIEL: his character, 88; sit at 
the feet of G. , 88. 

GANGES: swallowing the mud of the 
G . , 38 . 

GARDEN OF EDEN, 63. 

GARGANTUA (RABELAIS) 

GARRETS : poets starving in g. , 175. 

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD, 98, 172, 
227. 

GATES: g. of hell shall not prevail 
against it, 43. 

GAZE: broad and charitable g. , 45. 

GEHENNA, 100. 

GELLIUS, AULUS: Noctes Atticae , 101. 

GENERAL HISTORY OF IRELAND , A (0 ' HAL- 
L0RAN5 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PHILOSOPHY 
OF NATURE (STALLO) 

GENIUS, 39; a celestial muse, 83; a 
real g. for staying at home, 69; brings 
power, nobleness, cheerfulness, and 
love, 39; how prepared for, 39; where a 
people honors g. , 39. 

GENIUS LOCI , 51. 

GENTLE : FKe g. name of Spring, 72. 

GENUINE REMAINS OF OSSIAN , THE, 43. 

GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO , 102. 

GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, 196. 

GEOLOGY, 27; of Maine, 88; of moun- 
tains, 223; in g. time never fails, 27, 
174. 

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY (BUCKLAND) ' 

GEORGICS (VIRGIL) 

GERAND0 , JOSEPH MARIE DE: His to ire 
Comparee des Syst&mes de Philosophie, 

nr. l — — E — 

GERMAN: my G. and metaphysical cat- 
sticks, 13. 

GERMANS: a disjointed people, 39. 

GERMANY: despair of G. , 39. 

GERYON, 96. 

GESCHICHTE PER LITERATUR PER GEGEN - 
WART , 39. " " 

GESCHICHTE PER SCHONEN REPEKUNSTE 
PERSIENS (HAMMEr-PUrGSTALL) 

GESSLER, HERMANN, 100. 

"GETTING A LIVING", 96. 

GIANT OESPAIRS, 66-67. 

GIANT REGRETS, 67. 

GIBBON, EPWARP: History of the Pe - 
el ine a nd Fall of the Roman Empire, 82; 

- - ■ - i 7 



Memoirs, 82; Miscellaneous Works, 82 



GIPPINGS, MR., 100. 

GIFFORD, JOSIAH, 172. 

GIFT: of tongues, 20. 

"GIFTS OF PROPHECY... IN THE PRIMITIVE 
CHURCH" (RUCKERT) 

GILCHRIST, 212. 

GILMAN, SAMUEL, 163. 

GILMORE, JAMES ROBERT, 103. 

GILPIN, WILLIAM, 175; books on the 
picturesque, 67; list of his works, 177. 

GLASS, 14. 

GLIMPSEWOOD, 232. 

GLOBE: despatches couriers to the 
other side of the g. , 188. 

GLOOM: when g. like a thick cloud, 
20. 

GLORY: will you go to g. with me? 
73. 

GLOVER, TOWNS END, 85. 

GLOW WORM, 85; specimens found in 
Dedham, 86. 

GLUCK COLLECTION, 37. 

GOAL: how soon life in this country 
reaches its g. , 32. 

GOD: tempers the wind to the shorn 
lamb, 105; worketh in you, 44; delights 
in the strength of a man's legs, 71; no 
wisdom equal unto the belief xn G., 62; 
some g. gave me the power to paint what 
I suffer, 57; there is no G. but G., 62; 
Let us not be danglers upon G. but ves - 
sels of G., 31; to them that love G. , 
2 9 ; when G. visits us, 53; to serve G. 
and Mammon, 190; how man touches G., 53; 
seeing G. face to face, 48; ye cannot 
serve G. and Mammon, 43, 68; one, of His 
side, is a majority, 71; things which G. 
hath prepared for them that love him, 
13; the noblest work of G. , 17; the Lord 
G. giveth them light, 23; every man is a 
g. playing the fool, 19; sympathize with 
the g. Apollo, 18; in what sense man is 
G., 40; the old Duty is the old G. , 39; 
they shall see Nature and, through her, 
G. , 101; after-poets knew their first- 
born brother as a g. , 20; see Supreme 
Being; Word of God. 

GODDESS: revealed a g. truly in her 
gait, 74. 

GODFORSAKEN, 39. 

GODLIKE: the g. nature is the root 
of all prosperity, 39. 

GODS: love those who die young, 35; 
when they come among men they are not 
known, 19; are commonly unrecognized by 
men, 19; Abraham receives a visit from 
his g., 19; all the g. depart, 39; if 
any g. perjured themselves, 18; he went 
to the g. of the wood, 185. 

GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG, 40, 87; in 
calamity G. finds new materials, 57; 
made a poem out of every chagrin, 57; 
Auto -biography of Goethe : Truth and 
Poetry , 82; Faust , 51; Memoirs. . .Written 



254 



by Himself , 82; Wilhelm Meister , 19, 102. 

"GOETHE" (CARLYLE) 

GOLD, 96. 

GOLDEN AGE: to which Emerson aspires, 
31. 

GOLDEN RULE, 73. 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER: "The Deserted 
Village", 87. 

GOMORRAH, 96. 

GOOD: in everything, 185; all things 
work together for g. to them that love 
God, 29; there also is your g. , 191; a 
g. thing to persevere in well doing, 13; 
affectionate speech in the mansions of 
the g. , 24; the reward of his g., 21; 
lovers of the G. , 39. 

GOOD-BYE, 28. 

GOOSE FAMILY, 10. 

GORE, CHRISTOPHER, 164. 

GORE, JOHN C. , 172. 

GORILLA, 102. 

GOSHAWK, 58. 

GOSSIP: conversation degenerates 
into mere g., 187. 

GOTHAM: wise men of G. , 9-11. 

GOULD, BENJAMIN A., 15. 

GOVERNMENT: its disease, 40; the 
best g. is one that governs least, 52. 

GRAHAM'S MAGAZINE, 72. 

graphite:, 36. 

GRASS: g. and earth to sit on, 24. 

GRATEFUL: for what I am and have, 
73. 

GRAVE: better in thy g., 13. 

GRAVEN IMAGE, 99. 

GRAVEYARD: g. of the past, 22. 

GRAY, WILLIAM, 163. 

GREAT: burn to be g., 23; to com- 
pare g. things with small, 43. 

GREAT EASTERN : is larger than the 
Ark, 84. 

GREAT MAN: how prepared for, 39. 

GREAT REVIVAL, 94. 

GRECIANS, 17. 

GREEK: G. Minor Poets, 27; G. tem- 
ples, 26. 

GREEK PASTORAL POETS , THE (CHAPMAN) 

GREEKS, 35; the first G. to make use 
of ships, 7; mercenary G. , 178. 

GREELEY, HORACE, 26, 64, 76, 198; 
announces Walden , 63; when he first met 
Thoreau, 43 ; example of his generosity 
toward Thoreau, 198; buys the "Maine 
Woods" for $25, 174; letter to Thoreau 
about publishing part of his private 
letter, 174; his memorable tribute to 
Thoreau in 1848, 175; "A Lesson for 
Young Poets", 174; "Protection and Free 
Trade", 25, 43. 

GREELEY & McELIATH, 199. 

GREEN, JAMES D., 190. 

GREEN, NATHANIEL: Tales and Sketches, 



GREENE, WILLIAM BATCHELDER, 28, 227. 

GREGORY, DUDLEY SANFORD , 174. 

GREY, SIR GEORGE: Polynesian My - 
thology , 75. 

GRIFFITH, RICHARD: "The Koran", 71. 

GRISELDA, 28. 

GRISWOLD, RUFUS W. : Readings in 
American Poetry , 32 . 

GROPE: why g . among the dry bones of 
the past, 22. 

GROUND: the slave who sets foot on 
British g., 70; man forbidden to tread 
on English g., 28; a pure untarnished 
country g. , 45; carried Scottish g. in 
his boots, 28; thou shalt return to the 
g., 56. 

GROUND LAUREL, 83. 

GROVE, JEMMY, 44. 

GUESTS, 182. 

GUIANA, 96. 

GUIDE TO GEOLOGY , A (PHILLIPS) 

GULISTAN , THETS"ADI) 

GUN-FLINTS7~T4. 

GUNNAR, 102. 



H 



HAFIZ, MUHAMMAD SHAMS AD-DIN, 50; Per 
Diwan von Mohammed Schemsed-din Hafis, 
TT. 

HALE, MR., 174. 

HALE, SARAH JOSEPHA (BUELL) : Flora's 
Interpreter , 67 . 

HALF-WITTED, 81. 

HALL, C. C. , 88. 

HALL, LOUISA JANE (PARK): Miriam , a 
Dramatic Poem , 33. 

HALLAM, HENRY, 94. 

HALLECK, FITZ GREENE, 32. 

HALLS: adieu ye classic h. 



23. 



HAMILTON, HANS CLAUDE, 102 
HAMLET (SHAKESPEARE) 



28 



GREENE, CHRISTOPHER, 186. 



HAMMER, 104. 

HAMMER-PURGSTALL , JOSEPH FREIHERR 
VON: his translation of Per Diwan , 27; 
Geschichte der schonen Redekilnste Per - 
siens , 27 . 

HAND: let not your right h. know 
what your left h. does, 59; let my right 
h. forget her cunning, 15. 

HANDEL, GEORG FRIEDRICH: The Messiah , 
34. 

HANDS: a house not made with h. , 
105; projects without feet or h. , 35. 

HANDWRITING: of William Ellery Chan- 
ning, 91. 

HARD TIMES: lead to cultivation of 
the land, 39. 

HARDENBERG, FRIEDRICH, VON, 53. 

HARDING, WALTER, 219, 223; "A Check 
List of Thoreau' s Lectures", 220; The 
Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau 
ed. Walter Harding and Carl Bode, passim ; 



255 



83, 8b, 88, 
endure h. as a good sol- 
pastime , 



HEART : 
h. of man, 



A Thoreau Handbook , 175; Thoreau ' s Li- 
brary , 24, 2/, 3fo , 70, ItT 
91, 101. 

HARDNESS: 
dier, 46. 

HARDSHIP: not a h. but 
57. 

HARE: when told that the h. was com- in heaven, 
ing, 38. 

HARIVANSA , 58. 

HARMONY: why we do not hear the h. , 
171; h. of the spheres, 24, 171; music 
wherever there is h. , 59; they strike a 
note most full of h. , 59. 

HAROLD: Childe H. and his farewell 
to England, 23. 

HARP: hang h. on the willows, 15; 
play on the Jew's h. , 15. 

"HARP, THE" (KORNER) 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 205-206. 

HARPER'S FERRY, 100. 

HARRIS, THADDEUS WILLIAM, 76, 200- 
202. 

HARRISON, JAMES A., 72. 



h. , 74; a crown that would fit no other 
h. , 84; the laws of heaven are for the 
h., 58. 

HEALING, 19. 

HEALTH: of birds, 14; of women, 15; 
library of h. , 14. 

HEARD: utter the words they have h. 
19. 

it hath not entered into the 
13; a broken h. , 15; look in 
your h. and write, 49; conscience hang- 
ing about the neck of my h. , 29; a glow- 
ing coal at my h. , 59; knowing the h. of 
man is set to be, 60; thoughts of the 
h., 82. 

HEATHEN, 45. 

HEAVEN: sends its insane angels into 
our world, 19; were it the Will of H. , 
11; Let it come in H's name, 38; mind 
can make a h. of hell, 100; natural sky 
preferred to an opium-eater's h. , 83; 
pile Pelion upon Ossa, to reach h. so, 
61; the laws of h. are for the head, 58; 
But unimproved, H's noblest brows are 



HART, JAMES D. : The Oxford Companion vain, 97; utter the words they have heard 
to American Literature , 84. in h. , 19; see Kingdom of Heaven. 

HARVARD COLLEGE (UNIVERSITY): theme HEAVEN AND HELL (SWEDENBORG) 

HEAVENLY: 



staying at home is the h. 
intervals between, 



topics at, 11, 13; Association of the 

Alumni, 93; Librarian, 216; state of the way, 174. 

Library, 93; orations on the absentee HEAVENLY BODIES 

American literature, 39; pap furnished 171. 

there, 99; Second Centennial Anniversary, HEAVENLY JERUSALEM, 96. 

163; Class of 1837, 181, 233; Rebellion HEAVENS: mica reflects the h. to us, 

of the Class of 1837, 166; Josiah Quincy ' s 60. 

public announcement about the rebellion HEBREWS: prophets prophesy as among 

of 1834, I67ff. the ancient H. , 82. 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY, 76, 88; its 
papers plundered , 186 . 

HARVARD DIVINITY SCHOOL, 220. 

HARVARD MAGAZINE : Thoreau 's can- 
celled good wishes for, 205. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 212. 

HAUNTED: h. forever by the eternal 
mind , 72. 

HAVE: grateful for what I am and 
h., 73. 

HAWAII, 55. 

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL: walks along 
banks of the "Scamander", 35; Thoreau 
writes H. , 184; "The Birth-Mark", 29; 
"The Celestial Railroad", 35. 

"HAWTHORNE AND A GLIMPSE OF WALDEN " 
(ADAMS) 

HAY FIELD, 7. 

HAYDON, BENJAMIN ROBERT, 83; Life.. . 
fro m his Autobiography, 61. 
HAYING, 7. 

HAYWARD, JOHN: The New England 
Gazetteer , 101. 

HAYWOOD, J. B., 163. 

HAZLITT, WILLIAM, 42, 47, 49; Table 
Talk , 49. 

HEAD: hitting the nail on the h. , 
38 ; only his bended arm to support his 



HEBRIDES, 69. 

HECATOMBS: of private tragedy, 39. 

HECKEWELDER, JOHN: Narrative of the 
Mission of the United Brethren , 201. 

HECTOR, 84. 

HEDGE, FREDERIC HENRY, 227. 

HEIGHT: on thy being's h. , 45. 

HEINE, HEINRICH, 49. 

HELL, 73; River Styx ran nine times 
around h. , 18; why this is h. , nor am I 
out of it, 100; gates of h. shall not 
prevail against it, 43. 

HELMETS: fighting men with snow on 
their h. , 74. 

HEMANS, FELICIA: "The Landing of the 
Pilgrim Fathers", 71. 

HENNEBERT, J. B. & G. G. DE BEAURIEU: 
Cours d'histoire naturelle , 85. 

HENRY D. THOREAU (SANBORN) 

HENRY DAVID THOREAU... A CENTENNIAL 
EXHIBITION , 217. 

HERACLITUS , 74. 

HERAND, JOHN ABRAHAM: The Life and 
Times of Girolamo Savonarola , 27 . 

HERCULANEUM, 9. 

HERCULES, 53, 95; with his club, 178; 
poisoned shirt which H. put on, 63. 

HERD: mingle with the h. of common 



men , 44 . 

HERDS: h. of Admetus , 61. 

HERITAGE: who yet dost keep thy h. , 
73. 

HERMIT, 77; on Stat en Island, 34. 

"HERMIT, A", 30. 

HERODOTUS, 7, 101. 

HERODOTUS, A NEW LITERAL VERSION , 101, 

HEROES, 21. 

HEROISM: of facing reality where one 
happens to be, 187. 

HERPETOLOGY, 43. 

HESIOD, 27. 

HEYNE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB , 8. 

HEYWOOD, JOHN, 101; Proverbs , 38. 

HIDE: thou owest the beast no h. , 
13. 

HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH, 178-179, 
227-228, 232; Mme. Blano's paper on him, 
232; his juvenile story, "A Birthday in 
Fairy Land", 232; Cheerful Yesterdays , 
232; Contemporaries" ! 232; Life of Long - 
fellow , 232; LifeTof Whit tier , 232. 

HIGH: h. and low, 31. 

"HIGHER LAWS" (THOREAU) 

HIGHEST: the h. seen as character, 
31. 

HILARITY: if you wish to live with 
h., 191. 

HILDRETH, S. T. , 163. 

HILL: old woman who lived under a 
h., 10. 

HILL , EDWIN B . , 7 . 

HILL-TOP: the h-t . over against my 
house, 91; from the h-t. east of your 
house, 91. 

HILTON, SYLVIA, 37. 

HINDOOS, 21; their history, litera- 
ture, and mythology, 61. 

HINNOM, 100. 

HINTON, RICHARD J. (COLONEL): read 
Thoreau's address on John Brown, 179. 

HINTS: to parents, 15. 

HISTOIRE COMPAREE DES SYSTEMES DE 
PHILOSOPHIE (GfiRANDOl 

HISTOIRE DE L A FAMILLE DE HARI , 58. 

HISTOIRE DE LA NOUVELLE FRANC E 

(leScArboT) 

histoire du canada (sagard-theodat) 
historia indiae o ccidental! s (ben- 

Z0NT7 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL VIEW (MORELL) 
HISTORY : the page of h. is never 

closed, 11; if you love h. , 17; theory 

of h. according to Emerson, 50, 54; the 

heroic in h. , 21; local h. of New York, 

76. 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF BOSTON, 

THE (DRAKE) 

"HISTORY OF BEL THE DRAGON", 84. 

HISTORY OF ENGLAND (FROUDE) 

HISTORY OF NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE, THE, 



66. 



56 

SON) 

HISTORY OF THE ANGLO-SAXONS (TURNER) 

HISTORY OF THE DECLINE AND 'FALL (GIB- 
BON") 

HISTORY OF THE SARACENS (0CKLEY) 

HOAR, EBENEZER ROCKWOOD : "William 
Whiting, Sr.", 18. 

HOAR, ELIZABETH, 183? 

HOAR, LEONARD, 164. 

HOAR, SAMUEL, 25. 

HODGE, JAMES THATCHER: "Report on 
the Allagash Section", 88. 

HODGE-PODGE, 12. 

HODGSON, THOMAS, 177. 

HOLD: lay h. on eternal life, 67. 

HOLDERLIN, FREDERIC: "Hyperion", 39. 

HOLMES, C. C, 163. 

HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL, 32; sings an 
original song, 164. 

HOLROYD, JOHN BAKER, 82. 

HOLY: more h. grew each spot, 20; 
the h. is desecrated, 39; secular means 
"not h.", 60. 

HOME, 23; poverty begins at h. , 15; 
charity begins at h. , 15; he who would 
bring h. the wealth of the Indies, 71; 
if he would bring h. knowledge, 71; love 
of h. , 22; a real genius for staying at 
h. , 69; staying at h. is the heavenly 
way, 35, 174. 

HOME BOOK OF PROVERBS (STEVENSON) 

HOME BOOK OF QUOTATIONS , THE (STEVEN- 
SON") 

HOME JOURNAL , 72. 

HOMEOPATHY, 48, 69. 

HOMER, 12, 23, 50, 65, 79; a lover of 
nature, 67; on a well-benched ship, 7; 
seven cities contended for H. dead, 35; 
Iliad , 84; Odyssey , 7, 12, 61. 

HOMER, JONATHAN, 164. 

HOMERIC, 59. 

HOMERIC AGE, 103. 

HOMO: H. enim, naturae minister et 
interpres , 73. 

HONEST: an h. book is the noblest 
work of man, 17 . 

HONORED: to be h. by iniquitous 
means, 74, 76. 

HOOD, THOMAS: "The Song of the 
Shirt", 61. 

HOPE: springs exulting on triumphant 
wing, 72; springs eternal in the human 
breast, 72; let H. rule triumphant in 
the breast, 72; h. never comes that 
comes to all, 73. 

HOPES: I do not burn with high h. , 
23. 

HORACE, 
74. 

HORATIO 

HORIZON 
all the h. 

HORN: 



69; Epistolae , 174; Odes , 16, 

canerem cum H. , 16. 

we hear a faint music from 
, 171. 
squeezed through ah., 26; h. 



HISTORY OF NEW BEDFORD. THE (RICKET- of suretyship, 26; the little end of 



the h. , 26. 

HORSE: in the strength of the h. , 
71; longevity of a French h. , 72; gait 
of a high-mettled h. , 74; Trojan h. , 
178; see Bay Horse. 

HOSMER, EDMUND: Thoreau writes to 
him, 200? 

HOSMER, RUFUS, JR., 18. 

HOSPITALALITY , 81. 

HOSPITALITY, 101. 

HOSTILITY: in young men, 39. 

HOUGHTON LIBRARY, 7, 27. 

HOUND: I long ago lost ah., 45. 

HOUR: its very nakedness has power 
to aid the h. , 73; surely thine h. will 
come, 62. 

HOURS: though I might choose my own 
h., 13. 

HOUSE: divided against itself, 99; 
not made with hands, 105; strangers in 
their own h. , 39; hill-top over against 
my h. , 91; from the hill-top east of 
your h. , 91; lost sheep of the h. of 
Israel, 87; man with a mind to sell his 
h., 29. 

HOUSE I LIVE IN (ALCOTT) 

HOUSE-TOPS, 17. 

HOUSES : genius brings cheerfulness 
into towns and h. , 39. 

HOWARD, JOHN, 41. 

HOWARD, LEON: "The American Revolt 
Against Pope", 23. 

HOWARD, LUKE, 84. 

HOWE, SAMUEL GRIDLEY, 17 8?, 227. 

HOWELL, JAMES: English Proverbs , 37. 

HOYT, DAVID STARR, 178? 

HOYT, GEORGE, 172, 178? 

HOYT'S NEW CYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL 
QUOTATIONS , 97. 

HUBBARD, CYRUS, 216. 

HUDSON, E. D., 172. 

HUE: an anemone of bloody h. , 84; 
to sell the h. of his thought, 60. 

HUMAN: hope springs eternal in the 
h. breast, 72; teacher on the h. consti- 
tution, 14. 

HUMAN CULTURE: first principle of 
h-c, 22. 

HUMAN NATURE: dignity of h-n. , 36. 

"HUMAN SACRIFICE, THE" (WHITTIER) 

HUMANITY, 22. 

HUME, DAVID, 47. 

HUMPHREY, PRESIDENT, 163-164. 

HUNT, NASH, 174. 

HUNTING, 38. 

HURLBUT, JUDGE, 64. 

HUSBANDRY, 78. 

HUSBANDS: h. of seduced women, 63. 

HUTCHINSONS, 172. 

HYATT, THADDEUS, 100. 

HYGIENE, 48. 

HYMN, 67, 73. 

"HYMN OF THE THREE CHILDREN", 84. 

HYMNS, 96. 



257 



HYMNS OF LOVE AND PR AISE , 67. 
HYPATIA (KlNGSLEY) 

"HYPERION" (HOLDERLIN) 
HYPOCRITES, 43 



IBYCUS, 27. 

ICELAND, 102. 

ICELANDERS, 7. 

ICHTHOLOGY, 43. 

IDEAL: withdraws into a poetic dream- 
region, 40. 

IDOLS, 99. 

"IL SASSO RANCIO", 28. 

ILLINOIS: go to I. to buy a farm, 39. 

ILLUSIONS, 55. 

IMAGERY, 71. 

IMAGES, 52; of circularity in Tho- 
reau' s prose, 171. 

IMAGINATION: fidelity superior to 
taste or i. , 39. 

IMAUM ALI ZADI, 62. 

IMITATION, 68; evil of i., 52. 

IMMORTAL: sentiment alone is i., 12. 

IMMORTALITY, 44; this longing after 
i., 105. 

IMPEDIMENT: who knowest me without 
i., 45. 

IMPERFECT: on earth all is i., 39. 

IMPORT: to conceive the full i., 13. 

INCESSU PATUIT , 74. 

IND : the wealth of Ormus and of I . , 
71. 

INDIA: giving decrepit relatives the 
mud of the Ganges, 38. 

INDIAMAN: a raft to some huge Homeric 
or Shakspearean I., 59. 

INDIANS, 76, 82, 201, 225; wrongs of 
the I., 39; abhor mentioning the dead by 
name, 225; give relatives the mud of the 
Ganges, 38; canoes of I., 7. 

INDIES: he who would bring home the 
wealth of the I., 71; if here is not the 
wealth of the I., 71. 

INDIGENT: affectionate speech though 
they be i . , 24 . 

INDIVIDUAL: Emerson writes for the 
i., 51; the race never dying, the i. 
never spared, 39; in Emerson's thought, 
54-55. 

INDIVIDUALISM, 56. 

INFAMY, 93. 

INFANTRY-TACTICS (SCOTT) 

INFERIOR MAN, 58. 

INFINITE: aesthetics of the I., 87. 

INFLICTIONS: are sanctified to the 
righteous, 29. 

INGENIOUS, 12. 

INK: you did not write it with i. , 
60. 

INKSTAND, 38. 

INQUISITION, 100. 



INSANE, 39; heaven sends its i. 

into our world, 19. 

INSANITY: pronounced by whom, 
INSECT ARCHITECTURE (RENNIE) 
INSECT TRANSFORMATIONS (RENNIE) 

INSECTIVOROUS, 8/. 

INSECTS: i. injurious to 

85. 



258 

angels 



99, 



vegetation, 
, 48. 



INSIGHT: philosophy of 

INSPIRATION, 38. 

INSTINCT, 52. 

INSTITUTES (COKE) 

INSTITUTION: the i. is the length- 
ened shadow of a man, 52. 

INSTRUCT: how to i. and direct a 
nation of men, 73. 

INTEGRITY: nothing is more sacred 
than your i. , 52. 

INTELLECT: styled spiritus unguent i 
suavis , 71; a preternatural enlargement 
of the i. would be a calamity, 39. 

INTELLECTUALITY: unbalanced i. of 
American youth, 39. 

INTERIORS: Swedenborg on i. , 82. 

INTERMENT: premature i. , 15. 

INTERVALS: between the heavenly 
bodies, 171; break into rare music at 
i., 19. 

INTRODUCTION TO ENTOMOLOGY, AN (KIRBY 

& spT^cin ~~ 

INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGY , AN (BAKE- 
WELL} 

INTRODUCTIONS: impatient of the 
tedious i. of Destiny, 38. 

INTUITION, 53; philosophy of i., 48. 

"INVARIABILITE DANS LE MILIEU", 74. 

INWARD: when our life ceases to be 
i. and private, 187. 

IPHIGENEIA IN TAURIS (EURIPIDES) 

IRANIS : self-devotion among the I . , 
39. 

IRELAND, 102. 

IRISH, 183. 

IRVING, WASHINGTON: 
Tom Walker", 60; Tales 
60. 

ISLAM, 62. 

ISLE HAUTE, 92. 

ISLE OF MUCK, 69. 

ISLES: the wealthiest i. , 22. 

ISRAEL: lost sheep of the house of 
I., 87. 

ITALY, 27. 



JACK, 11. 

JACKSON, ALICE BRIDGE, 179? 
JACKSON, CHARLES THOMAS, 85, 88. 
JACKSON, FRANCIS, 172, 227. 
JACKSON, ROBERT MONTGOMERY SMITH: 
The Mountain , 223. 

JACKSON, WILLIAM, 164. 



"The Devil and 
of a Traveller, 



JACKSON, WILLIAM A. , 188, 199, 213, 
230-231. 

JACKSON & McDERMOTT, 211. 

JACOB, 24. 

JACQUES, 65. 

JAILOR: not at home, 173. 

JAMES MUNROE & CO., 21, 91, 184. 

JAMESON, ROBERT, 58. 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS, 64; First Inaugural , 
29. 

JEFFREY, FRANCIS: on his love of na- 
ture and poetry, 96. 

JEREMIAD, 39. 

JEREMIAH, 47. 

JERUSALEM, 84, 96, 100; if I forget 
thee, J., 15. 

JERUSALEM DELIVERED (TASSO) 

"JERUSALEM, MY HAPPY HOME", 96. 

JESUIT RELATIONS , 217, 231. 

JESUS CHRIST, 33, 50, 52; was not 
known, 19; judgment seat of C, 67; as 
a good soldier of J-C, 46; Emerson on 
J., 31; the high calling of God in C-J. , 
43; not an original revelation with J., 
13; his sinless character, 21; the state 
has the same conscience as the C, 40. 

JEW'S HARP, 15. 

JILL, 11. 

JOCELYN, A. H. , 198-199. 

JOHN BROWN MEMORIAL CELEBRATION, 17 9. 

JOHNSON, L. & CO., 211, 233, 235. 

JOHNSON, OLIVER, 227. 

JOHNSON, SAMUEL, 26, 71, 220, 227; 
his tour of the Hebrides, 69; A Journey 
to the Western Islands of Scotland , 69; 
"Vanity of Human Wishes", 44. 

JOKE: the old j. of a diploma, 44. 

JONAS, 55. 

JONATHAN: friendship with David, 20. 

JONES, CHANCELLOR, 164. 

JONES, SIR WILLIAM: translation of 
the Laws of Menu , 24; The Works , 21. 

JONGLEUR, 36. 

JONSON, BEN, 26. 

JORDAN, MR., 233, 235. 

JOSEPH H. COLTON & CO., 88. 

JOUFFROY, THOMAS SIMON (THEODORE) , 47 . 

JOURNEY IN THE SEABOARD SLAVE STATES, 
A (OLMSTED) 

JOURNEY IN THE BACK COUNTRY (OLMSTED) 

JOURNEY THROUGH TEXAS , A TOLMSTED ) 

JOURNEY TO THE WESTERN ISLANDS OF 
SCOTLAND , A (JOHNSON) 

JOVE: such the will of J., 24; th' 
irrevocable doom of J., 24. 

JUDGMENT SEAT: of Christ, 67. 

JUDICIAL: j. forms offensive, 39. 

JULIUS CAESAR (SHAKESPEARE) 

JUPITER, 178; punishment he assigned 
to perjured gods , 18 . 

JURA, 22. 

JUST: j. made perfect, 101; who 
cares for numbers in a j. cause, 71. 

JUSTICE SHALLOW, 13. 



K 



259 



KAISER, LEO MAX, 27. 

KANSAS, 95, 98; bill to admit K. as 
a free state, 101. 

KANT, IMMANUEL, 51. 

KARS: Siege of K. , 75. 

KELLY, JAMES: Scottish Proverbs , 
70. 

KETTLE: tin k. tied to dog's tail, 
60. 

KEWEENAW POINT, 85. 

"KEY INTO THE LANGUAGE OF AMERICA" 
(WILLIAMS) 

KEYES, JOHN, 25. 

KEYES, JOHN SHEPARD: "Albert Hobart 
Nelson", 18. 

KINDRED: is there no k. spirit? 96. 

KINE: no good breed from lean k. , 
74; k. of Bashan, 74. 

KING: ambitious k. , 70. 

KING, MR., 164. 

KING, THOMAS STARR, 227. 

KING ADMETUS. See Admetus . 

KING LEAR: his speech to Poor Tom, 
13. 

KING PHILIP'S WAR, 82. 

KINGDOM OF HEAVEN: it will not enter 
or have others do so, 43. 

KINGSLEY, PROFESSOR, 164. 

KINGSLEY, CHARLES: on Charles B. 
Mansfield, 75; Hypatia , 75; Two Years 
Ago , 75; Westward Ho i 75. 

KIRBY, WILLIAM & WILLIAM SPENCE : An 
Introduction to Entomology , 85. 

KIRKLAND, CAROLINE MATILDA (STANS- 
BURY), 64. 

KIRKLAND, JOHN THORNTON, 163-164. 

KLEINFIELD, HERBERT L. : "Infidel on 
Parnassus: Lord Byron &c", 24. 

KNAPP, JOHN LEONARD: Journal of a 
Naturalist , 85. 

KNAPP, WILLIAM H. , 227. 

KNEELAND, SAMUEL, JR., 86; "The 
Birds of Keweenaw Point, Lake Superior", 
85. 

KNIGHT, 43. 

KNIGHT, SILAS T., 198. 

KNOCK: and it shall be opened unto 
you, 97. 

KNOW: what we would k. we must do, 
39. 

KNOWLEDGE: if he would bring home 
k. , 71; a man must carry k. with him, 
71; k. which the child will eventually 
come by, 74; will much k. create thee 
a double belly? 62. 

KNOX, JOHN, 53. 

KORNER, KARL THEODOR: "The Harp", 
28. 

KOSTER, FREDERIC: "Tragical Quality 
in the Friendship of David and Jonathan", 
20. 

KORAN , THE, 71. 



LA BOETIE, ESTIENNE, 186. 
LABOR: is every man's duty, 175; the 
true way is by day 1. . 175. 
LA BRUYERE. 



, JEAN DE, 49. 
LABYRINTH: in the midst of this 1, 



58 



dans 



Bronson Alcott", 

"The Resurrec- 
58. 



LACHESIS, 35. 

LAHONTAN, BARON, 102; Voyages 
1 'Amerique , 103. 

LAKE SUPERIOR, 85. 

LAKES : Where green 1 . languish on 
the silent plain, 97. 

LAMB : God tempers the wind to the 
shorn 1. , 105. 

LAMB, CHARLES, 49; "Distant Corr- 
spondents", 12. 

LANCE: thrust an avenging 1., 178. 

LAND: is fenced in and builded over, 
39; perils by 1. and by flood, 69; hard 
times lead to cultivation of the 1., 39; 
of beauty, virtue, valour, truth, 22; how 
sing the Lord's song in a strange 1., 15; 
there is a 1. of every 1. the pride, 22. 

LAND OF PROMISE, 101. 

"LANDING OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS, THE" 
(HEMANS) 

LANDS: to northern 1., 72. 

LANE, CHARLES, 25, 92, 171-172; "A. 
Bronson Alcott ' s Works", 26; "State Slav- 
ery—Imprisonment of A. 
173. 

LANGE, JOHANN PETER: 
tion of the Body", 21. 

LANGLOIS, ALEXANDRE, 

LANGUAGE: of flowers, 67. 

LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS , THE (DUMONT) 

LANGUISH: Where green lakes 1. on 
the silent plain, 97. 

LAPSE: doctrine of the L., 44-45. 

LAPWING: the 1. flies, 87. 

LARD, 12. 

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, FRANCOIS, DUC DE , 
49. S 

LAST: I am the first and the 1., 24 

LAST DAYS OF POMPEII (BULWER-LYTTON) 

LATCH, 11. 

LATHROP, ROSE HAWTHORNE: Memories 
of Hawthorne , 185. 

LATIN, 15. 

LATTER: who in these 1. days ap- 
peared unto the least of all Daniels , 
72. 

LAUDANUM, 18. 

LAUGH: getting the 1., 12. 

LAUREATES, 188. 

LAUREL. See Ground Laurel. 

LAURENCE, RICHARD, 84. 

LAW: Reason is the life of 1. , 96; 
heavenly and terrestrial 1. observed in 
just proportion, 58; eye of the 1., 60; 
they made his words their 1., 19. 

LAWRENCE, ABBOTT, 164. 



260 



dawn of, 173. 

when children come into the 



LIBERTY 
LIBRARY : 
1., 38. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 23. 
LIBRARY OF ENTERTAINING KNOWLEDGE, 85 
LIBRARY OF HEALTH AND TEACHER ON THE 
HUMAN CONSTITUTION, 14. 



LAWS: the 1. of the earth are for 

the feet, 58. 

LAWS OF MENU , 21, 24. 

"LAWYERS AND THEIR PROSPECTS, THE", 

29-30. 

LAY: and with the book the 1., 9; 

though the 1. may have lost its charm, 

11. LIEBER, F. , 14. 

LAYAMON, 171. LIFE: is shallow, anxious and full 

LAYARD, AUSTIN HENRY: Discoveries. . . of discord, 39; lay hold on eternal 1., 

Ruins of Ninevah and Babylon , 61-62 . " 67; how soon 1. in this country reaches 
LEAD, 198, 201. its goal, 32; better accepted than cal- 

LEAN: no good breed from 1. kine , 74.culated, 38; the bread of 1. compared to 
LEAP: forbade adventurous 1., 7. bran, 70; favored races in the struggle 
LEAR: his speech to Poor Tom, 13. for 1., 102; how the fortunate 1. is 
LEARNING: a little 1. is a dangerous prepared for, 39; a prodigality of 1. and 



thing, 59 

LEAST: unto the 1. of all Daniels, 
72. 

LEAVEN: put in another pan, 38. 

LEAVES: aprons of fig 1., 63; as a 
tree or plant puts forth new 1., 18; as 
flowers know the winds that stir their 
1., 45; put forth 1. and flowers and 
fruit, 73, 178. 

LE BARNES, JOHN W. , 178. 

LEE, CHARLES ALFRED: The Elements of 
Geology , 28. 

LEE7 ELIZA BUCKMINSTER: Life of Jean ANDj 
Paul Richter, 29 



force, 39; speculation is no succedaneum 
for 1., 39; conformity deemed one of the 
best arts of 1., 13; living at the ex- 
pense of 1., 14; that river is the water 
of 1., 72; inward 1. more important than 
the outward, 187; when our 1. ceases to 
be inward and private, 187; when a man's 
inward 1. fails, 188; helped keep my 1. 
"on loft", 28; let us live a thread of 
1. , 58; Bread of L. , 56. 

LIFE , THE (FRANKLIN) 

LIFE ANTT^TIMES OF. . .SAVONAROLA (HER- 



LEE, HANNAH F. (SAWYER): "Silvio 
Pellico", 25. 

LEE'S HILL, 16. 

LEFT: what your 1. hand does, 59. 

LEGARE, MR., 164. 

LEGS: delight in the strength of a 
man ' s 1 . , 71. 

LEIBNITZ, GOTTFRIED WTLHELM, VON, 48. 

LEISURE: your 1. again hindered, 188. 

LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY, 103. 

LEMPRIERE, JOHN: A Classical Diction - 
ary , 18, 35, 63, 178. 

LENDINGS: off, off, you 1.1 13. 

LEOPARD: cannot change his spots, 
44. 

LERNA: Hercules at L., 95. 

LESCARBOT, MARC: Histoire de la 
Nouvelle-France , 186. 

LESS : scholar should make 1. suffice giveth them 1., 23; where brighter suns 
for him, 175. dispense serener 1., 22; angel of 1., 

"LESSON FOR YOUNG POETS, A" (GREELEY) 101 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF MAJOR JACK DOWN - 
ING (SMITH) 

LIFE , CHARACTER AND SENTIMENTS OF 
TRIA JUNCTO IN UNO , /I. 

"LIFE, CHARACTER, STYLE OF THE APOSTLE 
PAUL" (THOLUCK) 

LIFE OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU , THE 
(SANBORN) 

LIFE OF JEAN PAUL RICHTER (LEE) 
LIFE OF LONGFELLOW (HIGGINSON ) 
LIFE OF NELSON , THE (SOUTHEY) 
"LIFE OF PLATO" TTENNEMANN) 
LIFE OF SAMUEL JOHNSON , THE (B0SWELL) 
LIFE OF THE MARQUIS OF DALHOUSIE 
(TROTTER) 

LIFE OF WHITTIER (HIGGINSON) 
"LIFE WITHOUT PRINCIPLE" (THOREAU) 
LIGHT: of a dark eye in woman, 22; 
neither 1. of the sun, 23; the Lord God 



"LESSONS FROM THE PEAK-EXPERIENCES", 
171. 

LESTER, C. EDWARDS, 83. 

LETTER: 1. of a Turkish cadi, 62. 

"LETTER FROM MR. BROWNSON, A", 30. 

LETTERS FROM NEW YORK (CHILD) 

LETTERS OF J. DQWNTETS , MAJOR (DAVIS) 

LEVELS : changes in 1. of sea and 
land, 201. 



LIGHT, GEORGE W. 



14, 



LEWIS, A. 



H., 178 



LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS, 98. 
L' HOMME SUPERIEUR, 58. 
LIBERATOR , THE, 99, 171-173, 179, 



"LIKE ONLY CAN KNOW LIKE", 97. 

LIMBO: of false booksellers, 37. 

LINCOLN, LEVI, 164, 190. 

LINCOLN, SUMNER, 172. 

LINUS, 27. 

LIQUOR: which will dissolve the 
world, 97. 

"LITERARY NOTEBOOK" (THOREAU) 

LITE RARY REMINISCENCES (DE QUINCEY) 

LITERARY WORLD , THE, 76. 

LITERATURE : a 1. is no man's private 
concern, 39; absentee American 1., 39; 



261 



is a secular and generic result, 39. 

LITERATURE OF AMERICAN LOCAL HISTORY , 
THE (LUDEWIG) 

"LITERATURE OF THE LOCAL HISTORY OF 
NEW YORK", 76. 

LIVE: let us 1. a thread of life, 
58; you may 1. to come another day, 69; 
if you wish to 1. with hilarity, 191; man 
need not 1. by the sweat of his brow, 
175. 

LIVES: of quiet desperation, 38. 

LIVES OF THE TEN ORATORS (PLUTARCH) 

LIVING: getting a 1. vs. 1. in the 
spirit, 187. 

LIVING WATER, 72. 

LIVY, 7. 

LOCAL HISTORY. See History. 

LOCALITY : his condition determines 
his 1., 100. 

LOCH BUY, 69. 

LOCKE, JOHN: and the Transcendental - 
ists, 14. 



LOCKE, THEODORE P., 172. 

"LOCKE AND THE TRANSCENDENTAL I ST S" , 
14. 

LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON, 32. 

LOCKWOOD, WILLIAM, 198. 

LONDON: old volume from a L. book- 
shop, 27. 

LONDON CATALOGUE OF BOOKS , THE, 175, 
177" 

LONDON PHALANX , 33. 

LONDON TIMES , 84; inadequacy of, 187; 
is not one of the muses, 188. 

LONELINESS, 38. 

LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH, 232; 
Ballads and Other Poems , 101; Psalms of 
Lite , 32; "Excelsior", 32, 101" 

LORD: the L. reigneth, 87; how to 
sing his song in a strange land, 15. 

LORD'S DAY: I was in the spirit on 
the L-D . , 24 . 

LORD'S SUPPER, 47. 

LORRIS, GUILLAUME & JEAN DE MEUN: 
The Romaunt of the Rose (Le Roman de la 
Rose), 3b, 42. 

LOST: the 1. sheep of Israel, 87. 

LOT: scholars are likely to complain 
about their 1., 175. 

LOT: and the town of Sodom, 96. 

LOTHROP, STILLMAN, 172. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS: Arboretum et 
Frut ice turn Brit annicum , 87 . 

LOVE, 55; things which God hath pre- 
pared for them that 1. him, 13; to them 
that 1. God, 29; 1. of country and home, 
22; genius brings 1. into towns and 
houses, 39. 

"LOVE AND MADNESS", 28. 

"LOVE OF COUNTRY, AND OF HOME, THE" 
(MONTGOMERY) 

LOVE'S CURE (BEAUMONT) 

LOW: high and 1 . , 31 ; daughters of 
mus ic are brought 1 . , 22 . 



LOW, ALVAH H. : The Concord Lyceum , 
220. 

LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL, 227. 

LOWELL, R. T. S., 163. 

LOWLANDS OF NEVER-GET-UP , 57. 

LUCAN, 7. 

LUCANIA, 26. 

LUCRETIUS: styles the intellect 
spiritus unguent i suavis , 71. 
LUIJEmG, HERMANN" ERN"ST : The Litera - 
ture of American Local History, 76. 
LUN-YU, 58, 74. 

LUTHER, MARTIN, 52; his opinion of 
Melancthon's writings, 35. 

LYCEUM, 179, 184, 220. 

LYELL, CHARLES: Principles of Geology , 
27. 

LYING: putting away 1., 82. 

LYMAN, JOSEPH, 163. 

LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS, 171. 

LYRE, 19. 



M 



MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, 32, 94. 

McDERMOTT, 211. 

MACEDONIANS, 17. 

MACGREGOR, PATRICK, 43. 

MACHINERY, 27. 

MACLEAN, 69. 

MACMILLAN, HUGH: Footnotes from the 
Page of Nature , 105. 

MACREADY, 34. 

MAD: literary men dying m. , 175; 
then the m. fit returns, 19. 

"MADONNA, THE", 28. 

MAGIC FLUTE , THE (MOZART) 

MAGNAS INTER OPES INOPS , 74. 

MAGNET : in every clime the m. of his 
soul, 22. 

MAGNETISM, 48. 

MAHABHARATA, 58. 

MAIN: men have dared the m. to tempt 
in such frail barks, 11. 

MAINE, 217; Colton's Railroad and 
Township Map of M. , 88; geology of M. , 
88. 

MAINE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY: Second 
Annual Report , 88. 

MAINE WOODS, 217. 

MAJORESQUE CADUNT ALT IS DE MONT I BUS 
UMBRAE, 17. 

MAJORITY, 71, 100; One, of God's 
side, is am., 71. 

MALAPR0P , MRS . , 32 . 

MALEBRANCHE, NICOLAS, 53-54. 

MALL STREET, SALEM, 184. 

MALLET, 14. 

MAMMON: you cannot serve God and M. , 
43, 68, 190. 

MAN: his ends are shaped for him, 
24; with whom I can be sincere, 49; for- 
bidden to tread on English ground, 28; 



262 



discussed in three categories, 55; must 
earn bread by sweat of brow, 56; cannot 
lift himself by his own waistbands, 61; 
the strength of his legs, 71; must carry 
knowledge with him, 71; never is, but 
always to be, blest, 72; his governing 
principles, 82; need not live by the 
sweat of his brow, 175; a m. made after 
supper of a cheese-paring, 13; it hath 
not entered into the heart of m. , 13; 
is m. no more than this? 13; an honest 
book's the noblest work of m. , 17; an 
honest m. is the noblest work of God, 
17; unaccommodated m. is no more, 13; 
the lengthened shadow of 
m. touches God, 53; that 



52; how 



m. 



m. be found 



faithful, 57; how poor a thing is 



m 



m. 



is set 



to 



60; knowing the heart of 
be, 60; fear neither m. nor death, 62; 
a m. about his business , 66; every m. 
to his traded 69 ; England expects every 
m. to do his duty, 71; speak every m. 
truth with his neighbor, 82; Byron on 
the finest m. , 74; Plato's definition 
of m. , 80; every good m. had a mansion 
of his own there, 84; night in which no 
m. can walk, 87; what shall it profit a 
m.? 96; mechanics but no m. , 39; lonely 



MASSACHUSETTS 



m. in a circle of friends, 38; let every Collections , 70 

m. mind his own, 39; freedom constitutes 

the truest being of m. , 40; every m. is 

an angel in disguise, 19; every m. is a 

god playing the fool, 19; single is each 

m. born, 21; in what sense m. is God, 36 

40; a wise m. will not be unfortunate, 

175; to bring their word to m. , 185; 

rarely meet a m. who can tell us any 

news, 187; when a m's inward life fails, 

188; see Inferior Man, Superior Man, 

Universal Man, Wise Man. 

"MAN AND THE TABLE, THE", 28. 

MANHOA, 96. 

MANKIND: survey m. from China to 
Peru, 44. 



"MARIA", 105. 

MARIGOLDS, 235. 

MARINER: the wandering m. , 22. 

MARK: I press toward the m. , 43. 

MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER: Dr. Faust us , 
100. 

MAROT, CLEMENT: CSuvres Completes, 
42. 

MAROT, JEAN, 42. 

MARPLOT, 38. 

MARRETT, L. , 229. 

MARRIAGE, 24, 193. 

MARSH-MARIGOLDS, 235. 

MARSTON, JOHN, 26. 

MARTYN, JOHN, 9. 

MASON, 100. 

MASON, JEREMIAH, 164. 

MASONIC: fraternity held by some M. 
tie, 38. 

MASS: a little wiser than the m. of 
men, 175. 

MASSACHUSETTS: its fishes, reptiles, 
and birds, 43; in French eyes, 47; state 
flower of, 83; geology of M. , 88. 

MASSACHUSETTS ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY, 
171-172. 

GENERAL COURT, 88. 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY: 
206, 225. 

ZOOLOGICAL AND BO- 
TANICAL SURVEY, 43; Reports on the Her - 
baceous Plants... of Massachusetts , 101. 

MASSILLON, JEAN BAPTISTE: 



MASSACHUSETTS 
MASSACHUSETTS 



Sermons , 



m 



MANN, HORACE, 64. 

MANN, MARY (MRS. HORACE): her changed 
picture of Thoreau, 185. 

MANNERS, 55; criticizing American m. , 
93. 

MANNING, RICHARD C, 185. 

MANOEUVRES, 97. 

MANSE, 220; see Old Manse. 

MANSFIELD, CHARLES BLACHFORD: Para - 
guay , Brazil , and the Platte , 75. 

MANSION: every good man had am. of 
his own there, 84. 

MANSIONS: affectionate speech in the 
m. of the good, 24. 

MANTLE: twitched his m. blue, 35. 

MANUAL: rude m. toil, 175. 

MAPS, 88. 

"MARCH" (BRYANT) 

MARE: trans m. currunt , 174. 

MARGARET: Countess of Cumberland, 60. 



MAST: go before the m. , 91. 

MASTER: of No Arts, 71. 

MATE: sailed like a merlin with your 
63. 

MATERIAL NATURE, 26. 

MATERIALS: in calamity Goethe finds 
new m. , 57 . 

MATHER, INCREASE, 164. 

MATHEWS, MITFORD M. : A Dictionary of 
Americanisms , 37 . 

MATTER : yogin is animating original 
m. , 58; doubt of the existence of m. , 
58; the postscript contains the most im- 
portant m. , 12; epistolary m. comprises 
three topics, 12. 

MAURICE, JOHN FREDERICK DENISON: 
Mediaeval Philosophy , 75; Sermons , 75. 

MAURY, ALFRED: "Le Monde Alpestre et 
les Hautes Regions du Globe", 223. 

MAXIMS, 11-12, 48-49. 

MAY: in the merry month of M. , 44. 

MAY, JAMUEL J., 172. 

MAY, SAMUEL, 172. 

MAY, SAMUEL, JR., 227. 

MAY-FLOWER, 83. 

MAYO, AMORY DWIGHT , 227. 

MAZE: in Crete, 58. 

MEANS : to be rich and honored by 
iniquitous m. , 74, 76. 

MECCAH, 75. 



15 



MECHANICS: m. but no man, 39. 
MEDES, 17. 

MEDIAEVAL PHILOSOPHY (MAURICE) 
MEDICINE, 48; dangers of strong 



263 

anemone , 84 . 

METAMORPHOSES 
METAPHOR 



(OVID) 
tne organic m. , 



m. 



Luther's opinion 
24- 



18; see 

cat-sticks, 13. 



MELANCTHON, PHILIP: 
of his writing, 35. 

MELODY: inaudible to human ears 
Mother Goose's m. , 9. 

MELROY, JOSHUA, 227. 

MEMBERS: we are m. one of another, 
82. 

MEMNON, 103; statue of M. , 171. 

"MEMOIR OF ELIJAH WOOD" (WOOD) 

MEMO I RES POUR SERVIR , 82. 

MEMOIRES SECRETS POUR SERVIR A L'HIS - 
TOIR E DE LA REPUBLIQUE PES LETTRES EN 
FRANCE , 82: 

MEMOIRS (ALFIERI) 

MEMOIRS (GIBBON) 

MEMOIRS" OF MEMBERS OF THE SOCIAL CIR - 
CLE IN CONCORD , 17-18. 

"MEMOIRS OF PELLICO", 25. 

MEMOIRS . . .WRITT EN BY HIMSELF (GOETHE) 

jCMOklES OF HAWTHORNE (LATilROP) 

MEMORY : wanders in the 'Graveyard of 
the past' , 22. 

MEN: have dared the main to tempt, 
11; polygamy is the fate of all m. , 83; 
a tide in the affairs of m. , 26 ; while 
m. look on me with their shrivelled rays , 
45; fighting m. with snow on their hel- 
mets, 74; how to instruct and direct a 
nation of m. , 73; a thousand m. in his 
belly, 178; time m. sang another song, 
175; when the gods come among m. they 
are not known, 19; see Common Men. 

MEN-HARRIERS , 81. 

MENANDER, 27. 

MENCIUS, 58. 

"MENG-TSEU", 74. 

MENOETIUS, 65, 79. 

MENSHIKOV, ALEKSANDR SERGEEVICH, 67. 

MENTAL PHILOSOPHY: is like poverty, 
15. 

MENTCHIKOFF. See Menshikov. 

MENU: laws of M. , 21. 

MEON, DOMINIQUE MARTIN, 42. 

MEPHISTOPHELES, 100. 

MERCANTILE BUILDING, 98. 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY, NEW YORK, 43; 
Catalogue , 37 ; Twenty -third Annual Re - 
port , 37 . 

MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, OF 
BOSTON, 70, 230-231. 

MERCURIAL: shooting like m. trout, 
72. 

MERLIN, 61, 97; sailed like a m. 
with your mate, 63. 

MERRIMACK RIVER, 103. 

MESS: sell our birthright for a m. 
of pottage, 24. 



Organic Metaphor. 

METAPHYSICAL: my m. 

METCALF & CO. , 212. 

METEORIC S (ARISTOTLE) 

METHOD OF SPIRITUAL CULTURE (PEABODY) 

MEXICAN : I could spit a M. with a 
good relish, 71. 

MICA: some piece of m. , 60. 

MICAIAH: prophesies against Ahab, 
82. 

MICHAUX, FRANCOIS ANDRE: The North 
American Sylva , 188. 

MICHELET, JULES, 55. 

MICHIGAN: birds of M. , 85. 

MIDDLEB0R0UGH, MASSACHUSETTS, 70. 

MIDST: in the m. of this labyrinth, 
58; poor in the m. of great wealth, 74. 

MIGHT: draw the bow with all your 
m. , 61; the m. of heaven-born freedom, 
45. 

MILBURY, MASSACHUSETTS, 229. 

MILLENNIALISM, 48. 

MILLER, 10. 

MILLER, MR., 31. 

MILLER, PERRY: Consciousness in 
Concord , 174, 227. 

MILLER & GILCHRIST, 212. 

MILLIONS : her defence more than the 
strength of m. , 44. 



192 



MESSIAH , THE (HANDEL) 
METAMORPHOSED: Adonis m. into an 



MILTON, MASSACHUSETTS, 186-187, 189, 
> 

MILTON, JOHN, 20, 95; ideas of tem- 
perance, 14; Comus, 36; "L 'Allegro", 59, 
66; "Lycidas", 35, 72; "On Shakespear", 
70; Paradise Lost , 23, 37, 43, 67, 71, 
73, 9b, 100; Sonnets , 49. 

MIMNERMUS, 27. 

MINCE PIES, 12. 

MIND: is its own place, 100; fixing 
the m. so as not to wander beyond the 
nose, 61; his wife changed her m. , 83; 
Yogee purifies his m. by benevolence, 
61; haunted forever by the eternal m. , 
72; let every man m. his own, 39; bal- 
ance of m. and body, 39. 

MINDS: our m. cannot be empty, 26. 

MINERALS, 174. 

MINISTER: philosopher and m. of na- 
ture, 73. 

MINISTERIAL SWAMP, 235. 

MINORITY, 71. 

MINOTAUR, 58. 

MIRIAM (HALL) 

MISCELLANEOUS WORKS (GIBBON) 

MISERY : aspects of m. predominate, 
60; business like m. makes strange bed- 
fellows, 63. 

MISSISSIPPI, 93. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, 102. 

"MR. EMERSON'S LECTURES", 29, 31. 

MITE: the widow's m. , 41. 



264 



MODERN: dying away on the ears of 
m. men, 27 . 

"MODERN ASPECTS OF LETTERS" (EMERSON) 

MODERN LANGUAGE REVIEW , 70. 

MODERN PAINTERS (RUSKIN) 

MOFFIT, ALEXANDER, 219. 

MOGUL, 75. 

MOHAMEDANS, 62, 174. 

MOHEGAN INDIANS, 201. 

MOLDENHAUER, JOSEPH J.: "A Recently- 
Discovered Addition to the Thoreau Cor- 
respondence", 219; "Images of Circularity 
in Thoreau' s Prose", 171. 

MONADNOCK, 223. 

"MONDE ALPESTRE, LE" (MAURY) 

MONEY: if a man must have m. , the 
true way is by day-labor, 175. 

MONEY -GETTING, 39. 

MONITOR , THE , 105. 

MONSELL, JOHN SAMUEL: "Fight the 
Good Fight", 67. 

MONTAGU, MRS. ELIZABETH (ROBINSON): 
The Letters , 13. 

MONTAGU, MATTHEW, 13. 

MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE, 48, 56, 186; on 
Alexander the Great, 76; Emerson called 
a Puritan M. , 47; Complete Works , 42. 

MONTEGUT, EMILE: "Un Penseur et Poete 
Americain: Ralph Waldo Emerson", 46ff. 

MONTESQUIEU, BARON DE LA BREDE ET DE , 
49. 

MONTGOMERY, JAMES: "The West Indies", 
22; The West Indies and Other Poems , 22. 

MONTGOMERY HOUSE, 178. 

MONTIBUS: de m. umbrae, 17. 

MOON: placed on a high shelf, 38. 

MOONS: milder m. emparadise the 
night, 22. 

MOOSE FLIES, 217. 

MORAL FEELINGS, 15. 

MORAL PHILOSOPHY, 49. 

MORALISTS, 49. 

MORDAUNT, 32. 

MORE: M. of M. Hall, 95, 178. 

MORE HALL, 178. 

MORELL, JOHN DANIEL: On the Philo - 
sophical Tendencies of the Age , 56; The 
Philosophy of Religion , 56; Speculative 
Philosophy of Europe in the Nineteenth 
Century^ 56. 

MORMONISM, 95. 

MORNING: the spectacle of m. , 91; 
prospect every m. from the hill-top, 91; 
when the m. stars sang together, 24. 

MORSE, H. A., 172. 

MORTON, EDWARD, 17 9. 

MOSCHUS, 43. 

MOSS, MARCIA E. , 219. 

MOTHER GOOSE, 9. 

MOTHER GOOSE'S MELODY , 9. 

MOTHER GOOSE'S QUARTO , 9. 

MOTIONS : well-ordered m. of the 
spheres, 59. 

MOTTO: of David Crockett, 71; "to 



let well alone", 36. 

MOUNT IDA, 35. 

MOUNT OLYMPUS: scaling M-0 . , 61. 

MOUNT WASHINGTON: Tuckerman Ravine, 
96. 

MOUNTAIN: I keep a m. anchored off 
eastward, 87; Titans piled one m. upon 
another, 61; Blake of the M. , 71. 

MOUNTAIN , THE (JACKSON) 

"MOUNTAIN COMES TO CONCORD, THE" 
(FRENIERE) 

MOUNTAIN HOSPITALITY, 101. 

MOUNTAIN SYMBOL, 87. 

MOUNTAINS, 96; see Delectable Moun- 
tains . 

MOUNTS: primitive m. within you, 70; 
m. which you have dreamed of but never 
climbed, 70. 

MOUSE, 10. 

MOUSETRAP, 105. 

MOZART, WOLFGANG AMADEUS : The Magic 
Flute, 96. 

MuLLER, WILHELM: "The Nightingale of 
Murom", 28. 

MUACK, 69. 

MUCK, 69. 

MUD: swallowing the m. of the Ganges, 
38. 

MULSANT, ETIENNE: Cours elementaire 
d'histoire naturelle , 85. 

MULTITUDE: in a m. of actions, 191. 

MUNDT, THEODORE: his account of 
Holderlin's "Hyperion", 39. 

MUNROE, JAMES, 21, 91, 184. 

MUNROE & FRANCIS, 9. 

MUROM: nightingale of M. , 28. 

MURRAY, JOHN, 71. 

MUSA, ABU, 174. 

MUSAEUS, 27. 

MUSE: genius, a celestial m. , 83; let 
the m. lead the m. , 59; my m. adieu, 23. 

MUSEMENT, 191. 

MUSES : spare diet and clear skies 
are Apollo and the M. , 71; London Times 
is not one of the m. , 188. 

MUSIC, 17, 19; of the spheres, 24, 
59, 171; break into rare m. at intervals, 
19; daughters of m. are brought low, 22; 
notes of m. in the air, 171; wherever 
there is harmony, order, or proportion, 
59; we hear a faint m. from all the ho- 
rizon, 171; see Sphere Music. 

MUSICAL: relations of m. harmony, 
171. 

MUSQUASH: by gliding m. undertook, 
72. 

MUSSULMAN: spirit of M. resignation, 



62 



MY PRISONS: MEMOI RS (PELLIC0) 
MYRMIDONS, 65, 79." 



MYSTICISM, 51; in Emerson, 50; Emer- 
son's is a Puritan m. , 52; difference be- 
tween Catholic m. and Protestant m. , 53. 

MYTH: of Apollo and Admetus , 18. 



265 



N 

NAIL: hitting the n. on the head, 
38. 

NAKED: when n. he was like a forked 
radish, 13. 

NAKEDNESS: its very n. has power to 
aid the hour , 73. 

NAME: Let it come in Heaven's n., 
38; wears the gentle n. of Spring, 72; 
to take the n. of any disease in vain, 
70. 

NAMES: of the dead, 225. 

NAMING: the animals, 104. 

NANTUCKET, 92. 

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, 40 . 

NARRATIVE OF THE CAPTIVITY , A (TAN- 
NERY 

NARRATI VE O F TH E MISSION ( HECKEWELDER) 

NARRATIVE OF THE SIEGTTo~F KARS (SAND- 
WTTH") 

NATION: how to instruct and direct 
a n. of men, 73. 

NATIONAL ANTI-SLAVERY STANDARD , 26, 
68. 

NATIONS: love of country and home 
among all n. , 22; pursuits of the sim- 
pler n. , 57 . 

NATIVES: a harmless, unoffensive 
race, 12. 

NATURA ABHORRET VACUUM , 26. 

NATURAL HISTORY CPLINY) 

NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES (AGASSIZ) 

NATURAL THEOLOGY, 28. 

NATURAL THEOLOGY (PALEY) 

NATURE, 105; has laid the sun and 
moon on a high shelf, 38; is put forth 
through us, 18; is always flowing, 74; 
will not let you fix her, 74; refuses 
to be caught, 74; is fluid or volatile, 
74; is not fixed but fluid, 74; grows 
sympathetic, 56; as symbols, 54; this 
spectre of actuality, 40; they shall see 
N. and, through her, God, 101; the god- 
like n. is the root of all prosperity, 
39; Spirit does not build up n. around 
us, 18; contemplating Spirit in n. , 22; 
philosopher and priest of N. , 73; the 
spirit abhors a vacuum more than N. , 26; 
powers of n. , 27; see Human Nature. 

NATURE (EMERSON) 

NAUSET: Plains of N. , 206. 

NAVEL: the mind contemplating the 
n., 61. 

NAVELS: few can work on their n. , 
61. 

NAVES FUTILES , 7. 

NAVIGATION: at first was very rude, 
7. 

NAVIGIA VITILIA , 7. 

NAWSHAWTUCT, 16. 

NEAR HOME (CHANNING) 

NECESSITARIAN: the Buddhist is a 
practical n. , 38. 



NECK: conscience hanging about the 
n. of my heart, 29; treads fast on the 
n. of his understanding, 29. 

NECTAR, 18. 

NEED: no n. of a candle, 23. 

NEGRO: wrongs of the N. , 39. 

NEIGHBOR: speak every man truth with 
his n. , 82. 

NEIGHBORS, 11. 

NELSON, ALBERT HO BART , 18; Thoreau ' s 
fishing companion, 13. 

NELSON, HORATIO: in Battle of Tra- 
falgar, 71. 

NEQUE JAM STABULIS GAUDET PECUS , 16. 

NESSUS, 63. 

NEVER-GET-UP, 57. 

NEW BEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS, 92. 

NEW BEDFORD MERCURY , 18, 93. 

NEW ENGLAND: early coastal explora- 
tions, 92. 

NEW ENGLAND GAZETTEER (HAYWARD) 

NEW ENGLAND PRIMER , 94. 

NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY , 182, 207, 210. 

NEW TESTAMENT, 99 ; a revelation fresher 
and directer than that, 21; this comes 
of reading the N-T., 44. 

NEW YORK: literature of its local 
history, 76. 

NEW YORK DAILY ADVERTISER , 91. 

NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE , 7'6-77, 174. 

NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 174. 

NEW YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY, 37. 

NEW YORK TRIBUNE , 26, 63, 174, 198. 

NEW ZEALAND, 67 ; mythology of N-Z., 
75. 

NEWBERY, JOHN, 9. 

NEWCASTLE: carrying coals to N. , 87. 

NEWCOME, COLONEL, 228. 

NEWS, 12; inadequacy of the n. , 187; 
rarely meet a man who can tell us any 
n., 187. 

NEWSPAPERS, 12, 187, 233; blessed 
are they who never read n. , 101; how 
can they print truth? 99. 

NEWTON, ISAAC, 52. 

NICERON, J. P.: Memoires pour Seryir 
a l'histoire des Hommes Illustres , 82 . 

NICHOLAS I, 67. 

NICHOLAS PISTORIENSIS, 66. 

NICHOLSON, W. , 36. 

NICOLSON, MARJORIE HOPE: Mountain 
Gloom and Mountain Glory , 87 . 

NIGHT: in which no man can walk, 87; 
and there shall be no n. there, 23; chaos 
and old n. , 39; milder moons emparadise 
the n. , 22; n. ye are wondrous strong, 
22. 

"NIGHTINGALE OF MUROM, THE" (MULLER) 

NILE: cannot have flowed forever, 
174. 

NINE: Concord River running n. times 
round, 18. 

NINE SPHERES, 171. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY, THE, 174. 



84 



NINEVAH: ruins of ancient N. , 62. 
NJALA: The Story of Burnt Njal, 102 

NO SEE *EMS, 217. 

NOAH, 85; and the dove, 26; his Ark, 



266 



NOBLENESS: genius brings n. , 39. 

NOBLEST: an honest book's the n. 
work of man, 17. 

NOCTES A TTICAE (GELLIUS) 

NOLTE, VINCENT, 64. 

NON-CONFORMITY, 52. 

NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW , 25, 37; Byron 
and the N-A-R . , 1JT. 

NORTH AMERICAN SYLVA , THE (MICHAUX) 

NORTH ELBA, NEW YORK, I7"9\ 

NORTON, ANDREWS, 25. 

NOTE: they strike a n. most full of 
harmony , 59. 

NOTEBOOK OF AN ENGLISH OPIUM-EATER 
(DE O/UlNCEYj ' 

NOTES: hear the n. of music in the 
air, 171. 

NOTHING: is more sacred than your 
integrity, 52; much ado about n. , 59. 

NOTOPOULOS, JAMES A.: The Platonism 
of Shelley , 171; "Shelley's 'Ozymandias ' 
Once Again", 70. 

NOURISH: to n. one's self with a 
little rice, 74. 

NOVALIS, 53. 

NOVELTY: appetite for n. is insati- 
able, 11. 

NOW: n. is the accepted time; n. is 
the day of salvation, 73. 

"NOW I LAY ME DOWN TO SLEEP", 99. 



NOXIOUS 
soul, 191. 

NUMBERS: 
cause, 71. 



that which is not n. to the 
who cares for n. in a just 



60. 



NURSERY RHYMES, 9. 

NUTS: crack away at these n. , 215, 

NYMPHIS, 16. 

NYREN, DOROTHY, 202. 





OBERMANN (SENANCOUR) , 50. 

OBJECTS: natural o. as symbols, 51. 

OBLIGATIONS: under o. to the devil, 



OBSERVATION: 



let o. with extensive 



view, 44. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GROWTH OF THE 
MIND (REED) 

OBSERVER (OF SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS), 
184^183: — 

OCKLEY, SIMON: History of the Sara - 
cens , 174. 

"ODE TO BEAUTY" (EMERSON) 

ODELL , GEORGE C . D . : Shakespeare 
from Betterton to Irving , 102. 

CENEUS, 63. 

"OF BOLDNESS" (BACON) 



"OF SPEAKING IN THE CONGREGATION", 84. 

"OF THE LAST VERSES IN THE BOOK" 
(WALLER) 

OFFICE: that antique and fishlike 
o. , 13. 

OFFSPRING: of positive deformity, 74. 

O'HALLORAN, SYLVESTER: A General 
History of Ireland , 102. 

OKEN, LORENZ, bl. 

OLAUS MAGNUS, 66. 

OLD MAN: and calf, 10. 

OLD MANSE, 35, 220. 

OLD SCRATCH, 60. 

OLMSTED, FREDERICK LAW: The Cotton 
Kingdom , 84; A Journey in the Seaboard 
Slave States , 84; A Journey in the Back 
Country , 84; A Journey through Texas , 84 ; 
A Saddle-trip on the Southwestern Fron - 
tier , 84; Walks and Talks of an American 
Farmer in England , 8"4~! 

OMEGA: I am Alpha and . , 24 . 

ON HEROES , HERO-WORSHIP (CARLYLE) 

ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES (DARWIN) 

ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL TENDENCIES OF 
THE AGE (MORELL) 

ONE: is a majority, 71; we are mem- 
bers o. of another, 82. 

ONLY TRUE MOTHER GOOSE MELODIES , THE, 
10. 

ONTONAGON, 85. 

ONUS: o. sylvae laborantes , 16. 

OPEN: some of the temples were o., 
59. 

OPERATION: full tide of successful 
o., 29. 

OPIUM-EATER: natural sky preferred 
to an o-e's heaven, 83. 

OPPORTUNITY: I exaggerate when I 
have an o. , 61. 

OPPOSITE: saying just the o., 12. 

OPTIMISM, 33. 

ORACLES: why the Priestess ceases to 
deliver her o. in verse, 11. 

ORATOR: an old o. prescribed action, 
28. 

ORATORY: essentials of good o., 28. 

ORBIT : in some eccentric o . , 26 . 

ORDER: saint of some Christian o., 
45; music wherever there is o., 59. 

ORELLANA, 96. 

ORGANIC METAPHOR, 18, 73. 

ORGANICISM, 178. 

ORIGIN OF SPECIES (DARWIN) 

ORIGINAL: not an o. revelation with 
Jesus, 13. 

ORIGINAL MOTHER G OOSE'S MELODY, THE, 
9. ' 

ORINOCO, 96. 

ORIOLE, 45. 

0RMUS: the wealth of O. and of Ind, 
71. 

ORNAMENT: no o. on earliest ships, 
7. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY (AUDUBON) 



37 



ORPHEUS, 27. 

ORPHIC POET, 74. 

OSPAH, 102. 

OSPAK, 102. 

OSSIAN: The Genuine Remains , 43. 

OTHERWISE"! some wise and some o., 



267 



OVER THE HILL TO THE POORHOUSE 
(CARTETOT0 

OVERSEERS, 81. 

OVER-SOUL, 51, 53-54. 

OVID: Fasti , 7; Metamorphoses , 63, 
178. 

OWNER: before the o. gave me a deed 
of it, 83. 

OXENFORD, JOHN, 82. 

OXFORD COMPANION TO AMERICAN LITERA - 
TURE (HART) 

OXFORD COUNTY, MAINE, 87. 

OXFORD DIVINES, 34. 

OZIER: an o. bough were vessel safe 
enough, 11. 

"OZYMANDIAS" (SHELLEY) 



PAESTUM, 26. 

PAGE: of history is never closed, 
11. 

PAIN: he draws his rents from rage 
and p., 57; whatever we do by another 
gives us p., 30. 



with such earnest p., 45. 



power to p. what I suffer, 
the waters are to the p. 

Natural Theology , 



PAINS : 

PAINT: 
57. 

PALATE: 
bitter, 59. 

PALESTINE, 75. 

PALEY, WILLIAM 
58. 

PALFREY, JOHN GORHAM, 164. 

PAN: is dead, 104. 

PAN: dough put in one p., 38. 

PANTHEISM, 51-53. 

PANTHEON, 104. 

PAPAGENO, 96. 

PAPER: he has seen the p. and we 
have not, 188. 



PARENTS: hints to p., 15. 

PARKER, THEODORE, 64, 97, 105, 179, 
227 ; The Critical and Miscellaneous 
Writings , 29. 

PARKMAN, FRANCIS: one of his maps, 
88. 

PARSON: coughing drowns his saw, 69. 

PARTIES: political p. in America, 
51. 

PAR VIS COMPONERE MAGNA , 43. 

PASCAL, BLAlSfi, 52. 

PASSAGE: I did not wish to take a 
cabin p. , 91. 

PASSION: custom is the best cure to 
p., 93. 

PASSIVE ENDURANCE, 173. 

PASSPORTS, 38. 

PAST: graveyard of the p., 22; why 
grope among the dry bones of the p., 22. 

PAST AND PRESENT (CARLYLE) 

PASTIME: not a hardship but a p . , 
57. 

PATENT OFFICE, 101. 

PATERCULUS, 7. 

PATHFINDER , THE, 29, 33. 

PATROCLUS , 6"5~7~79. 

PATRONAGE: of the wealthy, 175. 

PATTERN: a p. to encourage purchas- 
ers, 29. 

PAUL. See St. Paul. 

PAUTHIER, JEAN PIERRE GUILLAUME, 58, 
73. 

PAVILION, 164. 

PAYS-BAS, 82. 

PEABODY, ELIZABETH PALMER: Method of 
Spiritual Culture , 21. 

PEABODY, OLIVER W. , 86. 

PEABODY , WILLIAM B . . : "A Report of 
the Ornithology of Massachusetts", 43. 

PEACE: lecture on p., 25; where p. 
and rest can never dwell, 73. 

PEAK-EXPERIENCES, 171. 

PEARL: of great price, 42. 

PECUS: neque jam stabulis gaudet p., 
16. 

PEIRCE, BENJAMIN, 190. 

PELEUS, 65, 79. 

PELHAM (BULWER-LYTTON) 



PELLICO, SILVIO: My Imprisonments , 
PAPERS ON LITERATURE AND ART (FULLER) 25; My Prisons : Memoirs , 25. 
PAPERS RELAT ING TO OTOE (DALHOUSIE) "PELLICO t S NARRATIVE~0F H IS IMPRISON- 

MENTS", 



PAPHLAGONIAN MAN, 65. 

PAQUOT , J . N . : Memo ires pour Servir 
a histoire literaire , 82. 

PARADISE: travelling — the p. of 
fools, 48. 

PARADISE LOST (MILTON) 

PARADISE WITHIN THE REACH OF ALL MEN 
(ETZLER) 

PARADOXES, 12. 

PARAGUAY, BRAZ IL, AND THE PLATTE 
(MANSFIELD) 

PARALYSIS: of the active faculties, 
39. 



25. 

PELION: pile p. upon Ossa, 61. 

PENCIL-MAKER, 184. 

PENETRATION: bullets have no p. for 
such a contest, 97. 

PENNY MAGAZINE , 57. 

PENOBSCOT, 88. 

"PENSEUR (UN) ET POETE AMfiRICAIN" 
(MONTEGUT) 

PERCEPTIVE: new activity given to 
the p. power, 39. 

PERCH: p. where Time doth plume his 
wings, 26. 



268 



PERCY, THOMAS: Reliques of Ancient 
English Poetry , 95. 

PERFECT : spirits of just men made 
p., 101. 

PERFECTABILITY, 55. 

PERFUME: thou owest the cat no p., 
13; the yogin breathes a divine p., 58. 

PERICLES: his gentleness with a 
slanderer, 76. 

PERILS: by land and by flood, 69. 

PERJURED: if any gods p. themselves, 
18. 

PERKINS, COLONEL, 164. 

PERPETUAL: my thanksgiving is p., 
73. 

PERSEVERE: a good thing to p. in 
well doing, 13. 

PERSIANS, 17, 27; state of the young 
P., 39. 

PERSONAL NARRATIVE OF A PILGRIMAGE 
(BURTON) 

PERSONS: conduct yourself suitably 
toward the p. of your family, 73. 

PERSUADEST: almost thou p. me to be 
a Christian, 25. 

PERSUASION: no p. can move me, 24. 

PERU, 44. 

PESSIMISM, 50. 

PEST: between the ribs of the bloated 
p., 178. 

PESTUM: by old P's temples, 26. 

PETER: thou art P., 43. 

PETERS, C. J., 197. 

PETERS, CHARLES I., 210. 

PETERS, JOHN R. , JR., 34. 

PHAEACIANS, 12. 

PHALANX, 33. 

PHARAOH, 66; his dream, 74. 

PHARISEES, 43. 

PHILBRICK, SAMUEL, 172. 

PHILEMON, 178. 

PHILIP OF MACEDON: dealings with a 
slanderer, 76. 

PHILLIPS, G. W., 163. 

PHILLIPS, JOHN: A Guide to Geology , 
28; Treatise on Geology, 28. 

PHILLIPS, STEPHEN Slarendon, 164. 

PHILLIPS, WENDELL, 98, 172, 180, 227; 
Redpath's book dedicated to P., 179; 
"Slavery", 25; "Speech on John Brown", 
71. 

PHILOLOGICAL QUARTERLY , 97. 

PHILOSOPHER: thou best p., 73; p. 
and priest of Nature, 73; jerked the p. 
out of his cell, 42. 

"PHILOSOPHER'S SCALES, THE" (TAYLOR) 

PHILOSOPHICAL T ENDENCIES OF THE AGE 
(MORElLl 

PHILOSOPHY: how charming is divine 
p., 36; whatever p. may determine of 
spiritual nature, 26; Les Quatre Livres , 
73; see Mental Philosophy. 

PHILOSOPHY OF NATURAL HISTO RY (SMEL- 
LIER 



PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE (STALLO) 

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION , THE (MORELL) 

PHILOSOPHY OF THE MORAL FEELINGS , THE 
(ABEJRCROMbIE) : 

PHILOTHEA, 37. 

PHILOTHEA (CHILD) 

PHOCION, 50. 

PHOEBE, 105. 

PHONOGRAPH: records Thoreau's voice, 
98. 

PH0RMI0 (TERENCE) 

PHRASES : using current p., 12. 

PHRENOLOGICAL ROOMS, 97. 

PHTHIA, 65. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL LECTURES, 14. 

PIECE: some p. of mica, 60. 

PIERCES: a tide which p. the pores 
in the air, 26. 

PIERIAN SPRING, 59. 

PIERPONT MORGAN LIBRARY, 76, 92, 197, 
198, 199, 200, 201, 205, 206, 207, 210, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 228. 

PIES, 12. 

PIETY: to cumulate thy sin and p., 
45. 

PIGEON HAWK, 63. 

PIGEONS, 80. 

PILATE, 100. 

PILGRIMS, 71, 100. 

PILLOW HILL, 57. 

PILLS: Brandreth's p., 14. 

PILLSBURY, PARKER, 227. 

PINDAR, 11, 50; Thoreau's transla- 
tions from P., 11. 

PINES: thrown down and cast into the 

P., W. 

PINIONS: divested of your air- 
inflated p. , 63. 

PIONEER , THE, 29. 

PIRACY, 38"7~ 

PISGAH-SIGHT OF PALESTINE , A (FULLER) 

PIZARRO, FRANCISCO, 96. 

PLACE: an open p. without a roof, 
59; the mind is its own p., 100. 

PLAIN: fair cities of the p., 96; 
Where green lakes languish on the silent 
p., 97. 

PLANET: every other p. better than 
the earth, 39. 

PLANETS : made a melody inaudible to 
human ears , 24 . 

PLANT: as the p. puts forth leaves, 
18. 

PLASTERING: at Walden, 183. 

PLATO, 21, 37, 45, 51; a text from, 
29; his definition of man, 80; biogra- 
phers of P. and his commentators, 21; 
P., thou reasonest well, 105; Republic, 
171. 

PLATONISM OF SHELLEY , THE (NOTOPOULOS) 

PLAYING: with words, "TT. 

PLEASURE: I have no p. in them, 22; 
whatever we do ourselves gives us p., 
30; his mere will and good p., 44; ere 



269 



the evil days come when thou shalt say, 
I have no p. in them, 72; he taketh not 
p. in the legs of a man, 71. 

PLEASURES: all other p. are not 
worthy of love's p., 56. 

PLENTY: No sun with p. crowns the 
uncultured vale, 97. 

PLINY, 7, 103-104; Natural History, 
171. 

PLOTINUS, 53. 

PLOUGH: vessel safe enough the seas 
to p., 11; let him learn to dig and p., 
39. 

PLOUGHSHARE: beaten into a p., 25. 

PLUG UGLIES, 100. 

PLUMBAGO, 197-199, 206, 210-211, 215, 
224. 

PLUTARCH, 55, 99, 103; "Life of The- 
seus", 58; Lives , 58; Lives of the Ten 
Orators , 28; Plutarch's Morals, 11. 

PTYMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS, 18. 

PO, 7. 

POCKET: carried a piece of brick in 
his p. , 29. 

POE, EDGAR ALLAN: lies in Potter's 
Field at Baltimore, 72; Complete Works , 
72; "Our Amateur Poets",~72~I 

POEM: Goethe made a p. out of every 
chagrin, 57. 

POEMS. . .PROGRESS OF THE ABOLITION 
QUESTION (WHITTIER) 

FOET: degraded in Germany, 39. 

POET LAUREATES: when p-1. write to 
you there, 188. 

POETAE LYRIC I GRAECI , 180. 

POETAE MINORES GRA"EC"l , 26. 

POETRY : Scottish p., 23; weather- 
beaten with p., 40. 

POETS: a lesson for young p., 174; 
starving in garrets, 175; p. and Apollo, 
20. 

POETS OF AMERICA (STEDMAN) 

POISON: is coffee a p.? 14; p. us 
like the shirt Hercules put on, 63. 

POISONED: p. cheese, 14. 

POISONS: vegetable p., 15. 

POLE, 22. 

POLICE: an expansion of the p., 38. 

POLITICS, 55; in America, 51. 

POLK, JAMES KNOX, 66. 

POLYGAMY: is the fate of all men, 
83. 

POLYNESIAN MYTHOLOGY (GREY) 

P0M0TI5 , 218. 

POOLE'S INDEX , 25. 

POOR: in the midst of great wealth, 
74; how p. a thing is man, 60; overseers 
of the p. , 40. 

"POOR MARGARET", 28. 

POOR RI CHARD (FRANKLIN) 

POOR TOM, 13. 

POORHOUSE, 95. 

POPE, ALEXANDER, 24; nis popularity 
in the United States, 23; his transla- 



tion of Homer, 23; Essay on Criticism , 
59; Essay on Man , 17, 72. 

POPPY, 18. 

PORCELAIN, 14. 

PORCUPINE: disarmed of its quills, 
206-207. 

PORES: a tide which pierces the p. 
in the air, 26; leaves put forth through 
the p. of the old, 18. 

PORPHYRY, 53, 171. 

PORT: safely in p. with a valuable 
cargo, 12. 

PORTAGE LAKE, 85. 

PORTLAND: Duchess of P., 13. 

POSEIDONIA, 26. 

POSITION AND DUTIES OF THE MERCHANT 
(SUMNER) 

POST OFFICE: he goes more desperate- 
ly to the p-o. , 188. 

POSTPONEMENT: of one's proper work, 
39. 

POSTSCRIPT : contains most important 
matter, 12. 

POSTULATES (TRANSCENDENTAL), 97. 

"POTENT SONG IN EMERSON'S MERLIN 
POEMS, THE" (CAMERON) 

POTTAGE: sell our birthright for a 
mess of p. , 24. 

POTTER'S FIELD, 72. 

POTTS, JOHN FAULKNER: The Swedenborg 
Concordance , 82. 

POUSSIN, NICOLAS, 49. 

POVERTY: begins at home, 15; be not 
anxious to avoid p., 57; when it goes 
abroad it is p. itself, 15. 

POWELL, SIR JOHN, 97. 

POWER: without applicability, 39; 
new activity given to the perceptive p., 
39; a p. which works by a prodigality of 
life and force, 39; genius brings p., 
39; its very nakedness has p. to aid the 
hour, 73; some god gave me the p. to 
paint what I suffer, 57. 

POWERLESS: p. to redress, 60. 

PRACTICAL MEN, 38. 

PRACTICAL THOUGHTS (SPAULDING) 

PRACTICES: Yogi p. , 61. 

PRATT, FREDERIC WOLSEY , 188, 199, 
213. 

PRAYER, 84; good deed done through 
p., 36. 

PRAYER BOOK, 71. 

PRAYER-MEETING, 17. 

"PRAYER OF AZARIAH", 84. 

PRAYERS: begin, "Now I lay me down 
to sleep", 99; cabin boy asked if he 
could say his p., 70. 

PRECEPTS. See Proverbs. 

PRECIPICES: not falling into sloughs 
and over p. , 59. 

PRECISE: if you value p. definitions, 
83. 

PREDESTINATED: having p. us accord- 
ing to his will, 44. 



PREJUDICES 
free from p. , 
PREPARED : 



: of the old country, 93; 
40. 
things which God hath p. 



for them that love him, 13. 



63. 



PRESENCE: in the p. of the unlike, 



PRESENT: eternity in the 
relating to affairs of the p 
PRESENT, THE, 37. 



p., 53; 

world , 



PRIDE: 
injurious , 

PRIEST : 
73. 



270 

PROTEUS, 50. 

PROVERB: an old Indian p., 30. 

PROVERBS: "Carry coals to Newcastle" 
87; "Charity begins at home" 15; "Every 
man to his trade" 69; "He that fights 
and runs away may live to fight another 
day" 69; "It is always darkest just be- 
60. fore dawn" 69; "God tempers the wind to 
the shorn lamb" 105; "An honest man's 
the noblest work of God" 17 ; "Coelum non 
animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt" 
35 ; "He who would bring home the wealth 
55; of every land the p., 22. of the Indies must carry the wealth of 
philosopher and p. of Nature, the Indies with him" 71; "Where the bolt 

hits, thither was it aimed" 17; '"T aint 
I i — 't aint I," as the dog says, 60; "On 
earth all is imperfect" 39; "Man cannot 
lift himself by his own bootstraps" 61; 
"Natura abhorret vacuum" 26 ; "Let well 
enough alone" 36; "Marry in haste and 
repent at leisure" 100; "Speak when you 
are spoken to" 59; "Misery makes strange 
bedfellows" 63; "whilst he dwells in the 



PRESENT , THE (CHANNING) 
PRETENCE : to whip a dog, 60. 



no point of p. that is not 



PRIESTESS: wherefore the Pythian P. 
ceases to deliver her oracles, 11. 

PRIESTS: relate fable of Apollo and 
Admetus , 19; p. but no man, 39. 

PRIMER, 94. 

PRIMITIVE CHURCH, 84. 

PRIMITIVISM, 47. 

PRINCE, THOMAS: Christian Histor 



y, 

94; Chronological History of New England old sin he will pay the old fine" 39; 
in the Form of Annals, 94. "' 



PRINCIPLES: man's governing p., 82. 

PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY (LYELL) 

PRIVATE: hecatombs of p. tragedy, 
39; when our life ceases to be inward 
and p. , 187. 

PROBATE COURT, EAST CAMBRIDGE, 220. 

"PROBLEM, THE" (EMERSON) 

PRODIGALITY, 26; of life and force, 
39. 

PROFANITY, 99. 

PROFIT: what shall it p. a man, 96. 

PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION, 47. 

PROJECTS: without feet or hands, 35; 
of a better social state, 38. 

PROMISE: Land of P., 101. 

PROMPTINGS: of the will, 82. 

PROPHECY: an old English p. now in 
circulation, 74. 

PROPHESY: prophets p. as among the 
ancient Hebrews, 82. 

PROPHET : that mighty Yezdam p . , 39 ; 
Emerson as a p., 47. 

PROPHETS: they prophesy as among 
the ancient Hebrews, 82; smooth p. bear 
away the bells, 82. 

PROPORTION: music wherever there is 
p., 59. 

PROSE: on an effective p. style, 87. 

PROSPECT: from the hill-top east of 
your house, 91. 

PROSPER: go up to Ramoth-Gilead and 
p., 82. 

PROSPERITIE: Quhay sailis lang in 
hie p. , 24. 

PROSPERITY: the godlike nature is 
the root of all p., 39. 

"PROTECTION AND FREE TRADE" (GREELEY) 

PROTEST: spirit of p., 31. 

PROTESTANTISM, 34; Emerson's p., 47. 



The gods love those who die young" 35; 
"Write with fury and correct with flegm" 
100; "Whatever we do ourselves gives us 
pleasure ; whatever we do by another gives 
us pain" 30; see Maxims. 

PROVIDENCE, 33. 

PRUDENCE: is the science of appear- 
ances, 55. 

PSALMS: Myles Coverdale ' s version, 
71. 

PSALMS OF LIFE (LONGFELLOW) 

"PSYCHE" (ALCOTT) 

PTOLEMY, 171. 

PUBLIC LIFE OF CAPT . JOHN BROWN , THE 
(REDPATH) 

PUBLIC WORKS IN INDIA (COTTON) 

PUBLIUS VIRGILIUS MARO VARIETATE LEC - 
TIONIS ET PERPETUA ADNOTATlONfi (VIRGIL) 

PUN, 29. 

PUNCH , 61. 

PUNGENT, 12. 

PUNS, 12; p. I abhor, especially de- 
liberate ones, 12. 

PURCHASERS : a 
P., 29. 

PURITAN, 99. 

PURITANISM: and Emerson, 52; of 
Emerson, 49. 

PURSE: without p. or staff, 43. 



pattern to encourage 



57 



PURSUITS: of the simpler nations, 



3*>, 



PUSEYITES, 

PUSSY, 45. 

PUTNAM, 99. 

PUTNAM, JUDGE, 164. 

PUTNAM'S MONTHLY MAGAZI NE, 68, 206, 
21Q - 

PYRAMID: under a star-y pointing p., 
70. 

PYRRHO, 48. 



271 



PYTHAGORAS, 52; on the music of the 
spheres, 24. 

PYTHAGOREAN: P. doctrine of harmoni- 
cal relations, 171. 

PYTHAGOREAN SENTENCES, 191. 

PYTHIAN: wherefore the P. Priestess 
ceases to deliver her oracles, 11. 



QOHELETH, 22. 

QUACKERY, 14. 

QUADRUPEDS, 85. 

QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA (AUDUBON) 

QUAKERS, 4/, 53. 

QUANTUM SUMUS , SCIMUS, 97. 

QUARLES, FRANCIS*: extracts from, 37. 

QUARTERLY REVIEW , 37, 70. 

QUART I ER, JACQUES, 186. 

QUATRE LIVRES DE PHILOSOPHIE . . .DE LA 
CHINE , LES, 58, /3. 
^UESTTONNAIRE , 225. 

QUESTIONS, 37. 

QUILLS: porcupine disarmed of its 
q., 206-207. 

QUINCY, E., 172. 

QUINCY, EDMUND, 227. 

QUINCY, JOSIAH, 163-164, 181; con- 
demned on a student broadside, 166; on 
the student rebellion of 1834, I67ff . 



RAASAY, 69. 

RABELAIS, FRANCOIS: Gargantua , 26. 

RACE: a harmless, unof tensive r. , 
12; the r. never dying, the individual 
never spared, 39. 

RACES: favored r. in the struggle 
for life, 102. 

RADISH: like a forked r., 13. 

RAFT: a r. to some Homeric or Shak- 
spearean Indiaman, 59. 

RAGE: he draws his rents from r. 
and pain, 57; the r. of youtheid may 
nocht dantit be, 23. 

RAGLAN, LORD, 75. 

RAILROAD, 183, 185; in America, 47; 
has browsed off all the woods, 178. 

RAILROADS, 38. 

RAISOUN, 36. 

RALEIGH, SIR WALTER, 96. 

"RALPH WALDO EMERSON" (C0LT0N) 

RALPH WALDO EMERSON MEMORIAL ASSOCI- 
ATION, 45. 

RAMOTH-GILEAD : go up to R-G. and 
prosper, 82. 

RAMSAY, JAMES ANDREW BROWN. See 
Lord Dalhousie. 

RANGE: out of the r. of human ears, 
24. 

RANZ PES VACHES, 45. 



RATES , 7. 

RATH, FRAU, 40. 

RAVINES, 96. 

RAY, JAMES: A Complete History of 
the Rebellion , 69"! 

RAY, JOHN: English Proverbs , 100. 

RAYMOND, J. T.7 1/2. 

RAYS: look on me with their shriv- 
elled r. , 45. 

READINGS IN AMERICAN POETRY (GRISWOLD) 

REALITY : facing* r. where one is , 187 . 

REALM: a r. so beautiful and fair, 
22. 

REALMS: of ether, 63. 

REAP; in due time we shall r. if we 
faint not, 13, 97. 

REASON: is the life of the law, 96. 

REASONS: being content with common 
r., 58. 

REBELLION: of 1834, 166. 

"RECENTLY -DISCOVERED ADDITION TO THE 
THOREAU CORRESPONDENCE, A" (MOLDENHAUER) 

RECORD OF A SCHOOL (ALCOTT) 

RECUPERATIVE: tKe r. force in every 
man may be relied on, 38. 

RED: sins r. like crimson, 57. 

RED-CROSS KNIGHT, 43. 

RED SEA: shallow water in the R-S., 
66. 

REDFIELD, J. S., 64. 

REDPATH, JAMES, 178-180; The Public 
Life of Capt. John Brown , 179"! 

REED, SAMPSON: Observations on the 
Growth of the Mind ,~T"8~" 

REEDS : banks are r. shaken by the 
wind, 87. 

REEF: Indiaman that lies upon the 
r., 59. 

REFLECTION, 39. 

REFLECTIONS: r. over these inspiring 
vessels, 91. 

REFORM, 31. 

REFORMATION, 27, 84. 

REFORMERS, 40. 

REGENT, 40. 

REGIONS: of sorrow, 73. 

REGRETS, 38; did you plant any Giant 
R.? 67. 

REID, MRS. , 64. 

REIGN: they shall r. for ever and 
ever, 23. 

RELATIONS: Pythagorean doctrine of 
harmonical r., 171. 

RELATIVES: giving decrepit r. the 
mud of the Ganges , 38 . 

RELEASE: ten daughters offered to 
r. him, 83. 

RELIGIO MEDICI (BROWNE) 

RELIGION: Articles of R. , 84. 

RELIGIOUS: r. forms offensive, 39. 

RELIQUES OF ANCIENT ENGLISH POETRY 
(PERCD 

RELISH: I could spit a Mexican with 
good r. , 71. 



REMEMBRANCE, 22. 

REMOND, C. L., 172. 

RENNIE, JAMES: Insect Architecture , 
85 ; Insect Transformations , 85 . 

RENTS : he draws his r. from rage and 
pain, 57. 

"REPLY" (SOUTHWORTH) 

REPORT... OF THE ASSOCIATION OF THE 
ALUMNI OF HARVARD COLLEGE ... [ON THE J 
STATE OF THE COLLEGE LIBRARY , 93. 

"REPORT OF THE ORNITHOLOGY OF MASSA- 
CHUSETTS , A" (PEABODY) 

"REPORT ON THE ALLEGASH SECTION" 
(HODGE) 

REPORTS ON THE FISHES , REPTILES , AND 
BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS , 43. 

"REPORTS ON THE ICHTHOLOGY AND HERPE- 
TOLOGY OF MASSACHUSETTS" (STORER) 

REPTILES, 43, 196. 

REPUBLIC OF LETTERS, 82. 

REPUBLICAN PARTY, 99. 

REPUGNANT: to the Word of God, 84. 

REQUIRE: I seek not that which I r. 
not, 62. 

RESIGNATION, 47; spirit of Mussulman 
r., 62. 

RESOURCES: of the after-nature, 38. 

RESPECT: it is no more worthy of any 
r. , 74; a person not worthy of r., 74. 

REST: r. for the sole of my foot, 
20; where peace and r. can never dwell, 
73. 

RESURRECTION, 21. 

"RESURRECTION OF THE BODY, THE" 
(LANGE) 

REVELATION: a r. fresher and di- 
recter than that of the New Testament, 
21; not an original r. with Jesus, 13. 

REVOLUTIONS: of disturbances, 60. 

REVUE PES DEUX MONDE S , 46ff., 223, 

232: 

REWARD: single he receives the r. 
of his good, 21. 

RHIND, WILLIAM: The Age of the Earth 
Considered Geologically and Historically , 

RHODORA, 235. 

"RHODORA" (EMERSON) 

RHODOS, 35. 

RHYME, 20. 

RIBS: between the r. of the bloated 
pest, 178. 

RICE: to nourish one's self with a 
little r. , 74. 

RICE, CHARLES WYATT , 7, 11. 

RICE, GEORGE T., 191-192. 

RICH: to be r. by iniquitous means, 
74, 76. 

RICH, OBADIAH: Bibliotheca Americana 
Nova , 76. 

RICHTER, JEAN PAUL FRIEDRICH, 29, 48. 

RICK: a fragrant r. , 7. 

RICKETSON, ANNA & WALTON RICKETSON: 
Daniel Ricketson and his Friends, 92. 



272 



RICKETSON, ARTHUR, 205. 

RICKETSON, DANIEL, 82, 87, 175, 200, 
205, 217; his reaction to Blake, 95; The 
History of New Bedford , 92; "Smoke from 
my Pipe", 92. ' 

RIENZI (BULWER-LYTTON) 

RIGHT : let not your r. hand know 
what your left hand does, 59; Be sure 
you are r. and then go ahead, 71. 

RIGHTEOUS: inflictions are sancti- 
fied to the r. , 29. 

RILEY , JAMES : An Authentic Narrative 
of the Loss of the American Brig Com - 
merce , 63. 

RILL: by fountain, shade, and r., 

RINSLEYS & COMPANY EXPRESS, 206. 
RIPE: we are not yet r. to be birds, 



72. 



38, 



RIPLEY, EZRA, 163-164, 220; letter of 
introduction for Thoreau, 181-182; on 
his failing eyesight, 182. 

RIPLEY, SAMUEL, 220. 

RIPLEY, SARAH ALDEN BRADFORD, 220. 

RIPLEY, SOPHIA BRADFORD, 220; to 
Thoreau, 219. 

RIVER: this r. has been a terror to 
many, 59; that r. is the water of life, 
72. 

RIVER OF DEATH, 59. 

RIVER STYX: ran nine times around 
hell, 18. 

RIVIERE LONGUE, LA, 102. 

ROACH, 43. 

ROBBINS, SAMUEL D., 227. 

ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER: Chronicle , 42. 

ROBERTS, KATE LOUISE, 9T. 

ROBESON, ANDREW, 172. 

ROBINSON, MR. : Washington corre- 
spondent for the New York Tribune , 174. 

ROBSON, JOSEPH: An Account of Six 
Years' Residence in Hudson's Bay , 102. 

ROCK: on this r. He has built his 
church, 43. 

ROCKS, 187. 

RODERICK RANDOM (SMOLLETT) 

ROGERS, N. P., 172. 

ROI D'ANGLETERRE ET LE JONGLEUR 
D'ELY , (LE), 3b. 

ROLL: of the stirring drums, 71. 

ROLLIN, CHARLES: The Ancient History, 



17 



59, 



ROMAN ANTIQUITIES (ADAM) 

ROMAN EMPIRE, 82. 

ROMANS: manners and customs of, 7 

ROMANTIC SCHOOL, 32. 

ROMAUNT OF THE ROSE , THE, 36. 

ROME, lb. 

ROOF: an open place without a r., 



ROOT: the godlike nature is the r, 
of all prosperity, 39. 

ROOT, JOSEPH MOSLEY, 174. 
ROSCOE, THOMAS, 25. 



273 



ROSES, 26. 

ROSS, JAMES, 42. 

ROTCH, B. S., 163. 

ROUQUETTE, ADRIAN, 202, 229. 

ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES, 49-50, 53. 

ROYER-COLLARD , ALBERT PAUL, 47. 

RUCKERT, L. J., 20; "The Doctrine of 
the Resurrection of the Dead", 21. 

RULE: let Hope r. triumphant in the 
breast, 72; see Golden Rule. 

RUNNING: thoughts on r. , 15. 

RUSK, RALPH LESLIE: Life of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson , 183. 

RUSKIN, JOHN: Elements of Drawing , 
87 ; Modern Painters" ^ 87 ; Seven Lamps of 
Architecture , 87. 

RUSSELL, ELIAS HARLOW, 186. 

RUSSELL, JOHN, 50. 

RUSSELL, SIR WILLIAM HOWARD: The 
War, 75. 



SABBATH SCHOOL, 18. 

SABINA, 16. 

SAC ELLA , 59. 

SACHEMS, 225. 

SACHIMAUPAN, 225. 

SACRAMENTS, 84. 

SADDLE-TRIP ON THE SOUTHWESTERN FRON - 
TIER , A (.OLMSTED) 

SADI (SAADI), MUSLI UDDIN, 50; The 
Gulistan , 42. 

SAFE : an ozier bough were vessel s. 
enough, 11. 

SAGARD-TH&ODAT, GABRIEL: Histoire 
du Canada , 231. 

SAGE: thy s. reserved eye, 45; s. 
of yesterday and today, 48. 

SAHARA DESERT, 63. 

SAINT: of some Christian order, 45. 

SAINT AUGUSTINE. See Augustine. 

SAINT LAWRENCE RIVER, 88. 

SAINT PAUL, 25, 43, 47; dangers he 
encountered, 69; his conversion, 53; 
his education in Jerusalem, 88; life, 
character, and style of, 20. 

SAINT PETER, 43. 

SALAMIS, 35. 

SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS: Thoreau' s 
lectures there, 184. 

SALEM LYCEUM, 184. 

SALEM OBSERVER , 184-185. 

SALT: losing its savor, 104. 

SALTONSTALL, MR., 164. 

SALUTATION: the only s. fit for the 
wise, 28. 

SALUZZO, 25. 

SALVATION: now is the day of s., 
73. 

SANBORN, FRANKLIN BENJAMIN, 17 9, 205, 
225, 231-232; letters to T. W. Higginson, 
17 8-179; signs Harvard charging book for 



Thoreau, 217; Henry D. Thoreau , 181-182; 
Recollections of Seventy Years , 56; The 
Lite of Henry David Thoreau 7~Tl, 13,~"55, 

93: 

SANDWICH ISLANDS, 55. 

SANDWITH, HUMPHRY: A Narrative of 
the Siege of Kars , 75. 

SANDY HOOK, 29. 

SANG: time men s. another song, 17 5. 

SANGER, G. P., 163. 

SARACENS, 174. 

SARTOR RESARTUS (CARLYLE) 

SATAN, 63. 

SAW: coughing drowns the parson's 
s., 69. 

SAXON: how does the S. Edith do? 45. 

SCABBARD: a blade too sharp for the 
s. , 39. 

SCALE: the way seems difficult and 
steep to s., 23; a regular musical s., 
171. 

SCALES, 42. 

SCAMANDER, 35. 

SCARLET: though your sins be as s., 
57. 

SCHELLING, FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH 
VON, 40, 51. 

SCHERB, EMMANUEL, 227. 

SCHOLAR: should work in the ditch 
occasionally, 175; should make less suf- 
fice for him, 175. 

SCHOLARS: apt to complain about their 
lot, 175. 

SCHOOL BOOKS, 94. 

"SCHOOL FOR YOUNG LADIES", 190. 

SCIENCE: the only true s., 22. 

SCIENCES: applied to useful arts, 
14. 

SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY , 76. 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, 85. 

SCIPEN: three s. gode , 20, 171. 

SCORPION, 50. 

SCOTLAND, 69. 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER, 73, 87. 

SCOTT, WINFIELD: Inf antry-Tactics , 
97. 

SCOTTISH: he carried S. ground in 
his boots, 28; chronicle of S. poetry, 
23. 

SCOTTISH PROVERBS (KELLY) 

SCOTTISH SCHOOL: of philosophers, 
47. 

SCRATCH, 60. 

SCRIBES, 43. 

SCRIBNER, CHARLES, 64. 

SEA: Greek superiority on the s., 
7; in bowl did venture out to s., 10; 
on such a full s. are we now afloat, 26; 
tribute to the s., 91; carvels licht 
fast tending throw the s., 23. 

SEAS: safe enough the s. to plough, 
11. 

SEASICKNESS, 39, 92. 

SEASON: in due s. we shall reap, 13. 



SEBASTOPOL, 67, 70. 

"SECOND MERLIN SONG" (EMERSON) 

SECULAR, 60. 

SEDUCERS, 63. 

SEEK: I s. not that which I require 
not, 62; s. and ye shall find, 97. 

SEEKER: Emerson is a s., 48. 

SEELEY, NEIGHBOR, 77. 

SELECTIONS FROM GERMAN LITERATURE 
(EDWARDS) 

SELF-DEVOTION: among the Iranis , 39 

SELF -EDUCATION, 22. 

SELF-RELIANCE, 104; in Emerson, 52. 

SELF-RESPECT, 175. 

SELFISHNESS, 38; enlightened s., 38. 

SELL: if he were to s. the hue of 
his thought, 60. 

SENANCOUR, ETIENNE PI VERT DE: Ober - 
mann , 50. 

SENECA, 48. 

SENSES: when are s. are clear and 
purified, 171. 

SENTIMENT, 12; s. alone is immortal, 
12; s. of flowers, 67. 

SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY , A (STERNE) 

"SERMON ON THE MOUNT", 57. 



274 



SERMONS 
SERMONS 
SERMONS 
SERMONS 
SERVE: 



68, 



in stones, 
(MASSILLON) 
(MAURICE) 
(THOLUCK) 
you cannot s 



185. 



God and Mammon, 



"SHEAF OF EMERSON LETTERS, A" (CAMER- 
ON) 

SHEEP, 19; the lost s. of Israel, 87; 
thou owest the s. no wool, 13. 

SHEFFIELD, EARL OF, 82. 

SHELF : sun and moon placed on a high 
s., 38. 

SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, 171; "Ozyman- 
dias", 70. 

"SHELLEY'S 'OZYMANDIAS' ONCE AGAIN" 
(NOTOPOULOS) 

SHELLS, 85. 

SHELTER, 17 5. 

SHEPARD, ODELL, 214; Pedlar's Prog - 
ress , 25 . 

SHEPHERD: the great S. tempers the 
wind to the shorn lamb, 105. 

"SHEPHERD OF KING ADMETUS , THE", 19. 

SHERWIN, THOMAS, 190. 

SHEW, JOEL, 64. 

SHINGLING: at Walden, 183. 

SHIP: a well-benched s., 7; largest 
s. in the world, 85. 

SHIPS: earliest s. lacked art and 
strength, 7 ; the first Greeks to make 
use of s . , 7 . 

SHIRAZ, 42. 

SHIRLEY, GEORGE: "Cupid and Death", 
44. 

SHIRT: poisoned s. which Hercules 
put on, 63; song of the s., 61. 



72, 



SHACKFORD, CHARLES C 
SHADE: by fountain, 



SHADES: 

SHADOW: 

lengthened 

SHADOWS 



SHORE: Adieu, my native s., 23; se- 
cities contended for Homer cure to farthest s., 7. 

SHORES: the most enchanting s., 22; 
the travelling author lands on our s., 
93. 

SHOULDERS : 
centric orbit , 
the sphere , 45 

SHREWSBURY , 

SHRIVELLED: 

SIBBALD, JAMES: 
tish Poetry , 23 



SEVEN: 
dead, 35. 

SEVEN AGAINST THEBES THE (jESCHYLUS) 

SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE (RUSKIN) 

SEWALL, SAMUEL E. , 1/2. 

SEYBOLD, ETHEL: Thoreau: The Quest 
and the Classics , 26-2/ . 

SHABBINeSS, 175 



on s. whirled in some ec- 
26; rid' st upon my s . as 



227. 

, and rill, 



70. 

with their s. 
Chronicle 



rays, 45 
of Scot- 



doleful s . , 73. 
the institution 
s. of a man, 52. 
17. 



is the 



SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, 48, 55, 80, 95- 
96; accused of lacking unity, 48; was 
not known, 19; Fancy's child, 59; As 
You Like It , 185; Hamlet, 24, 102; Jul - 
ius Caesar , 26; King Lear , 13; Love ' s 
Labours Lost , 69; Macbeth , 14; Merchant 
of Venice , 29 ; Much Ado about Nothing , 
59; 1 Henry IV , 69; 2 Henry IV , 13; The 
Tempest , 13, 56, 63. 

SHAKESPEARE FROM BETTERTON T O IRVING 
(0DETL1 

SHALLOW, JUSTICE, 13. 

SHANTY: is shorn of its beams, 67. 

SHARECROPPER, 95. 

SHARP, GRANVILLE, 70. 

SHARP'S RIFLES, 100. 

SHAW, JUDGE, 164. 



SIBLEY, AGNES MARIE: Al exander Pope ' s 
Prestige in America , 1725-1835 , 23. 

SIBLEY, JOHN LANGD0N, 76; report on 
the state of the Harvard College Library, 
93. 

SICK: eating the s., 15; the Fates 
and those whom they make s., 35. 

SIDE: the other s. of the globe, 
188 ; I will try to supply my s . of the 
triangle, 60. 

SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP, 49. 

"SIGNIFICANCE OF EMERSON'S SECOND 
MERLIN SONG" (CAMERON) 

SIGNS: s. of evil days are come, 39. 

SIGOURNEY, LYDIA, 33. 

SILENT: Where green lakes languish 
on the s. plain, 97; that deaf and s. 
read' st the eternal deep, 73. 

SILK: thou owest the worm no s., 13. 

SILLIMAN, BENJAMIN: "Appendix", 174. 

SILVER, 96. 



"SILVIO PELLICO" (LEE) 

SIMON: a tanner of Joppa, 44. 

SIMPLICITY, 12. 

SIMPLY: if he will live s. and 
wisely, 57. 

SIN, 40; his broad and scarlet s., 
57; to cumulate thy s. and piety, 45; 
whilst he dwells in the old s. he will 
pay the old fine, 39. 

SINAI AND PALESTINE (STANLEY) 

SINCERE: a man with whom I can be 
s., 49. 

SINCLAIR, S., 199. 

SING: how shall we s. the Lord's 
song in a strange land? 15. 

SINGLE: s. he receives his reward, 
21; s. is each man born, 21. 

SINGS: the trumpet that s. of fame, 
71. 

"SINLESS CHARACTER OF JESUS, THE" 
(ULLMANN) 

SINS: though your s. be as scarlet, 
57; s. red like crimson, 57. 

SISMONDI, JEAN CHARLES LEONARD SI- 
MONDE DE, 94. 

SITTING: s. still at home, 174. 

SIX YEARS IN THE DESERTS OF NORTH 
AMERICA , 102. 

SKETCHES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF 
CEYLON (TENNENT) 

SKIES: the extremity of the s., 13; 
spare diet and clear s., 71. 

SKIMMING: from pan of unwrinkled 
cream, 82. 

SKIN: Ethiopian cannot change his 
s., 44. 

SKY : some small chink of the broad 
s., 45; natural s. preferred to opium- 
eater's heaven, 83; Island of S., 69. 

SLACK, CHARLES W. , 98. 

SLANDERER: Alexander punishes as., 
76. 

SLAVE: the s. who sets foot on Brit- 
ish ground becomes that instant free, 
70. 

SLAVERY, 25, 81, 98, 171-172, 178; 
barbarism of, 101. 

"SLAVERY" (PHILLIPS) 

SLAWSON, JAMES H. , 86. 

SLOTH: in Concord, 18. 

SLOUGH OF DESPOND, 59. 

SLOUGHS: not falling into s. and 
over precipices, 59. 

SMALL: to compare great things with 
s., 43. 

SMELL: a very ancient and fishlike 
s. , 13. 

SMELLIE, WILLIAM: The Philosophy of 
Natural History , 28. 

SMITH, ALEXANDER: Sonnets on the 
War , 75. 

SMITH, C. H. , 224, 235. 

SMITH, ELIZABETH OAKES (PRINCE), 64. 

SMITH, L. L., 215. 



275 



SMITH, L. L. & C. H., 224, 235. 

SMITH, P. H. , 211? 

SMITH, SEBA: The Life and Writings 
of Major Jack Downing , 91. 

SMITH, THOMAS B., 211. 

SMITH, WILLIAM: Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1/1. 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 101. 

"SMOKE FROM MY PIPE" (RICKETSON) 

SMOLLETT, TOBIAS GEORGE: Roderick 
Random , 37 . 

SMYRNA, 35. 

SNOW: sins white as s., 57; fighting 
men with s. on their helmets, 74. 

SOBER: I would fain keep s. always, 
83. 

SOCIAL CIRCLE, 18. 

SOCIAL CLUB, 17. 

SOCIETIES: scientific s., 85. 

SOCIETY: considered stagnant, 38. 

SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL 
KNOWLEDGE: Penny Magazine , 57. 

SOCIETY LIBRARY, 37. 

SOCRATES, 48, 50, 52; was not known, 
19. 

SODOM, 96. 

SODON & CO., 36. 

SOIL: our work is imposed by the s. 
and the sea, 39. 

SOLDIER: endure hardness as a good 



46 



20. 



, 46 ; who hath chosen him to be a s 
SOLE: rest for the s. of my foot, 



SOLILOQUIES: of a true soul, 49. 

"SOLITARY THOREAU OF THE ALUMNI NOTES, 
THE" (CAMERON) 

SOLITUDE, 47, 51; without expression, 
38. 

SOLOMON, 50. 

SONG: burden of the s., 73; how sing 
the Lord's s. in a strange land, 15; the 
Potent S., 97; time men sang another s., 
175. 

"SONG OF THE SHIRT" (HOOD) 

SONNETS FOR THE CRADLE , 9. 

SONNETS ON THE WAR (SMITH) 



SOPHISTICATED: three on ' s are s 



13, 



SORACTE, 16. 

SORROW: regions of s., 73. 

SOUL: that which is not noxious to 
the s., 191; loses his own s., 188; thy 
s. shall have her earthly freight, 45; 
the still true and universal s., 45; 
the s. in Emerson, 53; gain the world 
and lose his own s., 60; things not re- 
specting the s. but the body, 60; then 
there is a s . in his deed, 39; in every 
clime the magnet of his s., 22; a uni- 
versal s. breathes in the atmosphere, 
39; its dark cottage, battered and de- 
cayed, 105. 

SOUND: the trumpet and the drum will 



276 



s., 71; no s. to the ear, 59. 

SOURCES: of novelty, 11. 

SOUTHERNERS: not wanted at Harvard, 
166. 

SOUTHEY, ROBERT: The Life of Nelson , 
71. 

SOUTHWICK, JOSEPH, 172. 

SOUTHWORTH, A., 163. 

SOUTHWORTH, JAMES: "Reply", 175. 

SPALDING, MR.: his furniture, 78. 

SPALDING, ALBERT G., 229. 

SPALDING, HARRIETT, 229. 

SPALDING, LEONARD, 229. 

SPALDING, LOUISA, 229. 

SPALDING, LYDIA, 229. 

SPALDING, WARREN, 229. 

SPANIARDS, 96. 

SPANISH PROVERB, 71. 

SPARKS, JARED, 190, 227. 

SPARROW: that falls to the ground, 



104, 



are, 



24, 



57 



SPARROWS: fed as the 

SPARTA, 103. 

SPARTAN, 99. 

SPAULDING, MR.: Practical Thoughts , 



SPEAK: 



59. 



s . when you are spoken to , 



SPEAR, CHARLES, 25, 227. 

SPEAR, JOHN M., 172, 227. 

SPECIMEN: see a brick for a s., 29. 

SPECIMENS: preparing s. for Agassiz, 
196. 

SPECTACLE: the s. of morning, 91. 

SPECULATION: is no succedaneum for 
life, 39. 

SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY OF EUROPE 
(MORELLl 

SPEECH, 20; affectionate s. is no 
time deficient in the mansions of the 
good, 24. 

"SPEECH ON JOHN BROWN" (PHILLIPS) 

SPENCE, WILLIAM, 85. 

SPENSER, EDMUND: Faerie Queene , 43. 

SPHERE: rid'st upon my shoulders as 
the s. , 45. 

SPHERE MUSIC, 24, 59. 

SPHERES: singing s. described, 171; 
the nine s., 171; music of the s., 24, 
59; harmony of the s., 24; see Harmony 
of the Spheres . 

SPHINX, 50, 54. 

SPICES: cargo of s., 12. 

SPIN, 11. 

SPINOZA, BARUCH (OR BENEDICT), 51, 
53-54. 

SPIRIT: to pure s. Nature is fluid 
or volatile, 74; getting a living vs. 
living in the s., 187; the s. abhors a 
vacuum more than Nature, 26; does not 
build up nature around us, 18; the s. 
of a purer air, 22; contemplating S. in 
nature, 22; in the s. on the Lord's 
Day, 24. 



SPIRITS: depression of s., 87; the 
world of s. is not closed, 48. 

SPIRITUAL CULTURE, 21. 

SPIRITUAL CULTURE (ALCOTT) 

SPIRITUAL NATURE, 26. 

SPIRITUALISM, 95. 

SPIT: I could s. a Mexican with a 
good relish, 71. 

SPONTENEITY, 48, 52. 

SPORTS: of the more artificial na- 
tions, 57. 

SPOT: a dearer, sweeter s. than all 
the rest, 22; each s. where he had trod, 
20; there is as. of earth supremely 
blest, 22. 

SPOTS: leopard cannot change his s., 
44. 

SPRAGUE, SETH, 172. 

SPRING: wears the gentle name of S., 
72. 

SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN , 186. 

SPRINGS, 19. 

SPROUTED: I should not care if I s . 
into a living tree, 178; if I s . into a 
living tree, 73. 

SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON, 84. 

SPURZHEIM, J0HANN FRIEDRICH KASPAR, 
64. 

SQUAB : drop to the earth a mere 
amorphous s., 63. 

SQUEEZED: s. through a horn, 26. 

STABULIS: neque jam s. gaudet pecus , 
16. 

STACY, ALBERT, 105. 

STAFF: without purse or s., 43. 

STALLO, JOHN BERNHARD: General Prin - 
ciples of the Philosophy of Nature , 192. 

STANBRIDGE, JOHN: Vulgaria ,~~58". 

STANDARDS, 26. 

STAND-FAST, MR. , 59. 

STANLEY, ARTHUR PENRHYN: Sinai and 
Palestine , 75 . 

STAPLES, SAMUEL, 25. 

STAR: which they saw in the east, 
20; s. in the East, 36; if you will look 
at another s., 60; followed the s. of my 
destiny, 20. 

STARK, 98. 

STARR, ETHEL RANDOLPH, 220. 

STARS: when the morning s. sang to- 
gether, 24; see Heavenly Bodies. 

STAR-Y -POINTING, 70. 

STATE: its disease, 40; its purpose, 
55; present s. of the child's knowledge, 
74; the s. has the same conscience as 
the Christ, 40. 

"STATE SLAVERY" (LANE) 

"STATEMENT OF THE FIRST PHILOSOPHY" 
(EMERSON) 

STATEN ISLAND, 37, 183; hermit on, 
34. 

STATIUS: Thebais, 24. 

STATUE OF MEMNON, 171. 

STEARNS, GEORGE LUTHER, 178-179. 



277 



STEDMAN, EDMUND CLARENCE: Poets of 
America , 93. 

STEEP : the way seems s. and diffi- 
cult, 23. 

STEINRORA, 102. 

STERNE, LAURENCE: A Sentimental 
Journey , 105; The Works^ /l . 

STESlCHORUS , 2/. 

STETSON, CALEB, 22 7. 

STEVENSON, BURTON: The Home Book of 
Proverbs , 69-70, 87; The Home Book of" 
Quotations , 15, 28, 69, /I, 88, 105. 

STEWARDS : required in s . that a man 
be found faithful, 57. 

STEWART, DOUGALD, 47. 

STILL: sitting s. at home, 174. 

STILLNESS: contrasting harmony with 
s. , 171. 

STITCH, 61. 

STODDART, FATHER, 75. 

STOICISM, 53. 

STOICS, 48, 103. 

STOMACH: the waters are to the s. 
cold, 59. 

STONE: will you give them as., 60. 

STONE, JABEZ, 60. 

STONE, THOMAS T., 227. 

STONES, 19; sermons in s . , 185. 

ST0RER, DAVID HUMPHREYS: "Reports 
on the Ichthology and Herpetology of 
Massachusetts", 43; A Synopsis of the 
Fishes of North America , 43. 

STORM: s., ye are wondrous strong, 
22. 

STORMS: s. without defence, 24. 

STORY, JOSEPH, 164. 

STORY OF BURNT NJAL (NJALA) 

"STORY OF SUSANNAH", 84. 

STRAB0: The Geography , 102. 

STRAIN: a noble s . that reached 
these woods, 71. 

STRANGE: how sing the Lord's song 
in a s . land, 15; in such a s. country 
as this, 15. 

STRANGER: on their coast, 12. 

STRANGERS: they are s. in their own 
house, 39. 

STRATTON'S CAMBRIDGE EXPRESS, BOSTON, 
197. 

STREETS: doors shall be shut in the 
s., 22; s. paved with silver and gold, 
96. 

STRENGTH: her defence more than the 
s. of millions, 44; in the s. of the 
horse, 71; in the s . of a man's legs, 
71; lovely in your s., 22. 

STRIFE: blindly with thy blessed- 
ness at s., 45; each eager s., 44. 

STRONG: ye are wondrous s., 22. 

STRUGGLE: favored races in the s. 
for life, 102. 

STUDIES IN PHILOLOGY , 23. 

STUDIES IN THE FIELD & FOREST (FLAGG) 

STUDLEY, S. G., 98. 



STUPID, 39. 

STUPIDITY: waters of Styx lulled 
into s. , 18. 

STYLE: Thoreau ' s s. criticized, 12; 
Emerson's criticism of Thoreau 's s., 12; 
Thoreau on an effective prose s., 87. 

STYX: ran nine times around hell, 
18. 

SUBSTANCE: sum and s. of Confucius' 
teaching, 73. 

SUCCEDANEUM: speculation is no s. 
for life, 39. 

SUCCESSFUL: full tide of s. experi- 
ment, 29. 

SUCKLING, SIR JOHN, 69. 

SUDBURY RIVER, 16. 

SUFFER: the power to paint what I 
s . , 57 . 

SUFFICE: make less s. for him, 175. 

SUFFOLK COUNTY JOURNAL , 72. 

SUICIDE: tradition is s., 40. 

SUMNER, CHARLES, 190, 205, 230-231; 
Position and Duties of the Merchant , 70 ; 
Recent Speeches and Addresses , 70; The 
Barbarism of Slavery^ 101 ; Usurpation 
of the Senate in Imprisoning a Citizen, 

tott: 

SUN: looks through the horizontal 
misty air, 67; placed on a high shelf, 
38; neither light of the s., 23; the 
glad and glorious s., 72; No s. with 
plenty crowns the uncultured vale, 97. 

"SUN DOWN POEM" (WHITMAN) 

SUNDEWS, 87. 

SUNS: where brighter s. dispense 
serener light, 22. 

SUPERFICIALNESS: is the real dis- 
temper, 39. 

"SUPERIOR AND COMMON MAN, THE" 
(THOREAU) 

SUPERIOR MAN: doubts the existence 
of matter, 58; laws of heaven are for 
him, 58. 

SUPPER: made after s. of a cheese- 
paring, 13. 

SUPPERS: late s. , 14. 

SUPREME BEING: does not build up 
nature around us, 18. 

SURE: Be s. you are right and then 
go ahead , 71. 

SURETTE, LOUIS A., 179. 

SURETYSHIP: horn of s., 26. 

SURFACE: s. meets s., 187. 

SURVILLIERS, COUNTESS, 28. 

SUSANNAH, 84. 

SWAIN: brawny s., 7. 

SWAYNE, J. L., 220. 

SWEAT: man need not live by the s. 
of his brow, 56-57, 175. 

SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL, 51, 215; mysti- 
cism of, 53; on "our interiors", 82; 
Arcana Coelestia, 82; Heaven and Hell, 
8X 

SWEDENBORG CONCORDANCE, THE (POTTS) 



278 



SWEDENBORGISM, 18, 48, 100. 

SWEET: my breath is s. to me, 73. 

SWIFT, JONATHAN: The Drapier's Let - 
ters , 29. 

SWINE, 69. 

SWISS: a young S. in Voigtland, 40. 

SWORDS: have no edges for such a 
contest, 97; three s. flashed through 
the air at once, 102. 

SYLVANUS, 103. 

SYLVESTER, JOSHUA, 40. 

SYMBOL: mountain s. in Romanticism, 
87; Nature as s., 51. 

SYMBOLS, 55; natural objects as s . , 
51; Nature as s., 54. 

SYMPATHIZE: s. with the God Apollo, 
18. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA, 



38 



TEARS: will bring nothing to pass, 



TELEGRAPH, 85. 

TEMPERANCE, 14. 

TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 32. 

TEMPLE: was "an open place without 
a roof", 59; to uphold the t. of conven- 
tions, 39. 

TEMPLEMAN, WILLIAM: "Thoreau, Moral- 
ist of the Picturesque", 175. 

TEMPLES: by old Pestum's t., 26; 
some of the t. were open, 59. 

TEMPTATION: force of the t. added to 
our own by resisting it, 55. 

TEN: the clock sends to bed at t., 
13. 

TEN COMMANDMENTS, 70. 

TENNEMANN, WILHELM GOTTLIEB: "Life 



A (AUDUBON) of Plato", 21 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FISHES OF NORTH AMERICA , TENNENT , SIR JAMES EMERSON: Sketch es 

A (STORER) of the Natural History of Ceylon , 102. 

SYRACUSE, 21. TENNYSON, ALFRED, LORD: "ThT Charge 

SYSTEM: not a s . of theological doc- of the Light Brigade", 99. 



trines , 13. 



"TA HI0", 73. 

TABERNACLE: earthly house of this 
t. , 105; t. of clay, 105. 

TAHATAWAN: Thoreau' s epitaph on T., 
225. 

TAIL: tin kettle tied to dog's t., 
60. 

TALENT, 48; apprehension without t., 
39. 

TALES AND SKETCHES (GREEN) 

TALES OF A TRAVELLER (IRVING) 

TANA IS : cannot have flowed forever, 
174. 

TANNER: wasn't one of the apostles 
a t.? 44. 

TANNER, JOHN: A Narrative of the 
Captivity . ..among the Indians , 201. 

TASK: Blake urged to work at some 
t., 61; keeping at your noble t., 188. 

TASSO, TORQUATO: Jerusalem Deliv - 
ered , 192. 

TASTE: fidelity superior to t. or 
imagination, 39. 

TAX: Alcott refused to pay the town 
t., 25, 173. 

TAX COLLECTORS, 17 3. 

TAYLOR, JANE: "The Philosopher's 
Scales", 8-9, 41; The Writings , 41. 

TAYLOR, TOM, 61. 

"TCHOUNG-YOUNG" , 74. 

TEA: he has been out to t. and we 
have not, 188. 

TEACHER: on the human constitution, 
14. 

TEACHING: substance of Confucius' 
t., 73. 



TENTH: even after the t. year, 35. 

TENTIUS, 42. 

TERENCE: Phormio , 36. 

TERROR: this river has been a t . to 
many , 59. 

TERRY, J. S., 163. 

TEUFELSDROCKH, DIOGENES, 95. 

TEXAN WAR, 95. 

THACHER, JUDGE, 164. 

THALIARCHE, 16. 

THAMES TUNNEL, 34. 

"THANATOPSIS" (BRYANT) 

THANGBRAND, 102. 

THANKSGIVING: my t . is perpetual, 
73. 

THAYER, JAMES BRADLEY, 219, 220. 

THEBAIS (STATIUS) 

THEME -WRITING: at Harvard, 11, 13. 

THEOCRITUS, 43, 103. 

THEOLOGICAL: not a system of t. doc- 
trines, 13. 

THEOLOGY: skip all Coleridge's t., 
83. 

THEORY: t. of tongues, 20. 

THERIEN, ALEK, 79. 

THERMOPYLAE, 50. 

THERSITUS, 56. 

THESEUS, 58. 

"THESEUS" (PLUTARCH) 

THIEF: the penitent t., 21. 

THIERLEBEN PER ALPENWELT , DAS 
(TSCHUDI) 

THING: how poor a t . is man, 60; 
thou art the t. itself, 13. 

THINGS: be unwilling to do many t., 
191; all t. work together for good to 
them that love God, 29; contact with the 
t. I loath, 23; reaching unto those t. 
which are before, 43; the yogin hears 
wonderful t . , 58 ; t . done in his body , 
67; t. which are behind, 43; t. taught 



279 

Collected Poems , 26, 61; "Economy", 57, 
to 184; "To Edith", 26, 45; "Getting a Liv- 
ing", 96, 187; "Higher Laws", 83; "House- 
warming", 183; "Index Rerum", 92; Jour - 
nal , 24, 96; "Life Without Principle", 
9~6~7 187; "Literary Notebook", 23; "Mis- 
cellaneous Extracts", 21; "Paradise (To 
Be) Regained", 27 ; "The Plains of Nauset" , 
206; "The Ponds", 178; "The Story-Telling 



him their use, 19; t. which God hath 
prepared for them that love him, 13; 
compare great t. with small, 43. 

THINKERS: but no man, 39. 

THINKING: this puts me to t., 91. 

THIRST: drinking without t., 15. 

THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, 84. 

THOLUCK, FRIEDRICH AUGUST GOTTREU: 
his life and character, 21; "The Life, 
Character and Style of the Apostle Paul", Faculty", 11; "The Superior and the Com- 



20; Sermons , 21. 

THOMAS, ISAIAH, 9. 

THOMPSON, WILLIAM, 174. 

THOR, 104; challenged Christ to sin- 
gle combat, 102. 

THOREAU, CYNTHIA D., 220. 

THOREAU, HENRY DAVID: his transla- 
tions from Pindar, 11; Emerson's criti- 
cism of his style, 12; his three months 
out of Harvard, 13; his style examined, 
12; a list of his faults, 12; his fish- 
ing companion, 13; his earliest publi- 
cation, 13; his personal library, 18, 
27, 36; on an effective prose style, 87; 
student days at the Concord Academy, 42; 
his association with young Edith Emerson, 
44; sketch of him in the Cyclopaedia of 
American Literature , 64ffTj images of 
circularity in his prose, 171; invited 
to attend Class Day, 181; his Fraternity 
Lecture on John Brown, 98, 179; called a 
fanatic in relation to John Brown, 98; 
his speech on John Brown taken down 
phonographically , 98; reviews of his 
lecture on John Brown, 179; his "Fact 
Book" at Harvard, 175, 194; his Walden 
reviewed in Ant i -Slavery Standard" ! 68; 
picture, 180"j Ezra Ripley's letter of 
introduction, 181; lost letters to the 
Harvard Librarian, 186, 187, 188, 201, 
202, 217; Emerson's letter recommending 
him, 182; drew upon his current journal 
for material for his letters to Blake, 
187; walks with Blake and Theophilus 
Brown, 190; lectured in Worcester on 
"Walking", 190; his good wishes for the 
Harvard Magazine , 205; complains to the 
New York Tribune , 198; Alcott sends him 
a circular regarding conversations, 213; 
his visit to Alcott at Walpole, Mass., 
214; sells the "Maine Woods" to Greeley, 
174; summoned by the Massachusetts Court 
of Common Pleas, 229; "Nature Notes" in 
the Pierpont Morgan Library, 197, 198, 
199, 201, 205, 206, 207, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 215; his use of "The Wild", 
223; his first appearance before a Bos- 
ton audience, 228; T. and slavery, 178; 
Redpath's book dedicated to T . , 179; T. 
and the Town and Country Club, 227; 
"Anacreon", 27; "Autumnal Tints", 178, 
220; "The Beach Again", 210; Canadian 
Notebook , 76; Cape Cod , 206-2U/ , 210; 
"Capt. John Brown of Ossawotomie" , 98; 



mon Man", 58; Transmigration of the Seven 
Brahmans , 58; Two Thoreau Letters , T~\ 
"Various Means of Public Influence", 93; 
Walden , 12, 35, 38, 45, 63, 71-72, 77, 
83, 91, 100, 171, 178, 183-184, 202, 
214; A Week on the Concord and Merri mac k 
Rivers , 18, 174, 184, 202; "What Shall — 
it Profit a Man?" 187; "Where I Lived 
and What I Lived For", 185; "Wild Apples", 
233. 

THOREAU, JOHN, JR., 18, 225. 

THOREAU, JOHN, SR. , 197-198, 206, 
210-213, 217-218; administration of his 
estate, 220. 

THOREAU, M. , 211. 

THOREAU, SOPHIA ELIZABETH, 29, 85, 
186, 220. 

"THOREAU AND EMERSON IN CHANNING'S 
LETTERS TO THE WATSONS" (CAMERON) 

"THOREAU AND MY PRISONS " (BRODERICK) 

THOREAU DISCOVERS EMERSON (CAMERON) 

"THOREAU, FLAGG, AND BURROUGHS" (BAR- 
TON) 

"THOREAU IN SEARCH OF THE PICTURESQUE" 
(CAMERON) 

"THOREAU IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS 
(1854)" (CAMERON) 

"THOREAU, MORALIST OF THE PICTURESQUE" 
(TEMPLEMAN) 

"THOREAU, PARKER, AND EMERSON'S 
'MOUSETRAP'" (CAMERON) 

THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETIN , 83, 171, 
219, 223. 

THOREAU: THE QUEST AND THE CLASSICS 
(SEYBOLD) 

"THOREAU 'S DIPLOMA AGAIN" (CAMERON) 

"THOREAU 'S EARLY COMPOSITIONS IN THE 
ANCIENT LANGUAGES" (CAMERON) 

THOREAU 'S LIBRARY (HARDING) 

THOUGHT: to sell the hue of his t . , 
60. 

THOUGHTS: of the heart, 82. 

"THOUGHTS ON SPIRITUAL SUBJECTS" 
(FENELON) 

THOUSAND: a t. men in his belly, 
178. 

THREAD: let us live a t . of life, 
58. 

"THREE SCIPEN GODE", 20. 

"THREE UNPUBLISHED THOREAU LETTERS" 
(WHITE) 

THRID: and t. so many woods, 18. 

THUNDER: this is my t. lately, 67. 

TIBER VALLEY, 16. 



280 



TICKNOR & FIELDS, 63-6*+, 77. 

TIDD, MR., 178. 

TIDE: there is at. in the affairs 
of men, 26; there is a t . which pierces 
the pores in the air, 26; full t. of 
successful experiment, 29. 

TIE: fraternity held by some masonic THE" ^ 58 . 
t., 38. TRAP, 78-79 

TIEBOUT, 59. 

TIECK, JOHANN LUDWIG, 40 . 

TIGER, 75. 

TIME: where T. doth plume his wings, 



TRANSCENDENT ALISTS, 99; and John 
Locke, 14. 

TRANSCENDENTAL I ST S AND MINERVA , THE 
(CAMERON) 

TRANSMIGRATION, 44. 

TRANSMIGRATION OF THE SEVEN B RAHMANS , 



26; geologic t., 27; in geology t. never 
fails, 27; t. in Emerson, 53; now is the 
accepted t., 73; t. never fails, 174; in 
due t. we shall reap, 97; it is t. men 
sang another song, 175. 

TIME-SERVER: the clock has been a 
t-s . , 13. 

TIMES: must be worse before they are 
better, 39; educated above the work of 
their t., 39; see Hard Times. 

TIP-CAT, 13. 

TITANS, 61. 

"TITMOUSE, THE" (EMERSON) 

"TO EDITH" (THOREAU) 

"TO THE LADY MARGARET" (DANIEL) 

"TO THE PUBLIC", 166. 

TOBACCO: use of t., 15. 

TOIL: remark each anxious t., 44; 
rude, manual t., 175. 

TOLL: never took t. of a mouse, 10. 

"TOM BOWLING", 83. 

TONGUE: not understanded of the Eng- 
lish people, 84. 

TONGUES: gift of t., 20; speaking 
with t., 20; t. in trees, 185. 

TOPHET: in his dwelling place, 100. 

TOPICS: epistolary matter comprises 
three t . , 12. 

TOURISTS, 93. 

TOWN: not yet a peopled and a vulgar 
t., 45. 

TOWN AND COUNTRY CLUB, 227. 

TOWNS: genius brings cheerfulness 
into t. and houses, 39. 

TRADE: every man to his t., 69; see 
Free Trade. 

is suicide, 40; insight 
, 48; our culture is the 
39. 

free from t., 40. 
Nelson at T . , 71. 
hecatombs of private t., 39. 



TRADITION: 
rather than t, 
t . of Europe , 
TRADITIONS 
TRAFALGAR : 
TRAGEDY : 



TRAILING ARBUTUS, 83; Tom Bowling at 
his death became the t-a. , 84. 

TRAIN: thou hast joined the gentle 
t. , 72. 

TRAIT: every t. of beauty purchased 
by hecatombs of private tragedy, 39. 

TRALL, B. T., 64. 

TRANSCENDENTAL POSTULATES, 97. 

TRANSCENDENTALISM: in Hawthorne's 
"The Celestial Railroad", 35. 



TRAPBALL, 13. 

TRAVEL: futility of t., 62. 

TRAVELER: the English t. is always 
highly connected, 92; from whose bourn 
no t. returns, 24. 

TRAVELLER , 85. 

"TRAVELLERS AND INHABITANTS", 92. 

TRAVELLING, 71; the paradise of fools , 
48; the t. author lands on our shores, 
93. 

TRAVELS, 76. 

TREAT, SAMUEL, 206-207. 

TREATISE ON GEOLOGY (PHILLIPS) 

TREE: where fallen t . was not , 7 ; as 
a t. puts forth new branches and leaves, 
18; every t . that bringeth not forth good 
fruit, 44; if I sprouted into a living 
t., 73, 178. 

TREES: trunks of hollowed t., 7; 
tongues in t . , 185; which some mossy 
fruit t. yield, 72. 

TREMONT ROW, 228. 

TRENCHERS, 11. 

TRIA JUNCTO IN UNO, 71. 

TRIANGLE: my side of the t., 60. 

TRIBUNE. See New York Tribune . 

TRIBUNES , 26. 



to the sea, 91. 

let hope rule t . in the 



TRIBUTE: t. 

TRINITY, 33. 

TRIUMPHANT : 
breast, 72. 

TROAS, 35. 

TROJAN HORSE 

TROJAN WAR, 35, 84. 

TROTTER, LIONEL JAMES 
Marquis of Dalhousie , 75. 

TROUBLES : of polygamy , 83. 

TROUT: shooting like mercurial t 



178 



Life of the 



72 



71, 



TROY: siege of T. , 35. 
TRUE-HEARTED: they, the t-h. came 



TRUMPET: a great voice as of a t., 
24; the t. and the drum will sound, 71; 
the t. that sings of fame, 71. 

TRUNKS: of hollowed trees, 7. 

TRUTH, 48; God's impulse to t., 40; 
if the t. is only a poetic dream, 40; 
speak every man t. with his neighbor, 
82. 

TRUTH AND POETRY (GOETHE) 

TSCHUDI, FREDERIC DE : Das Thierleben 
der Alpenwelt , 223; La Vie des Animaux 
dans les Alpe's , 223. 

TUCK, AMOS, 174. 

TUCKER, ALANSON, 163. 



TUCKER, ALANSON, JR.: sang "Carmen 
Saeculare", 165. 

TUCKERMAN'S RAVINE, 96. 

TULIP, 32. 

TUNNEL, 34. 

TURKISH: letter of a T. cadi, 61; 
T. women called "kine of Bashan", 74. 

TURNER , 34. 

TURNER, SHARON: History of the 
Anglo-Saxons , 171. 

TURTLE-DOVE, 45. 

TWIN: conceit of the t. compasses, 



281 



60, 



TWO YEARS AGO (KINGSLEY) 



U 



ULLMANN, CARL: "The Sinless Charac- 
ter of Jesus", 21. 

ULTIMA THULE (CHOLMONDELEY) 

ULYSSES: in the guise of a beggar, 
39. 

UMBAGOG LAKE, 87. 

UNCLES: confined to a particular 
village, 38. 

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD, 81. 

UNDERSTANDED : a tongue not u. of 
the English people, 84. 

UNDERSTANDING: treads fast on the 
neck of his u. , 29; hears sphere music, 
59; let the u. lead the u. , 59. 

UNDONE : what ' s done may be u . , 14 . 

UNFORTUNATE: a wise man will not be 
u., 175. 

UNIMPROVED: But u., Heaven's noblest 
brows are vain, 97. 

UNITARIANISM: described, 47. 

UNITED STATES CENSUS OFFICE, 70. 

UNITED STATES MAGAZINE AND DEMOCRATIC 
REVIEW, 2/, 35. 



UNITY : 
ing u . , 48 . 

UNIVERSAL: a u. soul breathes in 
the atmosphere, 39. 

UNIVERSAL MAN, 43. 

UNIVERSE: is eternal, 174. 

UNIVERSITY BOOKSTORE, CAMBRIDGE, 
166. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, 231. 

UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, 212. 

UNLICE NSED MEDICINE (WILKINSON) 

UNLIKE 
63. 



in the presence of the u., 
the gods are commonly 



UNRECOGNIZED : 
u. by men, 19. 

UNWILLING: be u. to do many things, 
191. 

UNWRINKLED: pan of u. cream, 82. 

URANIA, 43. 

USE: things taught him their u. , 
19. 

USURPATION OF THE SENATE (SUMNER) 



to 
70. 

the 



Shakespeare accused of lack- v 



VACATION: disadvantage of a two 
years ' v. , 39. 

VACUUM: the spirit abhors a v. more 
than nature, 26. 

VAIN: noblest brows are v., 97; 
take the name of any disease in v., 

VALE: No sun with plenty crowns 
uncultured v., 97. 

VALLAND INGHAM, MR., 99-100. 

VALLEY OF GEHENNA, 100. 

VALOR: of great v. is, 36. 

VAN BENTHUY, CHARLES, SR. , 213. 

VANE, SIR HARRY, 50. 

"VANITY OF HUMAN WISHES" (JOHNSON) 

"VARIOUS MEANS OF PUBLIC INFLUENCE" 
(THOREAU) 

VEGETABLE: v. poisons, 15. 

VEGETATION: first forms of, 105; 
insects injurious to v., 85. 

VENTURES: or lose our v., 26. 

VENUS, 16. 

VERNAL EQUINOX, 15. 

VERSE: why the Priestess ceases to 
deliver her oracles in v., 11. 

VERY, JONES, 32, 227. 

VESSEL: an ozier bough were v. safe 
enough, 11; manufacturing a v. in minia- 
ture , 7 . 

VESSELS: Let us not be danglers upon 
God but v. of God, 31; v. of wrath, 91; 
v. simply constructed, 7. 

VICO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, 55. 

VICTORIA, QUEEN: bells ringing for 
her birthday, 84. 

VIDES UT ALTA...SORACTE , 16, 74. 

VIE PES ANIMAUX DANS LES ALPES , LA 
(TSCHUDI) 

VIENNA, 38. 

VIEW: let observation with extensive 
44. 



VIEW OF, 



.THE HINDOOS , A (WARD) 
aesthetic v. , 38. 



VILLAGES : 

VILLEMAIN, ABEL FRANCOIS, 42. 

VIRGIL, 103; best commentary on, 7; 
Aeneid, 74, 91; Bucolics , 9; Eclogues , 
17, 43; Georgicorum Libri Quattuor , 9"; 
Georgics , 7-8, 17, 26; Publius Virgilius 
Maro Varietate Lectionis et Perpetua 
Adnotatione , 7~. 

VISHNU PURANA , 202. 

VISION: baseless fabric of a v. , 56. 

VISIT: Abraham receives a v. from 
his gods, 19. 

VITA SC RITTA DA ESSO (ALFIERI) 

VOICE: 



24. 

VOIGTLAND 
VOLATILE: 
VOLCANO : 

flue, 99. 

VOLTAIRE, 



I heard behind me a great v, 



40. 

Nature is v. , 74. 
with an ordinary chimney - 

41, 49; Candide, 96. 



282 



VOLUME: an old v. from a London 
bookshop, 27. 

VOMITING, 91. 

VOTE: counting the v., 99. 

VOX: si v. non faucibus haeserit, 
16. 

VOYAGES, 76; v. on that river- -the 
water of life, 72. 

VOYAGES DE DECOUVERTE AU CANADA... PAR 
JACQUES QUARTIER ET AL , iW. 

VOYAGES DE LA NOUVELLE FRANCE (CHAM- 
PLAIN5 

VOYAGES DU SIEUR DE CHAMPLAIN, 186. 

VULGARIA (STANbrIDGE) 



W 



WADE, J. S.: "The Friendship of Two 
Old-Time Naturalists", 76. 

WAISTBANDS: lifting oneself by one's 
own w. , 61. 

WAITERS: are they not patient w. , 



73. 

WAKEMAN, STEPHEN H. , 228, 232. 

WALCOTT, R. F., 227. 

WALDEN POND, 16, 77, 104, 183, 185. 

WALK: night in which no man can w. , 
87. 

WALKER, TOM, 60. 

"WALKING", 190. 

WALKS: amid thy desert w. , 87. 

WALKS AND TALKS (OLMSTED) 

WALLER, EDMUND: "Of the Last Verses 
in the Book", 105. 

WALTON, IZAAK, 65. 

WANTLEY: Dragon of W. , 95, 178. 

WAR, 67, 98. 

WAR, THE (RUSSELL) 

WARD, JUDGE, 164. 

WARD, SAMUEL G., 227. 

WARD, WILLIAM: A View of... the Hin- 



doos, 61 . 

WARE, JOHN, 28. 

WARNER, R. , 218. 

WARNING: from the Fates, 35. 

WARREN, JOHN COLLINS, 164. 

WASHINGTON, COLONEL, 100. 

WATCH, 38. 

WATER, 74; sweeter when it was down, 
59; tasted bitterish, 59; cold w. cure, 
14; w. to wash the feet, 24; living on 
w. , 34; shallow w. in the Red Sea, 66; 
living w. , 72; that river is the w. of 
life, 72; glad to have drunk w. so long, 
83. 

WATERS: are to the palate bitter, 
59; drink the w. of the Styx, 18. 

WATSON, MARSTON, 97. 

WAY: the w. seems difficult and 
steep to scale, 23; staying at home is 
the heavenly w. , 35, 174; going out is 
the w. of the world, 174; the true w. 
is by day-labor, 175; the w. seems steep 



and difficult, 23. 

WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES, 217. 

WEALTH: the w. of Ormus and of Ind , 
71; he who would bring home the w. of 
the Indies, 71; if here is not the w. of 
the Indies, 71; poor in the midst of 
great w. , 74. 

WEALTHY: patronage of the w. , 175. 

WEARS: she w. the gentle name of 
Spring, 72. 

WEARY: let us not be w. in well do- 
ing, 13. 

WEATHER-WISE: some are w-w. , 37. 

WEBSTER, D. F., 163. 

WEBSTER, DANIEL, 164; his head, 70. 

WEBSTER, NATHAN, 172. 

WEBSTER, NOAH: An American Diction - 
ary , 59-60. 

WEEDS, 19. 

WEISS, JOHN L. , 227. 

WEISS -NICHT -WO, 95. 

WELL: to let w. alone, 36. 

WELL DOING: persevere in w-d., 13. 

WEST INDIES, 95. 

"WEST INDIES, THE" (MONTGOMERY) 

WEST POINT CADETS, 100. 

WESTERN: Death rides the billows of 
the w. gale, 97. 

WESTMINSTER REVIEW , 76. 

WESTON, CAROLINE, 172. 

WESTON, E., JR., 163. 

WESTPORT, MASSACHUSETTS, 92. 

WESTWARD HO I (KINGSLEY) 

WHALES, /. 

"WHAT IS BEAUTY?" (CHILD) 

"WHAT WE ARE WITHIN THAT ONLY CAN WE 
SEE WITHOUT", 97. 

WHEAT, 39. 

WHIP: pretence to w. a dog, 60. 

WHIPPLE, CHARLES K. , 172, 179, 227. 

WHIPPLE, EDWIN P., 227. 

WHIRLWIND: reaping the w. , 66. 

WHITE: sins w. as snow, 57. 

WHITE, WILLIAM: "Three Unpublished 
Thoreau Letters", 182, 207, 210. 

WHITE MOUNTAINS, 96. 

WHITEFIELD, GEORGE, 94. 

WHITING, WILLIAM, JR.: superintendent 
of Sabbath School, 18. 

WHITMAN, WALT: favorite words of, 
73; does not speak to Englishmen in a 
tongue they can understand, 84; "Cross- 
ing Brooklyn Ferry", 73; Leaves of Grass , 
73; "Sun Down Poem", 73. 

WHITMORE, WILLIAM H. , 9. 

WHITTEMORE, T. J., 85. 

WHITTIER, JOHN GREENLEAF, 32, 232; 
"The Human Sacrifice", 35; Poems Written 
During the Progress of the Abolition 
Question , 13. 

WHOLE: for thou art w. , 45. 

WTCKLIFFE, CHARLES A., 91. 

WIDENER, HARRY ELKINS, 175, 194. 

WIDOW'S MITE, 41. 



20-22, 24. 
"A Key into the 



WIFE: every man has such a w. 
his w. changed her mind, 83. 

WIFE FOR A MONTH , A (FLETCHER) 

WILCOX, J. W. , 2017 207. 

"WILD APPLES" (THOREAU) 

WILDNESS, 223. 

WILEY, BENJAMIN B., 61, 91, 215. 

WILHELM MEISTER (GOETHE) 

WILHELM MEISTER'S WANDERJAHRE (GOETHE) 

WILKINS, CHARLES, 201. 

WILKINSON, JAMES JOHN GARTH: his as- 
sault on allopathy, 69; Unlicensed Medi - 
cine , 69. 

WILL: such the w. of Jove, 24; were 
it the W. of Heaven, 11; his mere w. and 
good pleasure, 44; according to the good 
pleasure of his w. , 44; promptings of 
the w. , 82. 

WILLARD'S HOTEL, CAMBRIDGE, 166. 

"WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING", 72. 

"WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING" (BANCROFT) 

"WILLIAM WHITING, SR." (HOAR) 

WILLIAMS, HENRY, 225, 233. 

WILLIAMS, HENRY, JR., 181. 

WILLIAMS, HENRY W. , 172, 

WILLIAMS, ISAIAH T. 

WILLIAMS, ROGER: 
Language of America", 225, 

WILLIS, NATHANIEL PARKER, 32. 

WILLOWS: hanged our harps upon the 
w. , 15. 

WILSON, 99. 

WILSON, ALEXANDER, 65; Americ an 
Ornithology , 58. 

WILSON, HORACE HAYMAN, 202. 

WIND: sowing the w. , 66; banks are 
reeds shaken by the w. , 87 ; God tempers 
the w. to the shorn lamb, 105. 

WINDS: as flowers know the w. that 
stir their leaves, 45. 

WINE: better drink w. than blood, 
Ik. 

WING: hope springs exulting on tri- 
umphant w. , 72. 

WINGS : where Time doth plume his 
w., 26. 

WINKELRIED, ARNOLD VON, 50; alias 
for Amos Bronson Alcott , 25. 

WINSLOW, : View of Bath , 11. 

WINTERTON, RALPH, 26. 

WINTHR0P, R. C, 163. 

WISDOM: no w. equal unto the be- 
lief in God, 62; by his superior w. the 
scholar should make less suffice for 
him, 17 5. 

WISE: a w. man will not be unfortu- 
nate, 175; where that which is w. in you 
resides, 191; some w. and some other- 
wise, 37. 

WISE, HENRY ALEXANDER: Governor of 
Virginia , 99-100, 178. 

WISE MAN: on only salutation fit 
for the w-m. , 28; w-m. of yesterday and 
today, 48. 



283 

83; WISE MEN, 20; of Gotham, 9-11. 

WISELY: if he will live simply and 
w. , 57 . 

WISER: scholar professes to be a 
little w. than the mass of men, 175. 

WIT: people suffering from too much 
w. , 39; where w. and gaiety never come, 
73. 

WITCH, 19. 

WITHAM, GEORGE WILLIAM, 211. 

WITHIN: what we are w. , 97; primi- 
tive mounts w. you, 70. 

WITHOUT 



97 



WIVES: 

WOLSEY, 

WOMAN: 



that only can we see w. , 

83. 



most men have two w. 
THOMAS, 7k. 

old w. who lived under a 
hill, 10; the old Bobbin w. was steady 
to her Bible, 73; light of a dark eye 
in w. , 22. 

WOMEN: health of w. , 15; Turkish w. 
called "kine of Bashan", 7k. 

WONDERFUL: yogin hears w. things, 
58. 

WOOD: he went to the gods of the w. 
185. 



deacon in Concord, 17. 
JR.: "Memoir of Elijah 



WOOD, ELIJAH: 

WOOD, ELIJAH, 
Wood", 17. 

WOOD, HORATIO G. , 172. 

WOOD -NOTES WILD, 59. 

WOODPILE: if there is a w. in the 
yard, 39. 

WOODS : a noble strain that reached 
these w. , 71; railroad has browsed off 
all the w. , 178. 

WOOL: they shall be as w. , 57; thou 
owest the sheep no w. , 13. 

WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS: Thoreau 
delivered "Autumnal Tints" there, 178; 
Thoreau lectures at, 187. 

WORD: to bring their w 

WORD OF GOD, 84. 

WORD-PLAY, 12. 

WORDS: they made his w 
19; utter the w. they have 
heaven, 19. 

WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM, 18; philosopher 
and priest of Nature, 73; Emerson re- 
sembles W. , 47; De Quincey's reminis- 
cences of W. , 83; "Ode on Intimations of 
Immortality", 44-45, 72; The Excursion , 
60; "The World is too Much With Us", 66. 

WORK, 61; they take off their coats 
and go to w. , 39; our w. is imposed by 
the soil and the sea, 39; educated above 
the w. of their times and country, 39; 
postponement of one's proper w. , 39; an 
honest book's the noblest w. of man, 17; 
the noblest w. of God, 17; few can w. on 
their navels, 61; I must w. the works of 
him that sent me, 87; the night cometh 
when no man can w. , 87; perhaps we must 
go to w. , 39. 



to man, 185 



, their law, 
heard in 



284 



WORKING: at what one can do, 187. 

WORKS: the w. of him that sent me, 
87; the certain fruit of their w. , 58; 
a power which w. by a prodigality of 
life and force, 39. 

WORKS OF SIR WILLIAM JONES , THE, 21. 

WORLD: is too much with us , 66 ; to 
gain the whole w. , 60; heaven sends its 
insane angels into our w. , 19; going out 
is the way of the w. , 174; affairs of 
this w. , 46; how the w. is projected, 
55; gains the whole w. and loses his own lence, 61 
soul, 188; heart set to be the centre of YOGI: 



YANKEES, 65. 

YARD: if there is a woodpile in the 
y., 39. 

YEAR: even after the tenth y., 35. 
YEARS: nor the y. draw nigh, 22; ten 
y. of siege, 35; provoke the y. to bring 
the inevitable yoke, 45 . 
YEAST. See Leaven. 

that mighty Y. prophet, 39. 
practicing the y. , 58. 
purifies his mind by benevo- 



YEZDAM: 
YOGA: 
YOGEE : 



this w. , 60; relating to affairs of the 



YOGIN: 



Y. practices, 61. 
absorbed in contemplation, 58; 



present w. , 60; the w. of spirits is not contributes to creation, 58; is animat- 



closed, 48; largest ship in the w. , 85; 
on the deck of the w. , 91. 

WORM: thou owest the- w. no silk, 13. 

WORMS: exhibited by Durkee , 85. 

WORSE: times must be w. before they 
are better, 39. 

WRATH: vessels of w. , 91. 

WRECK: build a bark out of that w. , 



59, 



70, 



WREKEN: a mountain near Shrewsbury, 



WRIGHT, 
WRIGHT, 
WRIGHT, 
WRITE: 



ELIZUR, 227. 
HENRY C., 64, 227 



HENRY G. 



171-172, 178. 



w. with fury and correct with 
phlegm, 233; look in your heart and w. , 
49. 

WRONGS: of the Indian, Negro, and 
emigrant, 39. 



X Y Z 

XANTHUS, 35. 

"XERI, OR A DAY IN BATAVIA" , 28. 



YANKEE : 



is not a necessitarian, 38. 



ing original matter, 58; divine forms 
traverse the y. without tearing him, 58. 

YOKE: provoke the years to bring the 
inevitable y., 45. 

YORE : in days of y . , 7 . 

YOUNG: the gods love those who die 
y., 35. 

YOUNG, ALEXANDER: Chronicles of the 
Pilgrim Fathers , 188. 

YOUNG, ARTHUR: on husbandry, 78. 

YOUNG MAN'S GUIDE , THE (ALCOTT) 

YOUNG MEN: paralysis of their active 
faculties, 39. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN UNION, 98. 

YOUNG MOTHER (ALCOTT) 

YOUNG WIFE (ALCOTT ) 

YOUTH : ceases to aspire, 32; in the 
days of thy y., 22; unbalanced intel- 
lectuality of American y., 39. 

YOUTHEID: the rage of y. may nocht 
dantit be, 23. 

YSLETA, TEXAS, 7. 

ZAHAHRAH, 63. 

ZAHIR UD-DIN MUHAMMAD: Memoirs , 75. 

ZENON, 48. 

ZOROASTRIAN, 104. 












^iP' 4$$* 






285 

BOOKS THOREAU BORROWED FROM HARVARD COLLEGE 

LIBRARY * 



The energy of American scholarship has not yet been turned fully upon 
Thoreau largely, perhaps, because so much yet remains to be done with 
Emerson, but a decade or two hence one may expect to find the works of 
the hermit of Walden investigated by careful editors, and his reading 
scrutinized for its many influences upon his writing and character. Signs 
of an awakening are evident in Professor Adams' monograph on Thoreau's 
choice of bocks through 1841, 1 and in Professor Utley's portrayal of 
Thoreau's study methods as demonstrated in the use of Columella. 2 As far 
as I have been able to determine, however, apart from the evidence in 
Utley's paper scholars have either neglected the bibliographical help which 
the Harvard College charging lists provide or considered the records too 
difficult to be quickly or easily analyzed in an investigation of limited scope. 
That such an aid cannot be long ignored will become increasingly apparent 
as the field attracts more students, and in publishing it now I hope to help 
those now distant from Boston and those who later may work intensively 
in the Concord group. To include such records in a volume on Emerson is 
not undesirable. Lines of research in the works of both Americans tend to 
converge at so many points that it is wise, especially in matters of bibli- 
ography, to recognize the interrelations. 

Besides examining the published writings for clues to literary and 
philosophical influences, the future editor will quickly turn to the inventory 
which Thoreau made of his library in 1840, the original manuscript of 
which is now preserved in the Henry E. Huntington Library. 3 It was tran- 
scribed and printed, but not thoroughly edited, by F. B. Sanborn in 1917, 4 
and must later be rehandled before it can be made permanently useful as 
a work of reference. Next in importance should be the Harvard charging 
lists, which appear in the following pages. I have discussed elsewhere the 
condition of the manuscripts in the university archives and mentioned the 
tools with which one must work in unraveling the tangled and abbreviated 
entries. 5 With one's equipment must go a measure of Job's patience, for the 
difficulties often appear insuperable. The fact that the set of Harvard 
Library shelf lists is incomplete (especially as regards a shelving system 
employing such designations as "A.4.3" and "B.3.1") has been especially 
troublesome in the present research and accounts for a few gaps, fortun- 
ately not serious. The record here is rich and interesting, and will speak 
for itself. It is, perhaps, superfluous to say that the books which Harvard 



'See Raymond Adams, "Thoreau's Literary Apprenticeship," S P, XXIX (1932), 
617-629. 

2 See Francis L. Utley, "Thoreau and Columella : A Study in Reading Habits," N E Q, 
XI (1938), 171-180. See also Arthur Christy, "A Thoreau Fact-Book," Colophon, part 
XVI (March, 1934). 

8 Listed under "HM 945" as Index Rerum, a signed holograph manuscript of thirty- 
eight leaves. 

* See Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life of Henry David Thoreau, Boston & N.Y., 1917, 
pp. 505 et seq. 

B See Cameron, Emerson's Reading, pp. 12-13. 

* Reprinted from Enoraon the Essayist. (2 rol». ) Raleigh, N. C # , 1945, rel. 

II, 191-20S. 



286 

Harvard College Library 

furnished Thoreau between 1849 and 1860 helped him to keep his heart "in 

the Highlands" of Canada, England, Wales and Switzerland to 

name only a few countries in which his mind chose to wander, and that as 
he roamed thither as on by-paths, he always arrived in the end at a satis- 
fying rediscovery of his own beloved Concord. 



Sept. 3 


( 


1) 


Sept. 11 


( 


2) 


Sept. 18 


( 


3) 


Sept. 18 


( 


4) 


Sept. 25 


( 


5) 


Sept. 25 


( 


6) 


Oct. 2 


( 


7) 



1833' 

Butler, The life of Erasmus, with historical remarks 
Hall, Travels in Canada and the U. S. in 1816 and 1817 
Banks, History of the life and reign of Peter the Great 
Marmontel, Moral tales, translated from the French (1) 
Cox, Adventures on the Columbia River . . . among Indians 
McKenney, Sketches of a tour to the Lakes 
"France" "2.4.7" [unidentified] (1,2) 2 

18 3 4 

Irving, Life and voyages of Christopher Columbus (1,2,3,4) 
Irving, Companions of Columbus' 

Harwood, Grecian antiquities: An account of the Greeks* 
Fisk, Greek exercises, containing substance of syntax 
Irving, Chronicle of Conquest of Grenada (1,2) 
Cleveland, An epitome of Grecian antiquities 
Child, Hobomok, a tale [and] The Rebels 
Barney, Biographical memoir of Com. Joshua Barney 
Cochrane, Journal of residence and travels in Columbia (1) 
al-Asma'i, Antar, a Bedoueen romance (Part I) (1,2,3) 
Bullock, Six months' residence and travels in Mexico (2) 
Gray, The vestal, or A tale of Pompeii 
Knox, Elegant extracts, or useful . . . pieces of poetry (1) 
"Lewis & Clapperton" "10.1.4"" [unidentified] (1) 
Wilson, Memoirs of life and times of Daniel De Foe (1) 
Goldsmith, History of England (with continuation) (1,2) 
Sigourney, [? Traits of the aborigines of America] 
Mills, History of the crusades for the . . . Holy Land (1) 
Marshall, History of the colonies . . . of North America 
Bailey, Essays on formation and publication of opinions 
Grimani, New and improved grammar of Italian language 
Barrow, A voyage to Cochinchina in 1792 and 1793 



1 See first footnote to the list of Emerson's reading for an introduction to editorial 
method. 

' The margin reads : "C. S. Wheeler for Thoreau." 

" In the margin : "A. G. Peabody for Thoreau." 

* In the margin : "A. G. Peabody." 

5 1 surmise that the volume referred to consisted of a work by Meriwether Lewis and 
another by Hugh Clapperton, though I have no positive evidence. Clapperton published 
his Journal of a second expedition into the interior of Africa in London, 1829. 



Jan. 8 


( 8) 


Jan. 22 


( 9) 


Jan. 29 


( 10) 


Feb. 5 


( ID 


Feb. 12 


( 12) 


Feb. 12 


( 13) 


Feb. 19 


( 14) 


Mar. 5 


( 15) 


Mar. 5 


( 16) 


Mar. 12 


( 17) 


Mar. 19 


( 18) 


Mar. 26 


( 19) 


Apr. 23 


( 20) 


Apr. 23 


( 21) 


Apr. 30 


( 22) 


Apr. 30 


( 23) 


May 7 


( 24) 


May 28 


( 25) 


June 10 


( 26) 


Sept. 16 


( 27) 


Sept. 16 


( 28) 


Sept. 30 


( 29) 



£87 



Thoreau's Book Borrowings 



Waddington, Journal of visit to part* of Ethiopia 

Treasury of knowledge and library of reference (1,2) 

Metastasio, Dramas and other poems (tr. Hoole) (1) 

Southey, "A.13.6" or "A.16.6'" (15) 

Rollin, Ancient history of the Egyptians (1) 

Hederich, Lexicon manuale Graecum 

Morrell (Mrs. Abby or Benjamin ?), Narrative 

Wines, Two years and a half in the navy (1) 

18 3 5 

Dumont, Recollections of Mirabeau 

Ranking, Historical researches on . . . Peru, Mexico etc. 

Racine, CEuvres (1,2) 

Euripides, Alcestis (Wagner) ; Ion (Hulsemann) 

Burgh, The dignity of human nature etc. (2) 

Langtoft, Chronicle . . . improv'd by Robert of Brunne (1) 

Goldsmith, Miscellaneous works (3) 

Edinburgh review (35,48) 

Shakespeare, The Plays of William Shakespeare (1,3,4) 

Godwin, Life of Geoffrey Chaucer (1,2) 

Scapula, Lexicon Grseco-Latinum 

Peirce, A history of Harvard University 

Rollin, Ancient history of the Egyptians (1 + Atlas) 

Homerus, Ilias cum brevi annotatione (Heyne) (1) 

Chaucer, The Canterbury tales of Chaucer (1,2,5) 

Tucker, The light of nature pursued (2) 

Wilson, American ornithology (5)' 

Grimani, New and improved grammar of Italian language 

Rollin, Ancient history of the Egyptians (3) 

Rollin, Ancient history of the Egyptians (4,5,6,7,8) 

18 3 6 

Metastasio, Dramas and other poems (tr. Hoole) (1) 

Chateaubriand, CEuvres completes (6) 

Homerus, The Iliads and Odysses (tr. Tho. Hobbes) 

Chateaubriand, GSuvres completes (7) 

Anville, [Complete body of ancient geography]' 

Schlegel, Lectures on the history of literature (1) 

Peirce, A history of Harvard University 

Coleridge, Introductions to Greek classic poets (Pt.I) 

Schlegel, Lectures on the history of literature (2) 

North American Review (9) 



"Apparently the Harvard Library had its own arrangement for the miscellaneous 
volumes of Robert Southey's poetry and prose. I have been unable to discover it. 

7 Margin reads: "Stearns." 

'The shelf-list calls it: "Atlas of Ancient Geography." See "Rollin" in the Bibli- 
ography for another possibility. 



Sept. 30 


( 30) 


Oct. 7 


( 31) 


Oct. 14 


( 32) 


Oct. 14 


( 33) 


Oct. 21 


( 34) 


Oct. 28 


( 35) 


Nov. 11 


( 36) 


Nov. 11 


( 37) 


Jan. 13 


( 38) 


Jan. 13 


( 39) 


Jan. 20 


( 40) 


Feb. 10 


( 41) 


Feb. 17 


( 42) 


Feb. 24 


( 43) 


Mar. 3 


( 44) 


Mar. 17 


( 46) 


Apr. 21 


( 46) 


May 5 


( 47) 


June 9 


( 48) 


June 16 


( 49) 


Sept. 3 


( 60) 


Sept. 3 


( 61) 


Sept. 3 


( 62) 


Sept. 17 


( 53) 


Sept. 28 


( 54) 


Oct. 5 


( 55) 


Oct. 29 


( 56) 


Nov. 5 


( 57) 


Apr. 28 


( 58) 


Apr. 28 


( 59) 


Apr. 28 


( 60) 


May 5 


( 61) 


Sept. 5 


( 62) 


Sept. 5 


( 63) 


Sept. 6 


( 64) 


Sept. 15 


( 65) 


Oct. 3 


( 66) 


Oct. 13 


( 67) 



Harvard College Library 



Oct. 27 
Oct. 27 
Nov. 10 
Dec. 5 



Jan. 9 
Jan. 9 
Jan. 12 
Jan. 16 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 25 
Jan. 30 
Feb. 6 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 20 
Mar. 9 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 23 
Mar. 23 
Mar. 30 
Mar. 30 
Apr. 24 
Apr. 24 
Apr. 27 
Apr. 27 
May 18 
May 25 
June 1 
June 22 
June 22 
June 26 
June 26 



( 68) 
( 69) 
( 70) 
( 71) 



72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 



Nov. 


29 


( 99) 


Nov. 


29 


(100) 


Nov. 


29 


(101) 


Nov. 


29 


(102) 


Nov. 


30 


(103) 


Nov. 


30 


(104) 


Dec. 


1 


(105) 


Dec. 


1 


(106) 


Dec. 


1 


(107) 


Dec. 


2 


(108) 


Dec. 


2 


(109) 


Dec. 


6 


(HO) 



Milton, Poetical works of John Milton (ed. Todd) (1,5,6) 

"Notes on Milton" "B.11.5" [unidentified] 

Cowper, Works (3) 

Milton, The prose worka of John Milton (Symmons) (7) 

18 3 7 

[Chalmers, The works of the] English poets (3) 

Bailey, Essays on formation and publication of opinions 

Cox, Adventures on the Columbia River . . . among Indiana 

Brackenridge, Journal of voyage up the river Missouri 

Brosses, Terra australis cognita: or Voyages (1) 

Goldsmith, The Roman history (2) 

The Gentleman's magazine (n.s.,5) 

Milton, Poetical works of John Milton (ed. Todd) (5) 

Milton, The prose works of John Milton (Symmons) (7) 

Audubon, Ornithological biography (1,2,3) 

Campbell, Specimens of the British poets (1) 

[Chalmers, The works of the] English poets (1) 

Hazlitt, Lectures on the English poets 

Burke, Philosophical enquiry into . . . sublime and beautiful 

Say, Poems . . . and two critical essays 

Johnson, Lives of the most eminent English poets (1) 

Back, Narrative of the Arctic land expedition 

Gray, Poems of Mr. Gray (ed. Mason) (1,2,3,4) 

Milton, [Complete collection (Toland) or Works (Birch)] (1) 

Constant de Rebecque, De la religion (1) 

Smith, Introd. to physiological and systematical botany 

Ritson, Robin Hood: a collection (1) 

Constant de Rebecque, De la religion (2,3) 

Conybeare, Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon poetry 

Bosworth, Elements of Anglo-Saxon grammar 

Sibbald, Chronicle of Scottish poetry (2) 

Nepos, Vitae excellentium imperatorum (Clarke) 

18 4 1 

Poetical Tracts [A miscellaneous collection] 
Turner, History of the Anglo-Saxons 
Conybeare, Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon poetry 
Chalmers, The works of the English poets (21) 
Warton, The history of English poetry (1,2,3,4) 
Chaucer, The Canterbury tales of Chaucer (1) 
Brand, Observations on popular antiquities (1,2) 
Hoccleve, Poems never before printed 
Brooke, Certaine learned and elegant workes (1633) 
Evans, Old ballads, historical and narrative (1,2,3,4) 
Headley, Select beauties of ancient English poetry (1,2) 
Chalmers, The works of the English poets (2,4) 



289 



Thoreau's Book Borrowings 



Dec. 


6 


(HI) 


Dec. 


7 


(112) 


Dec. 


7 


(113) 


Dec. 


8 


(114) 


Dec. 


8 


(115) 


Dec. 


8 


(116) 


Dec. 


8 


(117) 


Dec. 


9 


(118) 


Dec. 


9 


(119) 


Dec. 


10 


(120) 


Dec. 


10 


(121) 


Dec. 


10 


(122) 



Sept. 


11 


(123) 


Sept. 


11 


(124) 


Nov. 


5 


(125) 


Nov. 


5 


(126) 


Nov. 


5 


(127) 



Jan. 28 
Jan. 28 
Jan. 28 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 26 
Oct. 28 
Oct. 28 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 18 
Dec. 27 



(128) 
(129) 
(130) 
(131) 
(132) 
(133) 
(134) 
(135) 
(136) 
(137) 
(138) 



Jan. 


14 


(139) 


Jan. 


14 


(140) 


Jan. 


14 


(141) 


Jan. 


27 


(142) 


Feb. 


10 


(143) 


Feb. 


10 


(144) 


Apr. 


30 


(145) 


Apr. 


30 


(146) 


June 


2 


(147) 



Ritson, Ancient English metrical romances (1,2,3) 

Hartshorne, Ancient metrical tales 

Park, Helconia; poetry of the Elizabethan age (2) 

Edwards, The paradise of dainty devices 

Jamieson, Popular ballads and songs (1,2) 

Carew, Selection from poetical works of Thos. Carew 

James I., The works of James I, king of Scotland 

Keach, The glorious lover: a divine poem 

Bendlowes, Theophila, or Loves sacrifice 

Raleigh, The works of Sir Walter Raleigh kt. (8) 

Sidney, The works of ... in prose and verse (1,2,3) 

Sibbald, Chronicle of Scottish poetry (1,2,3,4) 

18 4 9 

Mahabharata, Harwansa, ou Histoire de la famille (1,2) 
Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la litterature hindoui 
Pratt, History of Eastham, Wellfleet and Orleans 
Rafn et al., [Six tracts]* 
Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections (? ser., 3) 

18 5 

Visnu-Purana, The Vishnu Purdna (tr. Wilson) 
Icvara Krsna, The Sdnkhya Kdrikd, or Memorial verses 
Jones, Works, with life of the author by Teignmouth (9) 
Sama Veda. Translation of the Sanhita (Stevenson) 
Ramamohana Raya, Trans, of . . . passages . . . of the Veds 
Galbraith, Mathematical and astronomical tables 
Champlain, Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1603-1629) 
Voyages de decouverte au Canada (par Quartier et al.) 
Champlain, Voyages du sieur de Champlain (1613) 
Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle-France (1,2) 
Champlain, Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1603-1629) 

18 5 1 

Laet, Novus orbis, seu Descriptionis India Occidentalis 
Michaux, The North American sylva (1) 
Josselyn, New Englands rarities discovered 
Young, Chronicles of the Pilgrim fathers 
Hawkins, Plan of the city of Quebec etc. 
Silliman, Short tour between Hartford and Quebec 
Bigelow, American medical botany (1,2,3,4,5,6) 
Michaux, The North American sylva (2,3) 
Michaux, Voyage a Vouest des monts Alleghanys 



* The charging list reads: "Rafn, Amer. discov" by Northmen 
ography. The title, "Six Tracts," is taken from the shelf-list. 



AR17". See bibli- 



Aug. 


11 


(148) 


Aug. 


11 


(149) 


Nov. 


5 


(150) 


Nov. 


5 


(151) 


Nov. 


5 


(152) 


Feb. 


2 


(153) 


Feb. 


2 


(154) 


Mar. 


16 


(155) 


Mar. 


16 


(156) 


Mar. 22 


(157) 


Mar. 24 


(158) 


May 


24 


(159) 


May 


24 


(160) 


May 


24 


(161) 


July 26 


(162) 


July 


26 


(163) 


Oct. 


5 


(164) 


Oct. 


5 


(165) 


Oct. 


5 


(166) 


Nov. 


11 


(167) 


Dec. 


30 


(168) 


Feb. 


9 


(169) 


Feb. 


9 


(170) 


Feb. 


9 


(171) 


Nov. 


28 


(172) 


Nov. 


28 


(173) 


Nov. 


28 


(174) 


Jan. 


19 


(175) 


Jan. 


19 


(176) 


Jan. 


19 


(177) 


Mar. 


13 


(178) 


Mar. 


13 


(179) 


Mar. 


13 


(180) 


May 


9 


(181) 


May 


9 


(182) 


May 


9 


(183) 


Oct. 


9 


(184) 


Oct. 


26 


(185) 


Dec. 


7 


(186) 


Dec. 


7 


(187) 


Dec. 


7 


(188) 



290 

Harvard College Library 

New York Historical Society, Collections of . . . (II.l) 

Kalm, Travels in North America (1,2,3) 

Stover, The life of Sir Charles Linnseus 

Charlevoix, Histoire etc. de la Nouvelle France (1,2,3) 

Pulteney, Gen'l view of the writings of Linnseus 

18 5 2 

Linne, Caroli Linnsei . . . Philosophia botanica 

Lahontan, Voyages du baron de La Hontan 

Acharius, Methodus qua omnes detectos lichenes 

Talbot, Five years' residence in the Canadas (1,2) 

Gilpin, Remarks on forest scenery (1,2) 

Richardson, Fauna boreali-americana 

Gilpin, Observations . . . Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk Ac. 

Gilpin, Observations on the river Wye . . . South Wales Ac. 

Linne, Caroli Linnsei . . . Amoenitates academicae (2) 

Gilpin, Observations . . . Cumberland and Westmoreland (1,2) 

Gilpin, Observations . . . High-lands of Scotland (1,2) 

Gilpin, Observations on western parts of England 

Jesuit Relation for 1633 

Jesuit Relation for 1634 

Jesuit Relation for 1635 and 1636 

Jesuit Relation for 1637 and 1638 

18 5 3 

Smith, Generall historie of Virginia, New-England etc. 
Bry, Collectiones peregrinationum in Indiam Occident. 
Jesuit Relation for 1640 

Gilpin, Observations . . . Hampshire, Sussex and Kent 
Gilpin, Three essays: On picturesque beauty etc. 
Jesuit Relation for 1640-1641, and for 1642 

18 5 4 

Price, Essays on the picturesque etc. (1) 
McCulloh, Researches on America . . . the aborigines 
Josselyn, Account of two voyages to New-England 
Agassiz, Etudes sur les glaciers (with atlas) 
Johnson, A history of New-England 
Shepard, The clear sun-shine of the gospel breaking 
Heckewelder, Narrative of the mission of United Brethren 
Chambers, Ancient sea-margins as memorials of changes 
Tanner, Narrative of captivity and adventures 
Bhagvat-geeta, or Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon 
Visnu-Purana, The Vishnu Purdna (tr. Wilson) 
Hunter, Memoirs of a captivity among the Indians 
Colden, History of the five Indian nations of Canada 
Jesuit Relation for 1639 



ftl 



Thoreau's Book Borrowings 

Dec. 7 (189) Schoolcraft, Information respecting . . . Indian tribes (4) 

Dec. 25 (190) Wood, New-England's prospect; being a . . . description 

Dec. 25 (191) Sagard-Theodat, Le grand voyage du pays des Huron* 

18 5 5 

Jan. 16 (192) Bewick, History of British birds 

Jan. 16 (193) Sagard-Theodat, Histoire du Canada 

Sept. 4 (194) Champlain, Voyages de la Nouvelle France (1603-1629) 

Sept. 4 (196) Champlain, Voyages du sieur de Champlain (1613) 

Sept. 4 (196) Sophocles, The Antigone in Greek and English 

Sept. 17 (197) Biddle, A memoir of Sebastian Cabot 

Sept. 17 (198) Am. Philos. Soc., Transac. of the hist, and lit. Comm. 

Dec. 10 (199) Adair, The history of the American Indians 

Dec. 10 (200) Loskiel, History of the mission of the United Brethren 

Dec. 10 (201) Post, The journal of Christian Frederick Post 1 

18 5 6 

Mar. 4 (202) Columella, Husbandry . . . and his Book concerning trees 

Mar. 4 (203) Barton, Burder and Edwards [On Indians]' 

Mar. 4 (204) Cusick, David Cusick's sketches of ancient history 

Mar. 26 (205) Jesuit Relation for 1639; for 1642-1643 

Mar. 26 (206) Bartram, Observations on the inhabitants, climate etc. 

Dec. 22 (207) "Collection of Travels" "40.27" [unidentified]* 

18 5 7 

Jan. 26 (208) "Relation 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26"* 

Jan. 26 (209) [Beverley or Campbell], History of Virginia 

Mar. 2 (210) Morton, New English Canaan . . . abstract of New England 

Mar. 16 (211) Grey, Memoria technica; new method of artificial memory 

18 5 8 

Jan. 13 (212) New York Historical Society, Collections of . . . (II.3) 

Jan. 13 (213) Jesuit Relation for 1662-1663; for 1663-1664 

Feb. 15 (214) Traill, The backwoods of Canada: being letters 

Feb. 15 (215) Sagard-Theodat, Histoire du Canada 

Feb. 15 (216) American Academy, Memoirs of the Am. Acad, of Arts (II.l) 

Apr. 25 (217) "Relations de la Nou." (28,29,30)" 



1 Bound with The Second Journal of Christian Frederick Post etc., London, 1759. 

"The volume which Thoreau borrowed (US 10267.97) contains now as always 
Jonathan Edwards, Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians; Ben- 
jamin S. Barton, New views of the origin of the tribes and nations of America; and 
George Burder, The Welch Indians. 

' Apparently not the work of Churchill, Hakluyt, Harris, Osborne, Pinkerton or Ray. 

1 See "Jesuit Relations" in the Bibliography. 

* See "Jesuit Relations" in the Bibliography. In the margin opposite this line is the 
name of "F. B. Sanborn." 



May 


27 


(218) 


May 


27 


(219) 


Dec. 


7 


(220) 


Dec. 


7 


(221) 


Dec. 


7 


(222) 



Harvard College Library 

Hennepin, Description de la Louisiane (1683) 
Jesuit Relations for 1669-1670; 1670-1671; 1671-1672 
Tonti, Relation de la Louisianne et du Mississipi 
Hennepin, Voyages . . . de . . . Hennepin & de La Borde 
[Dablon,] Relation [of the voyages . . . James} Marquette 

18 5 9 

Higginson, New-Englands plantation (1630) 

Champlain, Des sauvages : Voyage faict en la France nouv 

Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal . . . through N. America 

(1,2) 
Halkett, Historical notes re. Indians of North America 
Wafer, New voyage and descrip. of the isthmus of America 
Penhallow, History of the wars of New-England 
Bossu, Nouveau voyages dans I'Amerique septentrionale 
Bossu, Nouveaux voyages aux Indes Occidentals (1,2) 
Mather, Magnalia Christi americana (1,2) 
Dubuat-Nancay, Principes d'hydraulique (1) 
West, [Two journals bound in one volume.] 
Badham, Treatise on the esculent funguses of England 
Newman, A history of British ferns 

Boucher, Histoire veritable et naturelle . . . du . . . Canada 
Theophrastus, Qecxppaarov Eptaiov ra ou^o/itva (2) 
Aristoteles, Histoire des animaux d'Aristote (1,2) 

18 6 

"C. L. Aeliani" "31.35" [or 31.36] [unidentified] 

Topsell, The historie of foure-footed beastes 

Belon, L'histoire de la nature des oyseaux 

^lianus, De natura animalium libri XVII (Schneider) 

Gosse, The Canadian naturalist 

Cornut, lac. Cornuti . . . Canadensium plantarum . . . historia 

Gerard, The herball, or Generall historie of plantea 

Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia 

Cranz, The history of Greenland (tr. from High Dutch) (1,2) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THOREAU'S READING AT HARVARD 



ACHARIUS, Erik: Methodua qua omnes detectos lichenea, Stockholmias, 1803. [155] 
ADAIR, James : The history of the American Indians . . . containing an account of their 

origin, language, manners, religious and civil customs etc., Londqn, 1775. [199] 
^ELIANUS, Claudius: De natura animalium libri xvii (Greek and Latin, with notes by 

Johann Gottlob Schneider), Lipsiae, 1784. [242] 
jELIANUS, Claudius: (See #239). 
AGASSIZ, Louis (i.e. Jean Louis Rodolphe) : tltudes sur les glaciers. Ouvrage accom- 

pagne d'un atlas, Neuchatel, 1840. [178] 



Jan. 


11 


(223) 


Jan. 


11 


(224) 


Feb. 


28 


(225) 


Feb. 


28 


(226) 


Feb. 


28 


(227) 


Apr. 


26 


(228) 


Apr. 


26 


(229) 


Apr. 


26 


(230) 


Aug. 


15 


(231) 


Aug. 15 


(232) 


Oct. 


6 


(233) 


Oct. 


6 


(234) 


Oct. 


6 


(235) 


Oct. 


6 


(236) 


Dec. 


16 


(237) 


Dec. 


16 


(238) 



Feb. 


6 


(239) 


Feb. 


6 


(240) 


Feb. 


6 


(241) 


Apr. 


9 


(242) 


May 


2 


(243) 


May 


2 


(244) 


Sept. 


10 


(245) 


Nov. 


7 


(246) 


Nov. 


7 


(247) 



293 

Thoreau's Book Borrowings 

AMERICAN ACADEMY: Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
(1st ser., 4v.) [Boston and] Cambridge, 1780-1821; (new ser., 18v.) Cambridge, 
1826-1939. [216] 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY (of Philadelphia): Transactions of the 
historical and literary committee of the American philosophical society, (3v.) 
Philadelphia, 1819-1843. [198] (Vol. 1 contains much information on the lang- 
uages of American Indians.) 

ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d': A complete body of ancient geography. The 
whole materially improved, by inserting the modern names of places under the 
ancient, London, 1802. [62?] (The self-list calls it "Atlas of ancient geography.") 
(See also under "Rollin.") 

ARISTOTELES: Histoire des animaux d'Aristote, tr. Armand Gaston Camus, (2v.) 
Paris, 1783. [238] 

AL-ASMA'I: Antar, a Bedoueen romance. Tr. from the Arabic by Terrick Hamilton. 
Part I. (4v.) London, 1820. [17] 

AUDUBON, John James: Ornithological biography, or An account of the habits of the 
birds of the U. S., (5v.) Edinburgh, 1831-1839. [81] 

B 

BACK, Sir George: Narrative of the Arctic land expedition to the mouth of the Great 

Fish River and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean (18SS-18S5), London, 1836; 

Philadelphia, 1836. [88] 
BADHAM, Charles David: A treatise on the esculent funguses of England, London, 

1847. [234] 
BAILEY, Samuel: Essays on the formation and publication of opinions and on other 

subjects, (2d. ed.) London, 1826. [27, 73] 
BANKS, John: A new history of the life and reign of the Czar Peter the Great, 

emperor of all Russia, Montpelier, [Vt.], 1811. [3] 
BARNEY, Mrs. Mary (Chase) : A biographical memoir of the late Commodore Joshua 

Barney, Boston, 1832. [15] 
BARROW, Sir John, 1st bart.: A voyage to Cochinchina in the years 1792 and 1793 

(with an account of a journey made in 1801-1802 to the chief of the Booshuana 

nation), London, 1806. [29] 
BARTON, Benjamin Smith: New views of the origin of the tribes and nations of 

America, Philadelphia, 1797. [203] (Bound with Burder and Edwards, q.v.) 
BARTRAM, John: Observations on the inhabitants, climate, soil, rivers, productions, 

animals and other matters . . . in his travels from Pensilvania to . . . Canada 

(Annex'd: a curious acc't of the cataracts at Niagara, by Peter Kalm), London, 

1751. [206] 
BELON, Pierre: L'histoire de la nature des oyseaux avec leurs descriptions & naif 8 

portraicts . . . par Pierre Belon du Mans, Paris, 1555. [241] 
BENDLOWES, Edward: Theophila, or Loves sacrifice; a divine poem, London, 1652. 

tU9] 
BERNARD, Jean Frederic: Recueil de voiages au nord, divers memoirs tres utiles au 

commerce & navigation, (5v.) Amsterdam, 1715-1724. [220] 
BEVERLEY, Robert: The history and present state of Virginia, in four parts, London, 

1705; London, 1722. [209?] 
BEWICK, Thomas: History of British birds, (2v.) Newcastle, 1804. [192] 
BHAGAVAD-GITA: The Bhagvat-geeta, or Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon: in 

eighteen lectures, with notes. Tr. Charles Wilkins, London, 1785. [184] 
BIDDLE, Richard: A memoir of Sebastian Cabot; with a review of the history of 

maritime discovery, London, 1831. [197] 
BIGELOW, Jacob: American medical botany, being a collection of the native medical 

plants of the United States, (3v. in 6) Boston, 1817-1821. [145] 
BOSSU, Jean Bernard : Nouveaux voyages aux lndes Occidentales, contenant une rela- 
tion des differens peuples qui habitent les environs du . . . Mississipi, (2* ed., 2v.) 

Paris, 1768. [230] 
BOSSU, Jean Bernard: Nouveau voyages dans VAmerique septentrionale, Amsterdam, 

1777. [229] 
BOSWORTH, Joseph: The elements of Anglo-Saxon grammar, with copious notes, 

illustrating the structure of the Saxon and the formation of the English language, 

London, 1823. [96] 
BOUCHER, Pierre : Histoire veritable et naturelle des meurs et productions du pays de 

la Nouvelle France, vulgairement dite le Canada, Paris, 1664. [236] 



294 

Harvard College Library 

BRACKENRIDGE, Henry Marie: Journal of a voyage up the river Missouri, performed 

in 1811, (2d ed.) Baltimore, 1815. [75] 
BRAND, John: Observations on popular antiquities. Revised with add'ns by Henry 

Ellis, (2v.) London, 1813. [105] 
BROOKE, Fulke Greville, 1st baron: Certaine learned and elegant workes, written in 

his youth and familiar exercise with Sir Philip Sidney, London, 1633. [107] 
BROSSES, Charles de: Terra australis cognita: or Voyages to the Terra australis, or 

Southern hemisphere during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. (Tr. with add'ns by 

John Callander), (3v.) Edinburgh & London, 1766-1768. [76] 
BRY, Theodor de: Collectiones peregrinationum in Indiam Occidentalem et Indiam 

Orientalem. [In many parts], Francofurti, 1590-1629. [170] 
BULLOCK, William: Six months' residence and travels in Mexico, containing remarks 

on the present state of New Spain etc., (2d ed., 2v.) London, 1825. [18] 
BURDER, George: The Welch Indians, or A collection of papers respecting a people 

whose ancestors emigrated from Wales to America in 1170 with Prince Madoc, 

London, [1797]. [203] (Bound with Barton and Edwards, q.v.) 
BURGH, James: The dignity of human nature. Or, A brief account of the certain and 

established means for attaining the true end of our existence, (new ed., 2v.) London, 

1767. [42] 
BURKE, Edmund: A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime 

and beautiful, (6th ed.) London, 1770. [85] 
BUTLER, Charles: The life of Erasmus: with historical remarks on the state of litera- 
ture between the 10th and 16th centuries, London, 1825. [1] 



CAMPBELL, John W. : A history of Virginia from its discovery till the year 1781. 

With biographical sketches, Petersburg, Va., 1813. [209?] 
CAMPBELL, Thomas: Specimens of the British poets, with biographical and critical 

notices and an essay on English poetry, (7v.) London, 1819. [82] 
CAREW, Thomas: A selection from the poetical works of Thomas Carew [ed. John 

Fry], London, 1810. [116] 
CHALMERS, Alexander: The works of the English poets, from Chaucer to Cowper 

(with prefaces biographical and critical by Dr. Samuel Johnson and Alexander 

Chalmers), (21v.) London, 1810. [72? 83? 102, 110] 
CHAMBERS, Robert: Ancient sea-margins, as memorials of changes in the relative 

level of sea and land, Edinburgh, 1848. [182] 
CHAMPLAIN, Samuel de: Des sauvages, ou Voyage faict en la France nouvelle, Van 

mil six cens trois, Paris, 1604. [224] 
CHAMPLAIN, Samuel de: Les voyages du sieur de Champlain, Paris, 1613. [136, 

195] 
CHAMPLAIN, Samuel de: Les voyages de la Nouvelle France occidentale . . . & toutes 

les descouvertes qu'il a faites (1608-1629), Paris (Collet), 1632. [134, 138, 194] 
CHARLEVOIX, Pierre Francois Xavier de: Histoire et description generate de la 

Nouvelle France, avec le Journal historique d'un voyage fait dans VAmerique Sep- 

tentrionnale, (3v.) Paris, 1744. [151] 
CHATEAUBRIAND, Francois Auguste Ren6, vicomte de: QHuvres completes, (28v.) 

Paris, 1826-1831. [59, 61] 
CHAUCER, Geoffrey: The Canterbury tales of Chaucer, with an essay on his language 

and versification etc. by Tho. Tyrwhit, (5v.) London, 1830. [52, 104] 
CHILD, Mrs. Lydia Maria (Francis) : Hobomok, a tale of early times. By an American, 

Boston, 1824. [14] (Thoreau used a copy bound with The Rebels: AL 1043.31*) 
CHILD, Mrs. Lydia Maria (Francis): The Rebels, Boston, 1825. [14] (See supra). 
CLEVELAND, Charles Dexter: An epitome of Grecian antiquities, Boston, 1827. [13] 
COCHRANE, Charles Stuart: Journal of a residence and travels in Colombia during 

the years 1828 and 1824, (2v.) London, 1825. [16] 
COLDEN, Cadwallader: The history of the Five Indian nations of Canada, which are 

dependent on the province of New-York in America (Added: accounts of other 

nations of Indians in North America) , London, 1747. [187] 
COLERIDGE, Henry Nelson: Introductions to the study of the Greek classic poets. 

Parti: [all published], London, 1830. [65] 
COLUMELLA, Lucius Junius Moderatus: Husbandry. In twelve books, and his Book 

concerning trees. (Tr. with illustrations from Pliny, Cato, Varro, Palladius and 

others), London, 1745. [202] 



895 

Thoreau's Book Borrowings 

CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, Benjamin: De la religion, considerie dans sa source, 
ses formes et see developpements, (2* 6d., 3v.) Paris, 1826-1827. [91, 94] 

CONYBEARE, John Josias: Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon poetry, ed. with additions by 
William Daniel Conybeare, London, 1826. [95, 101] 

CORNUT, Jacques: lac. Cornuti . . . Canadensium plantarum aliarumque nondum 
editarum historia, Parisiis, 1635. [244] 

COWPER, William: Works, (lOv.) London, 1817. [70] 

COX, Ross: Adventures on the Columbia River, including the narrative of a residence 
of six years on the western side of the Rocky Mountains among various tribes of 
Indians hitherto unknown, New York, 1832. [5, 74] 

CRANZ, David: The history of Greenland, containing a description of the country and 
its inhabitants. (Tr. from the High Dutch), (2v.) London, 1767. [247] 

CUSICK, David: David Cusick's sketches of ancient history of the Six Nations, Lock- 
port, N.Y., 1848. [204] 

D 

DABLON, Claude: Relation of the voyages, discoveries, and death, of Father James 
Marquette and the subsequent voyages of Father Claudius Allouez (Prepared for 
publication in 1678) [See B. F. French, Hist. coll. of Louisiana, 1846. IV, pp. 1-77]. 
[222] 

DUBUAT-NANCAY, Louis Gabriel, comte: Principes d'hydraulique et de pyrodynam- 
ique, verifies par un grand nombre d' experiences, (nouv. 6d., 3v.) Paris, 1816. 
[232] 

DUMONT, fitienne: Recollections of Mirabeau and of the first two legislative assemblies 
of France, London, 1832; Philadelphia, 1833. [38] 

E 

EDINBURGH REVIEW, or critical journal, The: (250v.) Edinburgh, 1803-1829. [45] 
EDWARDS, Jonathan: Observations on the language of the Muhhekaneew Indians. 

(New edition with notes by John Pickering), Boston, 1823. [203] (Bound with 

Barton and Burder, q.v.). 
EDWARDS, Richard: The paradise of dainty devices, rptd. from a transcript of the 

first edition (1576), with an appendix. Ed. Sir Egerton Brydges, London, 1812. 

[114] 
EURIPIDES: Alcestis Euripidea, edidit Gottlob Wagner, Lipsiae, 1800. [41] (H.C.L. 

copy bound with the Ion, q.v.). 
EURIPIDES: Ion Graece, ad optimas editiones . . . recognitus, commentario perpetuo 

etc. Studio Frederici Hulsemann, Lipsiae, 1801. [41] (H.C.L. copy bound with 

the Alcestis, q.v.). 
EVANS, Thomas: Old ballads, historical and narrative, with some of modern date, 

collected from rare copies and MSS., (new ed., 4v.) London, 1810. [108] 



FISK, Benjamin Franklin: Greek exercises containing the substance of the Greek 
syntax, Boston, 1831. [11] 

FRENCH, Benjamin Franklin: Historical collections of Louisiana, embracing many 
rare and valuable documents relating to the natural, civil and political history of 
that state, (5v.) New York, 1846-1853. [222] H.C.L.: US 22015.5, 

Vol. 2: J. Marquette, Account of the discovery of some new countries and 

nations in North America in 1673. 
Vol. 4: J. Marquette, Ricit des voyages et des dicouvertes de P. Jacques Mar- 

quete en Vannie 167 S et aux suivantes. 



GALBRAITH, William: Mathematical and astronomical tables for the use of students 
in mathematics, practical astronomers, surveyors, engineers and navigators, (2d 
ed.) Edinburgh, 1834. [133] 

GARClN DE TASSY, Joseph H61iodore: Histoire de la littirature hindoui et hindous- 
tani, (2v.) Paris, 1839-1847. [124] (Oriental Translation Fund Publ. 51). 



396 

Harvard College Library 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, The: [ed. by Sylvanus Urban], (303v.) London, 1731- 

1907. (New series of 45 vols., 1834-1856). [78] 
GERARD, John: The herball, or Generall historie of plantes, very much enlarged . . . 

by Thomas Johnson, London, 1633. [245] 
GILPIN, William: Observations on several parts of England, particularly the moun- 
tains and lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland, relative chiefly to picturesque 

beauty, (3d ed., 2v.) London, 1808. [162] 
GILPIN, William: Observations on several parts of Great Britain, particularly the 

High-lands of Scotland, (3d ed., 2v.) London, 1808. [163] 
GILPIN, William: Observations on the coasts of Hampshire, Sussex and Kent, relative 

chiefly to picturesque beauty, London, 1804. [172] 
GILPIN, William: Observations on several parts of the counties of Cambridge, Norfolk, 

Suffolk, and Essex: Also on several parts of North Wales, London, 1809. [159] 
GILPIN, William: Observations on the river Wye and several parts of South Wales, 

(5th ed.) London, 1800. [160] 

GILPIN, William: Observations on the western parts of England relative chiefly to 

picturesque beauty, (2d ed.) London, 1808. [164] 
GILPIN, William: Remarks on forest scenery, and other woodland views relative 

chiefly to picturesque beauty, (3d ed.. 2v.) London, 1808. [157] 
GILPIN, William: Three essays: On picturesque beauty, On picturesque travel, and On 

sketching landscape etc., (3d ed.) London, 1808. [173] 
GODWIN, William: Life of Geoffrey Chaucer, including memoirs of John of Gaunt, 

(2v.) London, 1803. [47] 
GOLDSMITH, Oliver: History of England to the death of George II, with a continua- 
tion to 1802 by M. Wood, (1st Am. ed., 2v.) Boston, 1814-1815. [23] 
GOLDSMITH, Oliver: Miscellaneous works, (new ed., 4v.) London, 1821. [44] 
GOLDSMITH, Oliver: The Roman history, from the foundation of the city of Rome to 

the destruction of the Western empire, (2v.) London, 1786; (2v.) London, 1805. 

[77] 
GOSSE, Philip Henry: The Canadian naturalist. A series of conversations on the 

natural history of Lower Canada, London, 1840. [243] 
GRAY, Thomas, the poet: Poems of Mr. Gray, to which are prefixed memoirs of his life 

and writings [with selections of his correspondence] by W. Mason, (4v.) York, 

1778. [89] 
GRAY, Thomas (1803-1849) : The vestal, or A tale of Pompeii, Boston, 1830. [19] 
GREY, Richard: Memoria technica: or, A new method of artificial memory, applied to 

and exemplified in chronology, history, geography, astronomy etc., London, 1730. 

[211] 
GRIMANI, G. : New and improved grammar of the Italian language, with a copious 

collection of exercises, (2d ed. enf.) London, 1820. [28, 55] 

H 

HALKETT, John: Historical notes respecting the Indians of North America, with re- 
marks on the attempts made to convert and civilize them, London, 1825. [226] 

HALL, Col. Francis: Travels in Canada and the United States in 1816 and 1817, 
Boston, 1818; London, 1819. [2] 

HARTSHORNE, Charles Henry, editor: Ancient metrical tales, printed chiefly from 
original sources, London, 1829. [112] 

HARWOOD, Thomas : Grecian antiquities, or An account of the public and private life 
of the Greeks . . . chiefly designed to explain words in the Greek classics etc., 
London, 1801. [10] 

HAWKINS, Alfred: Plan of the city of Quebec. Reduced by A. J. Russell from original 
plans by A. Larue, [Quebec], 1835. (Bound with his The environs of Quebec, the 
binding having the title: "Hawkins plan of Quebec and map of environs.") [143] 

HAZLITT, William: Lectures on the English poets. Delivered at the Surry Institution, 
London, 1818. [84] 

HEADLEY, Henry: Select beauties of ancient English poetry. With remarks, (2v.) 
London, 1787. [109] 

HECKEWELDER, John: Narrative of the mission of the United Brethren among the 
Delaware and Mohegan Indians, from its commencement (17 UO) to the close of the 
year 1808, Philadelphia, 1820. [181] 

HEDERICH, Benjamin: Lexicon manuale Graecum, London, 1707; London, 1755; Lon- 
don, 1803; London, 1821. [35] 



297 

Thoreau's Book Borrowings 

HENNEPIN, Louis: Description de la Louisiane, nouvellement decouverte au sud'oiiest 

de la Nouvelle France, par ordre du roy. Avec carte du pays, Paris, 1683. [218] 
HENNEPIN, Louis: Voyages curieux et nouveaux de Messieurs Hennepin & de La 

Borde, ou Von voit une description tres particuliere d'un grand pays dans VAmerique 

etc., Amsterdam, 1711. [221] 
HIGGINSON, Francis: New-Englands plantation, Or, A short and true description of 

the commodities and discommodities of that countrey, (1st ed.) London, 1630. 

[223] 

HOCCLEVE, Thomas: Poems never before printed. With a preface, notes and glossary, 
London, 1796. [106] 

HOMERUS: The Iliads and Odysses. Translated by Tho. Hobbes, (2d ed., 2v.) London, 

167^. [60] 
HOMERUS, Ilia8 cum brevi annotatione curante C. G. Heyne, (2v.) Lipsie, 1804. [61] 
HUNTER, John Dunn: Memoirs of a captivity among the Indians of North America, 

from childhood to the age of nineteen, with anecdotes descriptive of their manners 

and customs, (new ed.) London, 1823. [186] 



ICVARA KRSNA: The Sdnkhya Kdrikd, or Memorial verses on the Sdnkhya philos- 
ophy, by Iswara Krishna. Tr. from the Sanscrit by Henry Thomas Colebrooke. Also 
the Bhashya or commentary of Gaurapada. (tr. Horace Hayman Wilson), Oxford 
(Oriental Translation Fund), 1837. [129] 

IRVING, Washington: A chronicle of the conquest of Granada. From the MSS. of Fray 
Antonio A gapida, (2v.) London, 1829; (2v.) Philadelphia, 1829. [12] 

IRVING, Washington: Voyages and discoveries of the companions of Columbus, Phil*., 
1831. [9] 

IRVING, Washington: A history of the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus, 
(4v.) London, 1828. [8] 



JAMES I, king of Scotland: The works of James I, king of Scotland (ed. Robert 
Morison), Perth, 1786. [117] 

JAMIESON, Robert, editor: Popular ballads and songs, from tradition, manuscripts 
and scarce editions, (2v.) Edinburgh, 1806. [115] 

JEFFERSON, Thomas: Notes on the State of Virginia, [edition uncertain]. [246] 

JESUIT RELATIONS: (The present editor cannot determine exactly what were 
Harvard's holdings of original editions or reprints during the decade of Thoreau's 
reading. That she had a collection of one or the other, totalling twenty-eight 
volumes, seems definite according to the shelf-list of ca. 1860-1860. iSee under AR 
119 or 14.119.] This fact is borne out by the numbering system employed in items 
#208 and #217 of the foregoing list. Additional Jesuit material is also to be found 
in the shelf-list under 14.120. Two modern editions of reprints Thoreau could not 
have used, for the first was received at Harvard (according to the Accessions 
Book) in 1859, and the second bears the imprint: "Cleveland, 1896-1901."* That 
Harvard had at least three of the original editions will be seen in her early printed 
catalogues (1830-1834). How many others were acquired in the following two 
decades, I do not know. I intend, therefore, to list most of the original editions, and 
hope that later on we may have new information.) [165, 166, 167, 168, 171, 174, 
188, 205, 208. 213, 217, 219] 
ije Jeune, Paul: Brieve Relation du voyage de la Nouvelle France, fait au mois 

d'Avril dernier, Paris, 1632. 
Le Jeune, Paul: Relation de ce qui s'est passe en la Nouvelle France, en VannSe 

16SS, Paris, 1634. 
Le Jeune, Paul: Relation . . . en I'annee 1634, Paris, 1635. 
Le Jeune, Paul: Relation ... en I'annee 1635, Paris, 1636. 
Le Jeune, Paul: Relation ... en Tanne'e 1636, Paris, 1637. 



* See Relations des Jesuites, contenant ce qui s'est passe" de plus remarquable dans les 
missions des plres de la Compagnie de Jesus dans la Nouvelle-F ranee. (3v.) Quebec, 
1858. In this collection, the Relations are chronologically arranged and separately paged, 
bearing for convenience of reference a date instead of a serial number. The following 
period is covered by each volume: Vol. I (1611-1641); Vol. II (1642-1656); Vol. Ill 
(1656-1672). A later collection bears the title: The Jesuit relations and allied docu- 
ments, (73v.) Cleveland, 1896-1901. (H.C.L.: Can 240.8) 



298 

Harvard College Library 

Le Jeune, Paul: Relation ... en Fannie 1637, Rouen, 1638. (In H.C.L., 1830-1834) 

Le Jeune, Paul: Relation ... en Vannee 1638, Paris, 1638. 

Le Jeune, Paul : Relation ... en Vannee 1639, Paris, 1640. 

Vimont, Barthelemy, editor: 1 Relation ... en Vannee 1640, Paris, 1641. 

Vimont, Barthelemy: Relation . . . es annees 1640 et 1641, Paris, 1642. 

Vimont, Barthelemy: Relation ... en Vannee 1642, Paris, 1643. (In H.C.L., 1830- 
1834). 

Vimont, Barthelemy: Relation . . . es annees 1642 et 1643, Paris, 1644. 

Vimont, Barthelemy: Relation . . . es anneea 1643 et 1644, Paris, 1646. 

Vimont, Barthelemy: Relation . . . es anneea 1644 et 1645, Paris, 1646. 

Lalemont, Jerome: Relation . . . e'a anneea 1645 et 1646, Paris, 1647. (In H.C.L., 
1830-1834) 

Lalemant, Jerome: Relation ... en Vannee 1647, Paris, 1648. 

Lalemant, Jerome: Relation . . . e'a anneea 1647 et 1648, Paris, 1649. 

Ragueneau, Paul: Relation . . . ia anneea 1648 et 1649, Paris, 1650. 

Ragueneau, Paul: Relation . . . is anneea 1649 et 1650, Paris, 1651. 

Ragueneau, Paul: Relation ... e'a anneea 1650 et 1651, Paris, 1652. 

Ragueneau, Paul: Relation . . . ea anneea 1651 et 1652, Paris, 1653. 

Le Mercier, Francois: Relation . . . ea anneea 1652 et 1653, Paris, 1654. 

Le Mercier, Francois: Relation ... e'a anneea 1653 et 1654, Paris, 1655. 

Quens, Jean de: Relation . . . e'a anneea 1655 et 1656, Paris, 1657. 

Le Jeune, Paul, editor: Relation ... e'a anneea 1656 et 1657, Paris, 1658. 

[Anonymous] : Relation . . es anneea 1657 et 1658, Paris, 1669. 

Lalemant, Jerome: Relation ... e'a anneea 1659 et 1660, Paris, 1661. 

Le Jeune, Paul: Relation ... e's anneea 1660 et 1661, Paris, 1662. 

Lallemant, Jerome: Relation ... e'a anneea 1661 et 1662, Paris, 1663. 

Lallemant, Jerome: Relation ... e'a anneea 1662 et 1663, Paris, 1664. 

Lallemant, Jerome: Relation ... e'a anneea 1663 et 1664, Paris, 1665. 

Le Mercier, Francois: Relation . . . ea anneea 1664 et 1665, Paris, 1666. 

Le Mercier, Francois: Relation ... e'a anneea 1665 et 1666, Paris, 1667. 

Le Mercier, Francois: Relation ... e'a anneea 1669 et 1670, Paris, 1671. 

Dablon, Claude: Relation . . . lea anneea 1670 & 1671, Paris, 1672. 

Dablon, Claude: Relation . . . lea anneea 1671 <£ 1672, Paris, 1673. 
JOHNSON, Edward: A history of New-England. From the English planting in the 

yeere 1628 until the yeere 1652, London, 1654. [179] 
JOHNSON, Samuel: The Uvea of the most eminent English poets, with critical observa- 
tions on their work*, (new ed., 4v.) London, 1783. [87] 
JONES, Sir William (1746-1794) : Works. With the life of the author by Lord Teign- 

mouth, (13v.) London, 1807. [130] 
JOSSELYN, John: An account of two voyages to New-England, wherein you have the 

eetting out of a ship with charges (Alto a chronological table of the most remark- 
able passages to the year 1673), London, 1674. [177] 
JOSSELYN, John: New Englands rarities discovered: in birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, 

and plants of that country . . . Also a perfect description of an Indian aqua., 

London, 1672. [141] 



KALM, Per: Travels in North America, containing its natural history and a circum- 
stantial account of its plantations and agriculture in general (tr. John Reinhold 
Forster), (3v.) [Warrington and] London, 1770-1771. [149] 

REACH, Benjamin: The glorious lover; a divine poem upon the adorable mystery of 
sinners redemption, London, 1679. [118] 

KNOX, Vicesimus, compiler: Elegant extracts, or useful and entertaining pieces of 
poetry selected for the improvement of youth in speaking etc., (2v.) London, 1800. 
[20] 



1 This Relation has composite authorship. Vimont was only editor, succeeding Le 
Jeune as superior in 1639 and becoming responsible for the Relations until 1645, when 
he was succeeded by Jerome Lalemant. Pt. I of the 1640 edition was prepared by Le 
Jeune; Part II, by Jerome Lalemant. 



290 

Thoreau's Book Borrowings 



LAET, Joannes de: Novua orbis, sew Descriptions Indite Occidentalis, libri XVII [Half- 
title: Americae utriusque description, Lugd. Batav., 1633. [139] 

LAHONTAN, Louis Armand de Lorn d'Arce, baron de: Voyages du baron de La Hontan 
dans VAmerique Septentrionale, qui contiennent une relation des different peuplee 
qui y habitent etc., (2v. in 1) Amsterdam, 1705. [154] 

LANGTOFT, Peter: Chronicle, as illustrated and improv'd by Robert of Brunne 
(transcribed by Thomas Hearne), (2v.) Oxford, 1725. [43] 

LESCARBOT, Marc: Histoire de la Nouvelle-F ranee, (2* 6d., 2v.) Paris, 1612. [137] 

LINNE, Carl von: Caroli Linnsei . . . Amoenitates academicse, seu Dissertationea 
varise physicae, mediae, botanicae antehac seorsim editte, (lOv.) Lugduni Batavor- 
um, 1749-1790. [161] 

LINNE, Carl von: Caroli Linnsei . . . Philosophia botanica in qua explicantur funda- 
menta botanica, (3d ed.) Vienna; Austriae, 1763. [153] 

LOSKIEL, George Henry: History of the mission of the United Brethren among the 
Indians in North America, Tr. Christian Ignatius LaTrobe, London, 1794. [200] 

M 

McCULLOH, James Haines: Researches on America, being an attempt to settle some 

points relative to the aborigines of America, (2d ed.) Baltimore, 1817. [176] 
McKENNEY, Thomas Lorraine: Sketches of a tour to the Lakes, of the character and 

customs of the Chippeway Indians, and of the incidents connected with the treaty 

of Fond du Lac, Baltimore, 1827. [6] 
MACKENZIE, Sir Alexander: Voyages from Montreal, on the river St. Laurence, 

through the continent of North America, to the frozen and Pacific oceans (1789 and 

1793), (2v.) London & Edinburgh, 1802. [225] 
MAHABHARATA: Harwansa, ou Histoire de la famille de Hari, ouvrage formant un 

appendice du Mahabharata (tr. from Sanskrit by Alexandre Langlois), (2v.) Lon- 
don, 1834-1835. [123] 
MARMONTEL, Jean Francois, Moral tales, translated from the French, (1st Am. ed., 

2v.) New York, 1813. [4] 
MARSHALL, John: A history of the colonies planted by the English on the continent 

of North America, from their settlement [until 1776], Philadelphia, 1824. [26] 
MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY: Collections, (1st ser., lOv.) Boston, 

1792-1809; (2d ser., lOv.) Boston, 1814-1823; (3d ser., lOv.) Boston, 1825-1849. 

[127] 
MATHER, Cotton: Magnalia Christi americana, or The ecclesiastical history of New- 
England (1620-1698). (1st Am. ed., 2v.) Hartford, 1820. [231] 
METASTASIO, Pietro: Dramas and other poems. Tr. John Hooie, (3v.) London, 1800. 

[32, 58] 
MICHAUX, Francois Andre: The North American sylva, or A description of the forest 

trees of the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia, (3v.) Paris, 1819. [140, 146] 
MICHAUX, Francois Andre: Voyage a Vouest des monts Alleghanys, dans lea etata de 

VOhio, du Kentucky et du Tennessee etc., Paris, 1808. [147] 
MILLS, Charles: The history of the crusades for the recovery and possession of the 

Holy Land, (3d ed., 2v.) London, 1822. [25] 
MILTON, John: A complete collection of historical, political and miscellaneous works 

both in English and Latin. (Life by John Toland), (3v.) Amsterdam, 1698. [90?] 
MILTON, John: The poetical works of John Milton. Ed. with life by Henry John Todd, 

(6v.) London, 1801. [68, 79] 
MILTON, John: The prose works of John Milton, with life etc. by Charlea Symmona, 

(7v.) London, 1806. [71, 80] 
MILTON, John: Worka, historical, political, and miscellaneous (Life by Thomas Birch), 

(2v.) London, 1753. [90?] 
MORRELL, Mrs. Abby Jane: Narrative of a voyage to the Ethiopic and south Atlantic 

Ocean, Indian Ocean, Chine8e Sea, north and aouth Pacific Ocean (1829-1881), 

N.Y., 1833. [36?] 
MORRELL, Benjamin: A narrative of four voyagea to the South Sea, north and aouth 

Pacific Ocean, Chineae Sea, Ethiopic and aouthern Atlantic Ocean etc. (1822-1831), 

N.Y., 1832. [36?] 
MORTON, Thomas: New Engliah Canaan or New Canaan. Containing an abstract of 

New England. Amsterdam, 1637. [210] 



300 

Harvard College Library 

N 

NEPOS, Cornelius: Vita excellentium imperatorum : cum versions Anglica [By John 

Clarke], (10th ed.) Londini, 1765. [98] 
NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY: Collections of the . . ., (1st ser., Bv. in 6) N.Y., 

1809-1830; (2d ser., 4v.) N.Y., 1811-1859. [148, 212] 
NEWMAN, Edward: A history of British ferns, London, 1840. [235] 
NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, The: (248v.) Boston, 1815-1940. [67] 



PARK, Thomas, editor: Helconia. Comprising a selection of English poetry of the 

Elizabethan age (1575-1601,), (3v.) London, 1815. [113] 
PEIRCE, Benjamin: A history of Harvard University from its foundation (1636) to 

the period of the American revolution, Cambridge, [Mass.], 1833. [49, 64] 
PENHALLOW, Samuel: The history of the wars of New-England with the eastern 

Indians, Boston, 1726. [228] 

POETICAL TRACTS. [A miscellany including the following:] London, 1718-1740. 
[99] 

Austin and the Monks of Bangor Panegyrical Epistle to Mr. Thomas Snow 

Essay on Reason by Walter Harte Full and True Account of a Robbery upon the 

The Young Senator, a Satyre Cambridge Coach 

Voice of Liberty Eugenio, or a Virtuous and Happy Life 

The Negotiators Epistle to Mr. Fielding, on his Studying the 

Manners, a Satire by Whitehead Law 

Sir *'s Speech upon the Peace Essay on Conversation by Benjamin Stilling- 

Miltonis Epistola ad Pollionem fleet 

Are these Things so? Milton's Epistle to Pollio from the Latin 

Yes they are. What of That ! Poem on the Glorious Atchievments of Admiral 

The Weather-Menders. Vernon in the Spanish West Indies 

Have at You All 

POST, Christian Frederick: The journal of Christian Frederick Post, in his journey 
from Philadelphia to the Ohio, London, 1759. [201] (Bound with his The Second. 
Journal). 

POST, Christian Frederick: The second journal of Christian Frederick Post, on a 
message from the governor of Pensilvania to the Indians on the Ohio, London, 
1759. [201] 

PRATT, Enoch: History of Eastham, Wellfleet, and Orleans, Barnstable Co., Massa- 
chusetts, from 1644-1844, Yarmouth, 1844. [125] 

PRICE, Sir Uvedale, bart.: Essays on the picturesque, as compared with the sublime 
and beautiful, and on the use of studying pictures for the purpose of improving real 
landscape, (3v.) London, 1810. [175] 

PULTENEY, Richard: A general view of the writings of Linnaus, London, 1781. 
[152] 



RACINE, Jean: Gluvres, (nouv. ed., 2v.) Paris, 1741. [40] 

RAFN, Charles Christian, et al.: [Six Tracts'] [126] What this volume contained I do 

not know. At all events, it contained the first and, possibly, the second of those 

listed below : ) 

Rafn, The discovery of America by Northmen, n.p., n.d. 
Rafn, Connection of the Northmen with the East, n.p., n.d. 
RALEIGH, Sir Walter (15527-1618) : The works of Sir Walter Raleigh kt., now first 

collected (with lives by William Oldys and Thomas Birch), (8v.) Oxford, 1829. 

[120] 
RAMAMOHANA RAYA, raja: Translation of several principal books, passages and 

texts of the Veds, and of some controversial works on Brahmunical theology, (2d 

ed.) London, 1832. [132] 
RANKING, John: Historical researches on the conquest of Peru, Mexico, Bogota, 

Natchez, and Talomeco, in the thirteenth century by the Mongols, London, 1827. 

[39] 
RICHARDSON, Sir John (1787-1865) : Fauna boreali-americana, or The zoology of the 

northern parts of British America. By John Richardson, assisted by William Swain- 
son and William Kirby, (4v.) London & Norwich, 1829-1837. [158] 



301 

Thoreau's Book Borrowings 

RITSON, Joseph, compiler: Ancient English metrical romances, (3v.) London, 1802. 
[Ill] 

RITSON, Joseph, compiler: Robin Hood: a collection of all the ancient poems, songs, 
and ballads now extant relative to that outlaw, (2v.) London, 1795. [93] 

ROLLIN, Charles: Ancient history of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Baby- 
lonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians (From the French), 
(12th ed., 8v.), Boston, 1807.* [34, 50, 56, 57] 

S 

SAGARD-TH£ODAT, Gabriel: Le grand voyage du pays des Hurons, situi en VAmer- 

ique vers la Mer douce, es derniers confins de la Nouvelle France, dite Canada, 

Paris, 1632. [191] 
SAGARD-THfiODAT, Gabriel: Histoire du Canada et voyages que les freres mineurs 

recollects y ont faicts pour la conversion des infidelles, Paris, 1636. [193, 215] 
SAMA-VEDA: Sama Veda. Translation of the Sanhita of the Sama Veda. By J. Steven- 
son, London (Oriental Translation Fund), 1842. [131] 
SAY, Samuel: Poems on several occasions: and two critical essays; viz., the first on the 

harmony, variety, and power of numbers . . . the second, on the numbers of Paradise 

Lost, London, 1745. [86] 
SCAPULA, Johann: Lexicon Grxco-Latinum e probatis auctoribus locupletatum. 

Accedunt lexicon etymologicum et loan. Meursii glossarium contractum, London, 

1652. [48] 
SCHLEGEL, Friedrich von: Lectures on the history of literature, ancient and modern, 

[?tr. J. G. Lockhart], (2v.) Philadelphia, 1818. [63, 66] 
SCHOOLCRAFT, Henry Rowe : Information respecting the history, condition and pros- 
pects of the Indian tribes of the United States, (6v.) Philadelphia, 1851-1857. 

[189] 
SHAKESPEARE, William: The plays of William Shakespeare. With the corrections 

and illustrations of various commentators. (Added: notes by Samuel Johnson and 

George Steevens), (4th ed., 15v.) London, 1793. [46] 
SHEPARD, Thomas: The clear sun-shine of the gospel breaking forth upon the Indians 

in New-England. Or, An historicall narrative of Gods wonderfull workings upon 

sundry of the Indians, London, 1648. [180] 
SIBBALD, James: Chronicle of Scottish poetry; from the ISth century to the union of 

the crowns. (With a glossary), (4v.) Edinburgh, 1802. [97, 122] 
SIDNEY, Sir Philip: The works of the honourable S r Philip Sidney, kt.. in vrose and 

verse, (14th ed., 3v.) London, 1724-1725. [121] 
SIGOURNEY, Mrs. Lydia Howard (Huntley) : Traits of the aborigines of America. A 

poem, Cambridge, 1822. [24?] 
SILLIMATJ, Benjamin: Remarks made on a short tour between Hartford and Quebec 

in the autumn of 1819, (2d ed.) New Haven, 1824. [144] 
SMITH, Sir James Edward: An introduction to physiological and systematical botany. 

With notes by Jacob Bigelow, (1st Am. ed.) Boston, 1814. [92] 
SMITH, John: The generall historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles 

(1584-1626), London, 1632. [169] 
SOPHOCLES: The Antigone in Greek and English, with introd. and notes by J. W. 

Donaldson, London, 1848. [196] 
SOUTHEY. (See #33) 
STOEVER, Dietrich Heinrich: The life of Sir Charles Linnaeus (with biographical 

sketch of his life by his son). Tr. Joseph Trapp, London, 1794. [150] 



TALBOT, Edward Allen: Five years' residence in the Canadas, including a tour 
through part of the United States of America (in 1823), (2v.) London, 1824. 
[156] 

TANNER, John: A narrative of the captivity and adventures of John Tanner . . . 
during thirty years residence among the Indians, New York, 1830. [183] 



* Harvard has (AH 277.34.30) : [Charles Rollin, Ancient History. Atlas, n.p., 1738- 
40.] This is probably the so-called "Atlas for the Ancient Historv" which the 1830 
printed catalogue assigns to Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville. 



302 



Harvard College Library 

THEOPHRASTUS: Oeofpaarov Eptaiov to ZwfoMeva. Theophrasti Ereaii quae supersunt 

opera et excerpta librorum . . . emendavit . . . D. H. Linkii . . . explicare conatus 

est Io. Gottlob Schneider, (5v.) Lipsiae, 1818-1821. [237] 
TONTI, Henri de: Relation de la Louisianne, et du Mississipi [in Bernard, Recueil de 

voiages, Vol. V (1720), q.v.] [220] 
TOPSELL, Edward: The historic of foure-footed beastes . . . Collected out of all the 

volumes of Conradus Gesner and all other writers to this present day, London, 

1607. [240] 
TRAILL, Mrs. Catharine Parr (Strickland): The backwoods of Canada: being letters 

from the wife of an emigrant officer, illustrative of the domestic economy of British 

America, London, 1836. [214] 
TREASURY OF KNOWLEDGE and Library of Reference, (5th ed., 2v.) New York, 

1833-1834. [31] 

TUCKER, Abraham: The light of nature pursued. By Edward Search, (3v. in 7) Lon- 
don, 1768-1777; (2d ed., 7v.) London, 1805. [53] 
TURNER, Sharon: History of the Anglo-Saxons, (2d ed., 2v.) London, 1807. [100] 



VISNU-PURANA: The Vishnu Purdna (a system of Hindu mythology and tradition, 
tr. from the Sanskrit by Horace Hayman Wilson) , n.p., 1840. [128, 185] 

VOYAGES: Voyages de decouverte au Canada, entre Vannees 15SU et 15U2, par Jacques 
Quartier, le sieur de Roberval, Jean Alphonse de Xanctoigne, &c, Quebec, 1843. 
[135] 

w 

WADDINGTON, George and Barnard HANBURY: Journal of a visit to some parts of 

Ethiopia, London, 1822. [30] 
WAFER, Lionel: A new voyage and description of the isthmus of America, giving an 

account of the author's abode there, London, 1699. [227] 
WARTON, Thomas: The history of English poetry, from the close of the 11th to the 

commencement of the 18th century, (4v.) London, 1824. [103] 
WEST, John: A journal of a mission to the Indians of the British provinces, of New 

Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and the Mohawks, on the Ouse, or Grand river, Upper 

Canada, London, 1827. [233] (Bound with: "The substance of a journal etc.") 
WEST, John: The substance of a journal during a residence at the Red River colony, 

British North America; and frequent excursions among the North-west American 

Indians, in the years 1820-1828, London, 1824. [233] (Bound with: "A journal 

of a Mission etc.") 
WILSON, Alexander: American ornithology, or, The natural history of the birds of the 

United States, [vols. 7 and 8 completed by George Ord], (1st ed., 9v.) Philadelphia, 

1808-1814. [54] 
WILSON, Walter: Memoirs of the life and times of Daniel De Foe: containing a review 

of his writings, and his opinions etc., (3v.) London, 1830. [22] 
WINES, Enoch Cobb: Two years and a half in the navy, (2v.) Philadelphia, 1832. 

[37] 
WOOD, William: New-England's prospect; being a true, lively, and experimental 

description of that part of America commonly called New-England, (3d ed.) 

Boston, 1674. [190] 



YOUNG, Alexander: Chronicles of the Pilgrim fathers of the colony of Plymouth, from 
1602 to 1625, Boston, 1841. [142] 



303 

EMERSON RECOMMENDS THOREAU THE POET TO RUPTJS WILMOT GRISWOLD* 



Concord, Sept. 2.'), 1841. 
Dear Sir, 

Jones Very is a native of Salem, the son of a sea-captain who 
made many voyages to the north of Europe, in two of which he was accom 

panicd by his son. He wrote his Essay on Hamlet with the more interest 
from having twice seen Elsincur [ sic ]. After his father's death, he pre- 
pared himself for college, and entered Harvard University in 1832, was 
graduated in 183G, and was appointed Greek Tutor in the College in the 
same year. Whilst he held this ofliee, a religious enthusiasm took possession 
of his mind, which gradually produced so great a change in him that his 
friends withdrew him from Cambridge [ and placed hiin for a short time ill 
the M'Lean Asylum at Charlestown. His residence there produced little or 
no alteration and ] he soon after went to Salem, where he wrote most of the 
poems in the little volume. He is now in a state of somewhat firmer health, 
I believe, but rarely writes any verses. In the Dial, No. V., you will find a 
brief notice of his Poems, written by me, t5 which I know not that I can add 
any thing excepting the few dates above written. 

In regard to my own verses, I have printed them all either In the 
" "Western Messenger," in the same Number which contained the Humble- 
Bce, or the two or three following numbers, where they appeared with my 
name,— or in the Dial. As I do not happen to have in the house a copy of 
either of these Journals, I can only indicate those which I remember in the 
Dial. They are <; The Problem ; " Stanzas — " O fair and stately maid, whose 
eye etc. ; " " Suum cuique ; " " The Snow-storm ; " " The Sphinx ; " "Wood- 
notes No. I ; " and " Wood Notes No. II " which appears in the forthcoming 
number for October, with a little piece called " Fate," and another " Paint- 
ing and Sculpture." There may be more than these few, but I do not 
remember them. In answer to your request for dates of birth and educa- 
tion, I reply, I was born in Boston in 1803, and was graduated at Cambridge 
in 1821. 

Will you allow meto call your attention to the few pieces in the Dial 
signed II. I). T. ( or, by mistake, D. II. T. ) which were written by Henry D. 
Thoreati, of this town, a graduate of Cambridge in the year 1S37. Unless I 
am greatly mistaken, Mr. Thoreau already deserves and will more and more 
deserve your attention as a writer of American Poetry. 

I hope these few facts may suffice as a reply to your inquiry. In re- 
gar,! to Mr. Very I draw bracketts over the lines which I think ought not now 
to be published. With good wishes for your success in your enterprise, I am 

Yours respectfully, 

R. W. Erne on. 



* Following up Emerson's recommendation, Griswold wrote to Thereau asking for a 
selection of poems for possible inclusion in ono of his anthologies. Thoreau' s 
reply to Griswold appears in The Correspondence, page 64. The ebore letter is 
taken from Passages from the Correspondence and Other Papers of Rufua W. Gris- 
wold. Cambridge, Mass., 1898, pp. 98-99. 



304 



THOREAU'S COPY OF DRYDEN'S VIRGIL 



Walter Harding ( Thor»an t s Library, page 97) was unable to identify the edition 
of Dryden's translation of Virgil's works which H«nry described merely as "Dry- 
den's Virgil* Phi lad* ed* 3 y*" 1 hare located copies of this work, printed in 
1814, in the following institutions: The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester; 
the Johns Hopkins University Library, Baltimore; the Weston Memorial Library, 
Sandwich, Mass*, and the Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia* A set 
once owned by the Boston Public Library was stolen several years ago. One wonders 
whether it contained Thoreau's autograph* 



THE 







■/yta 







*«x»>- 






. -i 



WORKS OF VIRGIL, 

Translated into 
ENGLISH VERSE, 

BY JOHN DRYDEN. 

Seqnitarqae patrem non pauibai Kqou. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

, VOL. II. / f 

I 

PHILADELPHIA, 

PRINTED FOR JOHN CONRAD; 

And lold by 

W. W. Woodward, P. Byrne, Bradford and Imketp, 

P. H. Nieklin, and M. Tbomii, Philadelphia | Ban. 

bam, Kirk, and Co., New Yorkj F. Lneu, Jtav, 

Samuel Jeflferii, Neal, Willi, and Cole, J. Caibinir, 

W. Warner, and J. and T. Vanee, Baltimore. 

O. Palmer, printer. 

1814. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

PRINTED FOR JOHN CONRAD; 

And told by 

W. W. Woodward, P. Byrne, Bradford and Inikeep, 

P. H. Nieklin, and M. Thomat, Philadelphia ; Eart- 

bom. Kirk, and Co., New York ; F. Luca*. Jan., 

Samuel JcSerU, Neal, Willi, and Cole, J. Caibinir, 

W. Warner, and J. and T. Vance, Baltimore. 

O. Palaier, printer. 

1814 



306 



[Specimen pages of Volume I, which has Baltimore en the title page hut 
Philadelphia on the half title. Apparently this two-relume set was issued 

simultaneously in both cities*] 






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8 LIFE OF VIRGIL. 

Iiorn ; to is Virgil. The former to have been Iwm irt 
the open air, in a Hitcli, or by the bank of a river; io 
is the latter. There was a poplar planted near the 
place or Virgil's hirib. which suddenly grew up to an 
unusual height ami bulk, anil to which the super- 
stitious ncigliliourhood attrihutetl marvellous virtue. 
Homer had his poplar too, as Herodotus relates, which 
Was visited with great veneration. Homer is describ- 
ed by one of the ancients to have been of a slovenly 
Mid neglected mien and habit; so was Virgil. Iloth 
were of a very delicate and sickly constitution; both 
addicted to travel, and the study of astrology i both 
had their compositions usurped by others; both envi- 
ed and traduces! during their lives. We know not 10 
much as the true names of either or them with any 
exactness : for the critics are not yet agreed how the 
word Virgil should be written | and of Homer's nam* 
there is no certainty at all. Whosoever shall consider 
this parallel in so many part iculnri (and more might 
l«- added), would be inclined to think, that either the 
name stars ruled strongly at the nativities of them 
both; or, what is a great deal more probable, that 
the Latin grammarians, wanting materials for the 
former part of Virgil's life, after the legendary fashion, 
supplied it out of Herodotus; and. like ill face-pain- 
ters, not being able to hit the true features, endea- 
voured to make amends by a great deal uf impertinent 
landscape and drapery. 

Without troubling the reader with needless quota- f 
tibns now or afterwards, the most probable opinion 
is, that Virgil was the ion of a servant or assistant to 
a wandering astrologer, who practised physic; for 
merficiif, tnngiii, as Juvenal obit-net', usually went 
together; and tills course of life wai followed by a 
great many Greeks and Syrian! ; of one of which na- 
tlnlis |t terms »"' bnpmhible (bat Virgil's father WIS. 
*«U, ».,a|.t i fiitSli J iiii,t hk,/; sjIk,, hate chosen ■ 



ma, ».ia|.< i i»»ii nf that |i*|T. mum 

tine* pin.* i««*»H* in, ll.tf, i'«r,i ffl 

traat «♦" »»«*f . wi^Wb. ky h*i H tU mH rnVI (nt, rM 

n n i sl si , a* iMU>* tWsttwetl ttssV Womwni, .i iIm 

KtMktms <M thw ItVtraMHM hjr th**r anrn, TWi man 



I Vlitetstliioirs 



LIFF. OF VIHGIL. 

therefore, hating got together some money, which 
stock be improved by hit skill in planting and hus- 
bandry, hid the good fortum , at last, to marry hit 
master's daughter, by whom he had Virgil ; and thii 
woman lei nts, by her mother's tide, to have been 
of good eitrnction ; for she was nearly related to 
<luinctilius Varus whom l'ati renins assure! Ill to 
have Ix en of an illustrious, though not patrician, fa- 
mils ; and tht re is honourable mention made of it in 
Ihi- hninry <il the si eolid Carthaginian war. It is 
certain that they gate him a very good education; 
to which they wen inclined, not so much by the 
dr. inn of his mother, and those pri »ages which Do- 
natus n Inn s, as by the early indications which he 
gave of ■ twci t dii|iositioii and excellent wit. He 
passed the flrst seven years of his life at Mantua— not 
m enter n, as Scaliger mlscomcts his author; for the 
<riir7fl ir'niu can hardly be supposed to extend so 
far, Fmm thence ho removed to Cremona, a noble 
Unman colony, and afterwards to Milan; in all nhich 
pliers In- pmirrutid his studies with great applica- 
tion: he read over all the best Latin and Greek 
authors; for which he had convenience by the no 
remote distance of Marseilles, that famous Greek 
colony, which maintained its politeness, and purity 
of language, in the midst of all those barbarous na- 
tions amongst which it was seated : and some tincture 
of the latter seems to have descend) d from them 
down to the modern French. He frequented the most 
eminent professors of the Epicurean philosophy, 
which wai then much in vogue, and will be alwayi, 
in declining and sickly Mates. Hut, finding no satis- 
factory account from his master Syron, he passed 
over to the Academic school, to which he adhered the 
rest of his life, and desened, from a great emperor, 
the title of the Plato of poets. He composed at 
leisure hours a geat number of renet on various ■ 
'objects; and, desirous rather of a great than early 
n>me, he permitted hii kinsman and fellow-student 
bi*' M, il* J * rlT * • he honour of one of Jilt tragtdiei to 
'" R *»l»ir|iH*Bi Wit* Its MM* «!«• »«•« bhxir, 
» often with larta (ht.shi ihIhU iWj.4 



Man. ir, 
aritrnui 



307 



ARGUMENT. 

The port, in the beginning of this book, propound! 
the general design of each Georgie : and, after a 
solemn invocation of all the cods who are any way 
related to his subject, he addresses himself in par- 
ticular to Augustus, whom he compliments with 
divinity ; and after strikes into his business. II* 
shows the different kinds of tillage proper to dif- 
ferent mils, traces out the original of agriculture, 
fives • catalogue of the liusliatiilintn's tools, specs- 
Acs the employ u» nti |*rulltr to 'eeh season, de> 
loriltei the changes of th* weather with the sign! 
In heaven ind rirth that Ibrehoria them | Instance* 
many of the prodigies that happened near the time 
•f Julias Cesar'* death ; and shut* npiall with a 
•application to the ffodl for the safety of Augusta*. 
and the preservation of Rome. 



CONTEXTS. 

- ILe jfcnec»,Book IV. ..... 7 

V. 3J 

VL «3 

VII. 99 

-VIII 1» 

IX 155 

X. 185 

XI Sl» 

■ XII VI 

THE 



10 



GEORGICS. 



BOOK I. 

WHAT makes a plenteous harvest, when to toni 
The fruitful foil, and when to sow the com; 
The care of sheep, of oxen, and of kine; 
And bow to rats* on elnts the teeming vine; 
The birth and genius of the frugal bee, 
I sing, Mtecenas. and I sing to thee. 

Ye deities! who fit Idi and plains protect, 
AVho rule the seasons, and the year direct, 
Jlimrhus and foit'ring Cen I, pow'rs divine. 
Who gave us rorn for mast, (or water wine— 
' Ye Knuns, propitious to the rural swaini, 
Te Nymphs that hituut the mountains and the plains. 
Join In my work, and to my numbers bring 
Vour needful succour; Tor your gifts I sing. 
And tlmii, «ltp«r trjilent struck the teeming earth, II 
And bia.de a,4'VtUSn f'!e »•*■ cours' r's hirth; 
And li>nMv r ttl-i>tiV'yTrnV''»>-^'JvnH .tl.nrr «»«inin» 
Abe i"*lh»i|, e s|ieu|ii'c4l - foi*hj\-l''rW>* pl»ln«| 

A»*A»ii.'Mv a wink-, 6 ftnnasr$$4j«<ii • 

jP™if »Vli*dian fleeces lie thy care',' '■'•™*> 
From fields and mountains to my song repair- 
Inventor, Fallal, of the fattening oil. 
Thou founder of the plough, and ploughman's toil; 
And thou, whose hands ihe shrowd-like cypres* rear; 
Come, all ye gods and goddesses, that wear M 

The rural honours, and increas the year; 
You, who supply the ground with seeds of grain; 
And you. who swell thosi seeds with kindly rain; 
And chiefly thoa, whose undetermin'd state SO 

!• ret the bui'oeu of the gods' debate, 



»« 



WORKS OF VIRGIL, 

Translated into 
ENGLISH VERSE, 

BY JOHN DRYDEN. 

i 

Sequiturque patrcm non patsibus scquis. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 

PHILADELPHIA, 

PRINTED FOR JOHN CONRAD; 
And sold by 
VT. W. Woodward, P. Byrne, Bradford and Inskeep, 
P. H. Nicklin, and M. Thomas, Philadelphia ; East- 
bum, Kirk, and Co., New York ; F. Lucas, jun„ 
Samuel Jencris, Neal, Wills, and Cole, J. Cushing, 
W. Warner, and J. and T. Vance, Baltimore. 
<i. Palmer, printer. 
1814. 



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10 



THE WORKS OF VIRGIL. 



U 



But lint let yawning earth a passage rend. 
And let me through the dark abyss descend-* 
First let avenging Jove, with flames from high, 
Drive down this body to the nether sky, 
Condi nin'd witli ghosts in endless night to lie— 
Bi lore I break the plighted faith 1 gave! 
No ! he who bad my vows, shall ever have | , 

For, » horn I lov'd on earth, I worship in the grave.*' 

She said : the tears ran gushing from her eyes, 40 
And stopp'd her speech. Her sister thus replies ■ 
"O dearer than the vital air I breathe I 
■Will ymi to grief your blooming years bequeath, 
CondemnVI to waste in woes your lonely lift, 
"Without the joys of mother, or of wife ? 4$ 

Think you these tears, this pompom train of woe, 
Are known or valu'd by the ghosts lielow? * ■ 

I grant, that, while your sorrows yet were green. 
It well became a woman, and a queen, 
The vows of Tyrian princes to neglect, $0 

To scorn larbat.and his love reject, 
With all the Libyan lords of mighty name: 
Bui will you figl" -linst a plensing flame? 
This little spot of l»ml, which hcav'n Ix slims, 
On ev'ry side is hemm'd with warlike foes: 
Gtrtulian cities here are spread around, 
And fierce Numidiant thi re your frontiers bound 1 
Here lies a barren waste of thirsty land, 
And there the Syrtes raise the moving sand 1 
-Barccean troops besiege the narrow shore) 
Anil from the sea Pygmalion threatens more. 
Propitious heav'n, 8111+ gracious Juno, lead 
This wand'ring navy to your needful aid: 
How will your empire spread, your city rise, 
From such a union, and with such allies 1 
Implore the favour of the pow'n above 1 
And leave the conduct of the rest to love. 
Continue still your hospitable way, 
And still invent occasions of their stay, 
Till storms and winter windi shall cease to threat, 7* 
And planks and oars repair their shatt. r'd fleet " . 

These words, which fr o ■ ry i ■ - r' -•- » 

With ease resol. 'd the K 



iENEIS, IV. 



11 



71 



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And added fury fo the kindled flame. 

Inspir'd w.th hope, the project they pursue ; 

On ev"ry altar sacrifice renew: 

A rhoten ewe of two years old they pay 

To Ceres, Bacchus, and the god pf day. ' 

Preferring Juno's pow'r (for Juno ties 

The nuptial knot, anil makes the marriage-Joys), 

The beauteous queen before her altar stands, 

And holds the golden gnlilet in her hand*. 

A milk-white heifer she with flow'ra adorns, 

And pours the ruddy wine hctwixt her horns | 

And. while the prii su with pray'r the godi invoke, II 

She IV, its their altars with Sibican smoke, 

With hourly care the sacrifice renews, 

Aid anxiously the panting entrails views. • 

\VI,nt priestly rites, alas I what pious art, 

What vows, avail to cure a bleeding heart ? 

A g< ntle fire she feeds within her veins. 

Where the soft god secure in silence reigns. 

Sick with desire, and seeking him she loves. 
From street to street the raving Dido roves. 
So, whi n the watchful shepherd, from the blind, 
Wounds t<i(h a random shaft the careless hind. 
Districted with her pain she flies the woods. 
Bounds o'er the lawn, and se< ks the silent floods— 
With fruitless care; for still the fatal dart 
Sticks/in her side, and rankles in her heart. 
And now she leads the Trojan chief along , 

The lofty walls, amidst the busy throng; 
Displays her Tyrian wealth, and rising town, 
Which love, without his labour, makes his own. 
This pomp she shows, to tempt her wand'ring guett : 
Her fault'ring tongue forbids to tpeak the rest. 100 
When day declines, and feasts renew the night, 
Still on his face she feeds her famish'd sight) 
She longs again to hear the prince relate 
His osm adienturet, and the Trojan fate. 
He tells it o'er and o'er; bat still in vain j 
For still the begs to bear it once again. 
The hearer on the sneaker's mouth depends) 



60 



01 



100 



110 



II 



THE WORKS OV VIRGIL. 



iENEIS, IV. 



200 THE WORKS OF VIRG 

The Latian chiefs have seen me beg m' 
Thine is the conquest, thine the royal ' 
Against a yielded man, 'tis mean ignot 
In deep suspense the Trojan seem'd 
And, just prepar'd to strike, repress'd h 
He roll'd his eyes, and ev'ry moment fii 
His manly sottl with more compassion t 
When, casting down a casual glance, h 
The golden belt that glitter'd on his sic 
The fatal spoil which haughty Tumur 
From dying Pallas, and in triumph wot 
Then rout'd anew to wrath, he loudly e 
(Flames, while he spoke, came flash' 

eyes)— 
" Traitor! dost thou, dost thou to grace j 
Clad, at thou art, in trophies of my frW 
To hit tad tool a grateful offring go 1 j 
'Tit Pallas, Pallas gives this deadly bloi 1 
He rait'd hit arm aloft, and, at the wort : 
Deep In hit bosom drove the shining i-ri 
The streaming Mood difttbrd hit arms | 
And the disdainful tool came ruining thxi 



THE END. 



Then, when they part, when Phcebe't paler light 
Withdraws, and falling stars to sleep invite, 
She Utt remains, when ev'ry guest it gone, 
Sits on the bed he prrts'd.and sighs alone) 
Absent, her absent hero sees and heart; 
Or in her bosom young Ascanius bean, 
And seeks the fathi r't image in the child, 
If love by likeness might be to beguil'd. 

Meantime the rising tow'rt are at a standi 
No labours exercise the youthful band, 
Nor use of arts, nor toil of arms they knowt ' 
The mole it left unflniih'd to the foe t 
The mounds, the works, the walls, neglected lie. 
Short of their promts'd height, that seem'd to threat' 
the sky. 

But when imperial Juno, from above, 
Saw Dido fetter'd in the chains of love. 
Hot with the tenom which her veins inflam'd, 
And by no tense of shame to be reelsim'd. 
With soothing words to Venut the begun 1 
* Hit praises, endless honours, you have won, 
And mighty trophies, with your worthy ton I ' 
Two gutls a silly woman have undone 1 
Nor am I ignorant, yon both suspect 
This rising city, which my hands erect: 
But shall celestial discord never cease, 
'lis better ended in a lasting peace. 
" Tou stand pnssess'd of all your soul desir'd; 
Poor Ditlo with consuming love is fir'd. 
."V.iur Trojan with my T,rian let us join;. 
80 Dido shall be youri, lEncat mine- 
One common kingdom, one united line. 
Eli/a shall a Dardan lord obey. 
And lofty Cartilage for a dow'r convey .** 
Then Venut (who her hidden fraud descry'd; 
Which would the sceptre of the world misguide 
To Libyan shores) thus artfully reply'd: 
" Who, but a fool, would wart with Juno choose, 
And such alliance and such gifts refuse. 
If fortune with our joint desires comply? 
Toe doubt it *U from Me, Ud deatirty ; 



Lest he forbrd. »'nh absolute command, 

a_ *_ AntniHeili innfl-" 



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T. roi» "V I^P'' in °" c common ,. 
Or .ill the IVnian »» d u,e Tynan line, 
Id lasting leagues and sure succession join. 
But you. the partner of hi. bed and throne, 
May mo.e hi. mind :-my wishes are your own. 

• Muse," said Imperial Juno, " be the caret- 
Tune urge* now i-to perfect this aflarr, 
Attend n.y counsel, and the tceret share. 
When iw\t the Sun his rising light display*, 
And c.hls the world below with purpl- rayt, 
TV quern. JKsscns, and the Tyrian court, 
Sh.ll 10 she shady wood*, for syl. an game, retort. 
TV re, while the liii.ittim n pitch their toils around, 
And c ho rful horns, rom side to side, resound, 
A pllchy cloud shall cover all the plain 
With hail, and thunder, and tempestuous rain I 
The fearful train shall take their speedy flight, 
Dispeit'd and all iuvolv'd in gloomy night : 
One cave a grateful shclu r shall afford 
To ilic fair princiss and the Trojan lord. 
1 mill myself the bndal bed prepare, 
If you, 10 bless the nuptials, will b. there : 
80 thall their loies be crown'd with due delight*, 
And Hymen shall be present at the rites." 
The queen of love consents, and closely smile! 
At htr sain project, and discovered wiles. 

The rosy mum was risen from the main, 
And hums and hounds awake the princely train I 
Th. y i.iur early through the city gate, 
Where the more wakeful huntsmen ready wait: 
With nets, and toils, and darts, beside the force 
Of Spartan dogt, and swift Mossylian horse. 
The TjTian pecit and officers of state, 
For the slow queen in antc-chamben wait: 
Hei lofty courser in the court below 
(Who his majestic rid. r seems to know), 
Proud of his purple trappings paws the ground, 
And champs the golden bit, and spreads the foam 

around. 
The quern at length appears 1 on cither hand, 
The brawny guards in martial order stand . Ill 



1J9 



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171 



110 



115 



190 



309 



C. P. CRANCH. 



(Boni, ISI3.] 



Tnr. Reverend C. P. Cn.txcn is a son of Chief 
Justice Chinch, of Washington, and was born on 
the eighth of March, 1813, in Alexandria, ]>i>trict 
of Columbia. He was graduated at the Columbian 



THE MUSIC OF THE SPHERES. 

And is the harmony of heaven gone'! 

Hath it all died away, ere human cars 
Caught the faint closing hymn, far-off, and lone, — 

The music of the spheres? 

Have the stars hush'd that glorious song of old, 
When the night shrunk to the far Occident, 

And morning gush'd in streaks of burning gold 
Up the grey firmament ? 

Yon orbs that watch so fixedly above, 

Yon planets claiming with our own their birth, 

Arc they all mute as through the abyss they move, 
Like our dim, silent earth ? 

And hath the sky, the deep, mysterious sky, 
No voices from amid yon circling throng ? 

Are there no thundering echoes where the high 
Precession rolls along ? 

Hath heaven rare changing tints, and doth it glow 

Full of high eloquence and poetry, 
And all that makes the love of beauty grow, 

And yet no harmony ? 

No music there, where music's font hath been — 
No sweet sounds, swelling dreamily and long, 

When night and silence listen to drink in 
The choral stream of song 1 

Is it a fable all of early time, 

That the young stars, as they leap'd by earth, 
Rang sweet and loud a deep and voice-lib chime, 

Ere the first soul had birth 1 

And was the sage's thought a fiction too, 

That the crystalline spheres that closed us round, 

Munnur'd from all their moving arches blue 
A never-ceasing sound ? 

Too fine and too sublime for mortal ears 
In our dull orb of clay — and this is why 

We never hear the music of the spheres 
Come pealing through the sky?* 

Were there no revelations from the deep, 
Unbroken stillness of yon glittering host, 

Murmuring on old Tradition's infant sleep, 
Like voice of heavenly ghost 1 



* II was the notion of Pvtiiaooras, I think, that the 
heavens were composed of a series of crystal 6phcrps, 
transparent and enclosed one within another, rind that 
these moving a gainst each oth?r produced the most divine 
harmony conceivable, bill that the reason it was not heard 
hy mortals was, that it was too loud ami sublime to he 
heard, and the ear tuo small to take cognisance of it. 



College, Washington, in the summer of 1831, and 
afterward studied three years in the Divinity School 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts. I believe he is now 
pastor of a church near Boston. 



Did they not come to them who talk'd with God, 
In the cool hush of morning and of eve — 

Who fell in Eden — felt the Chastcner's rod, 
And wandcr'd forth to grieve ? 

Did they not fall in choral symphony 

On the rapt wonder of the Nomad swain, 

As, stretch'd beside his flock, he raised his eye 
At midnight from the plain ? 

Did all the wise and holy men of old 

Watch by yon burning stars in vain, to claim 

That wisdom which to eye nor ear was told, 
Till Christ, the teacher, came? 

If, O ye orbs, ye never yet have spoken 
In language audible — still let me feel 

Your silent concord, o'er my heart unbroken, 
In holy influence steal ! 

And let me trace in all things beautiful 
A natural harmony, that soothes, upraises; 

So it may wake a soul too mute and dull, 
To everlasting praises ! 



THE BLIND SEER. 

FnoM morn till night the old man sittcih still ; 

Deepquench'd in darkness lie all earthly sights; 
He hath